Chapter 23.1 Powerpoint &Notes

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, French Revolution (1789-1799)
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World History, Chapter 23

Reforms, Revolutions, and War

23.1 Reforms in the British Empire  In 1800, landowning aristocrats made up most of Parliament  Some industrial cities had no representatives at all  Only wealthy male property owners could vote; public office restricted to men of wealth

Changes in the British Empire  Beyond Britain, people living in other parts of the British Empire were also moved by the spirit of reform.  In the mid-1800s people in Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand took steps to rule themselves.

Ireland  Policies created to help British industry hurt Irish agriculture  Mid-1800s, potato crop failed several times, left many with no food, no income, evicted from homes  During the years of the famine, about 1 million people starved, about 1.5 million others emigrated—many to the United States.  Irish began to fight for change. Some wanted independence, others home rule within United Kingdom  Ireland did not receive limited self-government until 1920

Canada  Britain’s colonies in Canada very different  Some mainly French-speaking, others mainly English-speaking  Diversity created lack of unity, led to calls for reform  1837, rebellions in Canadian colonies convinced British reform necessary  1867, Parliament granted colonies power to govern selves  Canada become dominion, self-governing colony; continued to expand westward

Australia  Since 1700s, Britain had used Australia as place to send criminals  Mid-1800s, other colonists began to settle there, attracted by copper, gold deposits

 1901, Britain granted self-rule to Commonwealth of Australia; established own parliament but remained part of British empire

New Zealand British government made agreement with local Maori people, land in exchange for self-rule New Zealand became a dominion of Great Britain 1893, New Zealand became first country to give women the vote

23.2 Revolution and Change in France  During the 1800s opposing groups in France struggled to determine what kind of government France would have—a republic, a constitutional monarchy, or an absolute monarchy.

 At the end of the Napoleonic era, the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne.  The French had a constitution and a legislature, but most power remained with the king.

The Revolution of 1830  Charles X inherited throne with death of brother, Louis XVIII • Tried to rule as absolute monarch • Citizens revolted, Revolution of 1830

• Charles abdicated, fled to England

 Moderate liberals formed constitutional monarchy  Chose Louis Philippe new king • Popular with middle class

Louis Philippe  Increased number of voters, but only extended vote to more wealthy citizens  Limited freedom of press  rule became increasingly repressive  silenced most who opposed him  working people grew poorer  middle class and aristocracy became more prosperous  Popularity deteriorated rapidly with economic depression of 1846

The Revolution of 1848  The economic troubles and general unhappiness simmered until 1848.  Middle- and working- class protesters took to streets  Louis Philippe abdicated  New government formed, a republic headed by a president  Voters elected Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon

Second Republic  Era known as Second Republic; First Republic existed between French Revolution, reign of Napoleon  Revolution of 1848 had far-reaching effects: • ensured all adult men had right to vote • fueled new women’s rights movement • inspired other European revolutions

New Constitution  French constitution allowed president to serve four years  Louis Napoleon wanted to remain in office • 1851, sent troops to Paris, arrested members of

National Assembly who opposed him • Called for national vote on drafting new


 1852, French elected him Emperor Napoleon III

Period became known as Second Empire  Napoleon III made reforms such as increasing voting rights but always kept absolute power as emperor  Ruled during time of economic prosperity  Built many miles of railroads, helped increase trade and improved communications in France

The Third Republic  War with Prussia • 1870, Napoleon III drew France into war with Prussia • Napoleon III captured, surrendered to Prussians  Deposed • Defeat led French Assembly to depose Napoleon III • Proclaimed Third Republic  Siege of Paris • New republic immediately faced crisis • Prussians invaded France, began siege of Paris  Important Reforms • Primary education available for children 6 - 13 • Trade unions legalized, working hours reduced, workers got one day off per week

The Dreyfus Affair  Divisions continued to split French society

 1894, divisions came to head over the Dreyfus Affair, revealing extent of French anti-Semitism (prejudice toward Jews) • Alfred Dreyfus, captain in French army, Jewish • Falsely accused of betraying military secrets to

Germany • Anti-Semitic officers knew he was not guilty, let Dreyfus take blame • Evidence suggested another, non-Jewish, officer may have been spy, but found not guilty in court

 Zionism movement began, called for re-creation of a Jewish state in original homeland

23.3 Latin America  The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom.

Haiti  Saint Domingue was the first Latin American territory to break ties with Europe  Sugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France’s richest possessions. Prosperity built on slave labor  Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave vote to all free men, including mulattoes  French settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new law  Toussaint L’Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlers  Revolutionaries declared independence from France; named new country Haiti

Mexico  1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo called for the peasants to revolt against the peninsulares, not against Spain • began the revolution

 After death of Hidalgo, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movement • Morelos wanted independence from Spain and an "American" identity to unify all people born in Mexico

Mexico (cont.) Agustin de Iturbide  Asked by Spanish authorities to lead final battle against revolutionaries. They believed he could end Mexican independence movement  Iturbide believed liberal revolution underway in Spain might take away some of his power so he decided to switch sides, fight for Mexican revolutionaries  Iturbide wanted to create an independent monarchy, give creoles and peninsulares equal rights, make the Roman Catholic Church the official church of Mexico  Brokered a compromise which brought together many different groups; creoles and peninsulares, revolutionaries and royalists  In 1821, Mexico declared independence from Spain

Simon Bolivar  Bolivar had dream for newly independent South America  Wanted to form one large, united country called Federation of the Andes • Dream never became reality • Bolivar set up state of Gran Colombia, included

what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador

 Other leaders set up separate countries in Peru, Bolivia, other places

José de San Martin  Had fought against Napoleon in Spain  Born in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule  Eventually led independence movement in Argentina and most of southern South America

John VI in Brazil  1807, Portuguese king John VI, family, fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded Portugal  Status of colony raised having Portuguese monarch there

 John VI named Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empire  Allowed Brazil to trade directly with world, rather than through Portugal

Pedro I  John VI returned to Portugal after revolution, 1820  Left son Pedro to rule Brazil  Brazilian-born colonists began to protest colonial status  Transition happened smoothly, little violence  1822, Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent, was crowned Emperor Pedro I

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