Chapter 23.1 Powerpoint &Notes
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World History, Chapter 23
Reforms, Revolutions, and War
23.1 Reforms in the British Empire In 1800, landowning aristocrats made up most of Parliament Some industrial cities had no representatives at all Only wealthy male property owners could vote; public office restricted to men of wealth
Changes in the British Empire Beyond Britain, people living in other parts of the British Empire were also moved by the spirit of reform. In the mid-1800s people in Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand took steps to rule themselves.
Ireland Policies created to help British industry hurt Irish agriculture Mid-1800s, potato crop failed several times, left many with no food, no income, evicted from homes During the years of the famine, about 1 million people starved, about 1.5 million others emigrated—many to the United States. Irish began to fight for change. Some wanted independence, others home rule within United Kingdom Ireland did not receive limited self-government until 1920
Canada Britain’s colonies in Canada very different Some mainly French-speaking, others mainly English-speaking Diversity created lack of unity, led to calls for reform 1837, rebellions in Canadian colonies convinced British reform necessary 1867, Parliament granted colonies power to govern selves Canada become dominion, self-governing colony; continued to expand westward
Australia Since 1700s, Britain had used Australia as place to send criminals Mid-1800s, other colonists began to settle there, attracted by copper, gold deposits
1901, Britain granted self-rule to Commonwealth of Australia; established own parliament but remained part of British empire
New Zealand British government made agreement with local Maori people, land in exchange for self-rule New Zealand became a dominion of Great Britain 1893, New Zealand became first country to give women the vote
23.2 Revolution and Change in France During the 1800s opposing groups in France struggled to determine what kind of government France would have—a republic, a constitutional monarchy, or an absolute monarchy.
At the end of the Napoleonic era, the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. The French had a constitution and a legislature, but most power remained with the king.
The Revolution of 1830 Charles X inherited throne with death of brother, Louis XVIII • Tried to rule as absolute monarch • Citizens revolted, Revolution of 1830
• Charles abdicated, fled to England
Moderate liberals formed constitutional monarchy Chose Louis Philippe new king • Popular with middle class
Louis Philippe Increased number of voters, but only extended vote to more wealthy citizens Limited freedom of press rule became increasingly repressive silenced most who opposed him working people grew poorer middle class and aristocracy became more prosperous Popularity deteriorated rapidly with economic depression of 1846
The Revolution of 1848 The economic troubles and general unhappiness simmered until 1848. Middle- and working- class protesters took to streets Louis Philippe abdicated New government formed, a republic headed by a president Voters elected Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon
Second Republic Era known as Second Republic; First Republic existed between French Revolution, reign of Napoleon Revolution of 1848 had far-reaching effects: • ensured all adult men had right to vote • fueled new women’s rights movement • inspired other European revolutions
New Constitution French constitution allowed president to serve four years Louis Napoleon wanted to remain in office • 1851, sent troops to Paris, arrested members of
National Assembly who opposed him • Called for national vote on drafting new
1852, French elected him Emperor Napoleon III
Period became known as Second Empire Napoleon III made reforms such as increasing voting rights but always kept absolute power as emperor Ruled during time of economic prosperity Built many miles of railroads, helped increase trade and improved communications in France
The Third Republic War with Prussia • 1870, Napoleon III drew France into war with Prussia • Napoleon III captured, surrendered to Prussians Deposed • Defeat led French Assembly to depose Napoleon III • Proclaimed Third Republic Siege of Paris • New republic immediately faced crisis • Prussians invaded France, began siege of Paris Important Reforms • Primary education available for children 6 - 13 • Trade unions legalized, working hours reduced, workers got one day off per week
The Dreyfus Affair Divisions continued to split French society
1894, divisions came to head over the Dreyfus Affair, revealing extent of French anti-Semitism (prejudice toward Jews) • Alfred Dreyfus, captain in French army, Jewish • Falsely accused of betraying military secrets to
Germany • Anti-Semitic officers knew he was not guilty, let Dreyfus take blame • Evidence suggested another, non-Jewish, officer may have been spy, but found not guilty in court
Zionism movement began, called for re-creation of a Jewish state in original homeland
23.3 Latin America The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom.
Haiti Saint Domingue was the first Latin American territory to break ties with Europe Sugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France’s richest possessions. Prosperity built on slave labor Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave vote to all free men, including mulattoes French settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new law Toussaint L’Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlers Revolutionaries declared independence from France; named new country Haiti
Mexico 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo called for the peasants to revolt against the peninsulares, not against Spain • began the revolution
After death of Hidalgo, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movement • Morelos wanted independence from Spain and an "American" identity to unify all people born in Mexico
Mexico (cont.) Agustin de Iturbide Asked by Spanish authorities to lead final battle against revolutionaries. They believed he could end Mexican independence movement Iturbide believed liberal revolution underway in Spain might take away some of his power so he decided to switch sides, fight for Mexican revolutionaries Iturbide wanted to create an independent monarchy, give creoles and peninsulares equal rights, make the Roman Catholic Church the official church of Mexico Brokered a compromise which brought together many different groups; creoles and peninsulares, revolutionaries and royalists In 1821, Mexico declared independence from Spain
Simon Bolivar Bolivar had dream for newly independent South America Wanted to form one large, united country called Federation of the Andes • Dream never became reality • Bolivar set up state of Gran Colombia, included
what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador
Other leaders set up separate countries in Peru, Bolivia, other places
José de San Martin Had fought against Napoleon in Spain Born in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule Eventually led independence movement in Argentina and most of southern South America
John VI in Brazil 1807, Portuguese king John VI, family, fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded Portugal Status of colony raised having Portuguese monarch there
John VI named Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empire Allowed Brazil to trade directly with world, rather than through Portugal
Pedro I John VI returned to Portugal after revolution, 1820 Left son Pedro to rule Brazil Brazilian-born colonists began to protest colonial status Transition happened smoothly, little violence 1822, Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent, was crowned Emperor Pedro I