Chapter 20, Section 1 The Second Industrial Revolution

January 19, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Chapter 19, Section 1 The Second Industrial Revolution

Second Industrial Revolution

• The first industrial revolution started in America in the early 1800s • The first major industry was in the New England states producing textiles (cloth) • It brought workers to cities to work in factories • Technological advances led to the second industrial revolution in the late 1800s • By the mid-1890s the US was the world’s industrial leader

Bessemer Process • Who? – Henry Bessemer invented it and Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industry using it • What? – a way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove the impurities • When? – mid-1850s • Where? – US (particularly PA) • Why important? – • Story of US: Carnegie

Factors Affecting Industrial Growth • Greater ability to use natural resources • A growing population and rising immigration created large work force and more consumers of goods • Inventions and innovations (like the Bessemer process and the assembly line) increased production • Increasing business investment (capital from business people and the sale of stock) • Govt. policies that assisted businesses (such as protective tariffs and providing land grants to railroad companies)

Impact of Railroads on Society and the Economy • Manufacturers sent products to market faster • Cities where rail lines crossed grew rapidly • Spurred western growth and development • Employed large numbers of people in the railroad industry • Sleeping cars improved passenger service • Refrigerated cars increased the nation’s food supply

Production of Oil • In the 1850s chemists invented a way to convert crude oil into kerosene, which was then used in cooking, heating, and lighting • Edwin Drake proved it was possible to drill for oil underground in Titusville, PA

Patents • Patent – a document that gives inventors exclusive rights to make or sell inventions (or sell use of them) for a set amount of time • Patents allow inventors to protect their inventions from being manufactured by others so they alone can profit off of their ideas


Thomas Edison • Who? – inventor who was interested in the uses of electricity • What? – had over 1,000 patents including the electric light bulb, phonograph, and motion picture projector • When? – late 1800s • Where? – research lab in Menlo Park, NJ • Why important? –

Henry Ford • Who? – businessman who produced cars • What? – first to use the assembly line in manufacturing when producing the Model T car (1908) • When? – early 1900s • Where? – Detroit, MI • Why important? –

Wright Brothers • Who? – brothers Orville and Wilbur who were inventors • What? – built a lightweight airplane with a small gas engine that made the first piloted flight • When? – 1903 • Where? – Kitty Hawk, NC • Why important? –

Alexander Graham Bell • Communication over distances improved with Bell’s invention of the telephone • Previously they relied on the telegraph • Telegraph carried only written messages and required trained people to operate it • Anyone could use the telephone

Other Inventions Important in the Late 1800s • Sewing machine – Elias Howe and Isaac Singer • Typewriter – Christopher Sholes (of Milwaukee) • Air-brake for trains – George Westinghouse (allowed trains to have more cars to ship more goods and made them safer) • Power system to send electricity across many miles – George Westinghouse

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