Chapter 20: Imperialism

January 12, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Journalism
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Chapter 20: Imperialism...


American attention shifted to foreign lands –

“closing of the frontier” • 1890s led some to fear natural resources would dwindle

and must be found abroad,

Growing importance of foreign trade • 300% growth in this area between 1870-1900

Depression of 1893 • desire for new markets, diversify economy

Fears • Europe imperialism would lead America to be left out

of spoils • “Feeble” China and Asia looked tempting

Social Darwinism–

only fittest nations survive, therefore just for strong nations to dominate weaker ones

Josiah Strong’s –

Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885) • states Anglo-Saxon “race” represented liberty, Christianity

and should spread them;

John Burgess, political science professor duty of A-S to uplift less fortunate – Spread “superior institutions” – “Barbarism” is not a right –

Famous Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan –

wrote in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) • that countries w/ sea power were great nations of

• • • • • • •

historyUS needed to have foreign commerce merchant marine, Build Panama canal navy to defend routes and possessions colonies to provide raw materials and bases claim Pacific Islands, HI 1900- US 3rd in Naval Power

Sec of State James Blaine 1880s –

sought to expand US influence in Latin America • to provide markets for surplus goods-

1889 organized Pan-American Congress. • Created Pan-American Union – Weak: Information Clearing House • Rejected: Proposals for – Inter-American Customs union – Arbitration Procedures for disputes

Pres Cleveland 1895 had dispute w/ GB over Venezuela border • US Declared violation of Monroe Doctrine • Talk of war pushed GB to arbitration

Hawaii appealing b/c Navy wanted Pearl Harbor as base, – Americans who had settled on island had come to dominate political + economic life of islands – Hawaii had been series of islands w/ self-sufficient communities. – After 1810 American traders, missionaries, planters began settling there. – Disease decimated Native populations; – by 1840s Americans spread thru islands –

1887 US Navy negotiated to use Pearl Harbor as Navy base; sugar exports to US  basis of economy,

American plantation system  displacing natives from their lands  New Asian immigrants “more reliable and docile”

Queen Liliuokalani 1891. Nationalist  Challenged US control  Only in power 2 years  American and European interests organized overthrow and annexation to the US. 

Causes: 

1895-Cuban struggle against Spain  Concentration camps and “atrocities”  General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler (US press)

Wilson-Gormon Tariff  Hurt Cuban economy (sugar cane).

Yellow Journalism  Hearst and Pulitzer- New form of “sensational”

journalism fueled by intense competition.  Searched for “atrocities” to report on. 

Cuban-American support influenced public

 

Example 1: New York Tribune Example 2: The New York Journal

Dupuy de Lome Letter- Called Mckinley “weak” and pandering to the US public 

Outraged Americans

The Maine: Battleship blew up in Havana harbor.     

Thought to be a Spanish Mine Actually an internal explosion Press: “Remember the Maine!!” US public opinion in favor of war Many in Mckinley’s admin pushed for war: Roosevelt

   

Public support in favor of war 4-5 month war 450 battlefield casualties 5,200 to disease and sickness

Northern black soldiers: Outraged by treatment in the South: led to confrontations.  Played important roles in battles  Angered by equal treatment given to Black Cuban Rebels 

Commodore George Dewey First hero of the war  Instructed to destroy Spanish navy in Manila if war broke out. No casualties  Led to capture of the Philippines 

Inefficient and poorly planned Rough Riders Led by Roosevelt  Gained fame in charge up Kettle Hill  Some deemed charge “reckless”  “the great day of my life” 

   

Spanish fleet destroyed at Santiago Ground forces soon surrendered Puerto Rico captured Armistice  

Cuban Independence declared Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to US  Jones Act:  Declared Puerto Rico a US territory  Made Puerto Ricans US citizens

American occupation of Manila

 

To Annex or Not to Annex? Many Americans uncomfortable with idea due to distance from home. Treaty of Paris 1898   

Ended the war Ceding of Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba $20M payment for the Philippines

Opposed annexation of the Philippines included powerful names:   

Carnegie Mark Twain Samuel Gompers

 

  

Claimed imperialism was:

Immoral Anti-American values: anti-freedom  “pollution” of US population  

Industrial workers feared competition Conservatives feared

Sugar growers 

Large standing army Entangling alliances Threat to freedoms Feared competition

How will you deal with the “population”?

Roosevelt: 

Reinvigorate and restore the nation

Business Inroads to dominate Asian trade  Profit in the Philippines 

Republicans Wanted political points for gaining new territories  Easy to accomplish since US possessed the lands 

Citizenship need NOT be granted

William Jennings Bryan Anti-imperialist  Supported the Treaty of Paris to make it an election issue.  Bryan Loses to McKinley 

 Colonial issue  Economic prosperity  Personality and hero status of VP Roosevelt

 

Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico: Few problems Cuba US occupation till 1902 to prepare for “independence”. Infrastructure investment  US planned to dominate economic and political landscape  Platt Amendment: 

 No foreign treaties

 US right to intervene in Cuba for independence, life,

property  Naval bases

Dominated by US business Plantations  Factories  Railroads  Refineries 

 

Capital Resources: much owned by US Prompted small revolts against US Imperialism 

Multiple military interventions

 

Rebels fought the US for independence Relatively long: 1898 to 1902  

4,300 US casualties 50,000 Native casualties

Tactics  

Guerrilla warfare: New to Americans Caused US to be more brutal and similar to Spanish in Cuba: Weylar

Emilio Aguinaldo  

Experienced in fighting Spanish Claimed to be legitimate govt. of Philippines

General Arthur MacArthur (father of Douglass MacArthur) 

Resorted to more brutal tactics as resistance became stronger (with popular support).  Prisoners executed  Village evacuations  Concentration camps  “Shoot everyone over the age of 10”

 Death Ratio  15 killed: 1 wounded  1 killed: 5 wounded (US Civil War)

Eventual capture of Aguinaldo and defeat of rebels Large US infrastructure investment Schools  Hospitals  Roads  Sewers 

 

US and Islands became economically linked Philippine independence comes in 1946

 

US desire to expand Asian markets and trade Weak China: Who wants some pie? Japan  Britain  Germany  Russia  France  US All competing for piece of China 

Sec. of State John Hay 

Asked competing countries to obey 3 principles:  Respect the rights and privileges of other nations

(EXCEPT CHINA!!!)  Chinese officials to continue collection of tariffs.  Favored the US

 Non-discrimination against other nations in relation to

transportation rates.

Advantages  Allow US to continue in China w/o fear of war  Retain “illusion” of Chinese sovereignty  Prevent formal dismemberment of China (hurt US)

 

Cool reception from other nations Open declaration from US that all nations had agreed Boxer Rebellion   

Chinese rebellion against foreign influence Diplomats trapped in China US sends navy to rescue diplomats  Film: The Sand Pebbles 1966

US helps broker end to conflict and retains Open Door policy

Weaknesses of US military became obvious in war with Spain Elihu Root: appointed Sec of War by McKinley Enlarged Army: 25K to 100K  National Guard: insures stock of trained soldiers  Officer training schools  Creation of Joint Chiefs (military advisors) 

 Supervise and coordinate the military

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.