Chapter 22: Foreign Policy and Defense

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, International Relations
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Chapter 22: The Development of U.S. Foreign Policy

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Section 2: Shared Foreign Policy Powers Presidential Powers & Responsibilities


Constitutional Powers Commander-in-Chief Head of State What foreign policy powers does the President have as Head of State?

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Section 2: Shared Foreign Policy Powers 

Foreign Policy Advisors

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton 1.

Secretary of Defense Robert Gates 2.


National Security Advisor

General (ret.) James Jones Pictures from

Section 3: State & Defense Departments 

Department of State created in 1789 Secretary of State is the highest ranking member of the Cabinet. State Departments “primary objective in the conduct of foreign relations is to promote the long-range security & well-being of the United States.” Pictures from

Section 3: State & Defense Departments  1)


3) 4)

Department of State has four other important functions: Keep president informed about international relations To maintain diplomatic relations with foreign governments Negotiate treaties with foreign governments Protect the interests of Americans traveling abroad

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Section 3: State & Defense Departments 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

Five assistant Secretaries of State administer five geographic bureaus: African Affairs European & Canadian Affairs East-Asian & Pacific Affairs Inter-American Affairs Near-Eastern Affairs Official assigned to serve abroad are members of the foreign service State Department maintains embassies and consulates in foreign capitals and major cities that the U.S. has diplomatic relations with.

Section 3: State & Defense Departments 

1. 2. 3. 4.

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Department of Defense (DOD) supervises the armed forces of the U.S. Army Navy Air Force Nuclear Arsenal The U.S. military is controlled by civilians. The President is the Commander-in-Chief & he designates the Secretary of Defense to run the day to day affairs and supervise the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Section 4: Foreign Policy in Action When nation feel a common threat to their security they form mutual defense alliances The United States is a member of three regional security pacts. Since WWII mutual defense alliances and regional security pacts, along with the United Nations have prevented a third world war. Collective Security: a system by which the participating nations agree to take joint action against a nation that attacks any one of them. “All for one and one for all.”

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Formed after WWII to contain communism and the Soviet Union. Initially the Western European Democracies, the U.S. and Canada Since the end of the Cold War NATO has transformed into a peacekeeping organization with missions in the former Yugoslavia, & Afghanistan

Organization of American States

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Formed in 1947 with the Rio Pact Has served as a peacekeeping force and organization to promote democracy and diplomacy in the American hemisphere Strained by Cuban Crisis of the 1960s as well as the 1982 Falkland Islands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom in

ANZUS Australia, New Zealand, United States  Formed in 1951 as the main defense pact in the Pacific.  ANZUS strained after 1984 when New Zealand adopted an antiNuclear policy

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