Chapter 2

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Sports Medicine
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Chapter 2 


Stressed Isolationism and a contemplative life Privileged class participated in wrestling, boxing and Kung Fu as early as 2698 B.C.


Governed by religious beliefs that stressed inner peace over physical activity.


Raised in a militaristic society and therefore saw the importance of physical fitness Fitness for everyone, not just the ruling class


Stressed physical training to allow rulers to gain more land and riches Over time, professionalism was stressed and more people became spectators instead of participants

GREECE  Athens – Physical education experienced a “Golden Age”. Exemplified the mind-body spirit  Spartans – Very Militaristic  “Come home with your shield or on it”

Greek Physicians  Herodicus (480 BC) Nutrition  Hippocrates ( 460 – 377 BC) “First do no harm”  Galen (131 – 201 AD) –  First Sports Medicine Physician  Dissection and Rehab  Galen’s work inspired other physicians 

Held Olympics from 776 B.C. – 394 A.D.

Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476 used in a period of 1,000 years known as the Dark Ages; in which physical activity sport and fitness diminished because of political and economic chaos


Renewed interest in learning, doing, recreation and fitness. Also renewed interest in expanding and exploring


YMCA began in England in 1844 and was devoted to character and physical education

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1844-1884 In1866 first legislation passed in California requiring physical ed. In the schools 1875 Intercollegiate Association was formed

Intercollegiate Conference 1895 

Faculty Representatives formed (eventually became the Big 10 Conference) What happened to make sports standardized or institutionalized?    

Rules became standard Bodies are formed to enforce rules Standards of competition are set Sport is promoted for participants as well as spectators Championships are formed

Chapter 2  

Emerging Profession 1885-1930

Birth of a Profession 

Gymnasium was the center of ancient Greek education and culture Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476 used in a period of 1,000 years known as the Dark Ages; in which physical activity sport and fitness diminished because of political and economic chaos

Battle of the Systems 

Period of 1885-1900: marked competition among several approaches of what was called “gymnastics” Marked a period when immigrants brought their own approaches and loyalties

German System (Fredrick Jahn) 

Balanced academics with physical education Developed Turnplatz Strict gymnastic programs but did incorporate track and field event Important student leaders: Beck,Follen,and Leiber

Swedish System Henrick Ling   

Interest in anatomy and physiology Scientific-Therapeutic An understudy(Nissen) furthered the system by befriending Mary Hemenway Father of Physical Therapy

Beecher System   

System developed for women Developed grace and fitness Incorporated music in the workouts

Dio Lewis System 

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Used components from German, Sweeden and Beecher Use of music-incorporated flexibility Focused on the value of wt. training Published the first journal in P.E.Gymnastic Monthly and Journal of Physical Culture

Hitchcock System ( 1861) 

Scientific emphasis, based on measurement System was designed around a battery of test Ladders,weights, jumping rope and climbing

Sargent System-Teacher Based 

Also based on measurements but used them for exercise prescription Designed exercise machines to enhance various physical characteristics

The Boston Conference 1889 

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Battle of the systems-hosted by Mary Hemenway Gave credibility to the field of Physical Education The American System was created Sport was not a major topic of this conference

Important Leaders 

Luther Gulick-Helped form the Playground Association of America Rosiland Cassidy- Worked with Kinesiology Delphine Hanna-developed the nations first teacher-preparation program in p.e.

Cont. 

Edward Thorndike-Psychologist; believed children were not just small adults John Dewey-Education leader who supported Heatherington’s theories FORMALIZATION WAS OUT-Natural play was in

Leaders of the 1900’s 

Thomas Wood-Education through the physical Organic, Psychomotor, Social Development, and Mental Development Placed more emphasis on games and game skills-Natural Gymnastics

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