Chapter 3 Powerpoint

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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English Migration: 1610-1660 • Where are they going?

Focus Question: • Why did Chesapeake planters shift from using white indentured servants as laborers to black slaves? Big Picture: • VA/MD—similar economies, population, & growth • Tobacco! • Indian lands & black labor

Virginia (1639) • Government • Royal Colony by James I • Most legislatures held lifetime appointments and passed laws • Judges & sheriffs appointed by governor collected taxes

• Religion • Supporters of Church of England or Anglican • Fined for not attending church!

Maryland (1632) • Government • Proprietary Colony • Ruled by Lord Baltimore

• Religion • Haven for Catholics • “Headrights system” • Manor system to separate Catholics and Protestants • “Act for Religious Toleration” 1649

Death, Gender, & Kinship • Need for male indentured servants • Death rates high to disease • Widows remarried, but lack of females led to low population

Tobacco Shapes a Region, 1630-1675 • 1618-boom, 1629-bust • Headrights system made planters wealthy & abuse indentured servants • Little land/resources for freed servant = destitution

17c Population in the Chesapeake 100000 80000 60000




20000 0 1607





WHY this large increase in black popul.??

Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676 • Wealthy planters had access to land and furs • Colonists rebelled by massacring friendly Natives. • Bacon intimidates Gov. Berkeley, inciting riots. • Treaty of Middle Plantation 1677-peace with return of POW & land

Nathaniel Bacon

Governor William Berkeley

From Servitude to Slavery • 1705—Racial slavery legal • Elites used race to give whites a higher status • Slavery replaced the need for indentured servants

• Wages rose in England discouraging immigration • Most slaves by 1690 were imported directly from W. Africa

Richard Frethorne’s 1623 Letter In-Class Activity: 1. Describe the life of the indentured servant as presented in this letter. 2. What are some of the problems he and the other servants experienced? 3. What are their biggest fears? 4. What does a historian learn about life in the 17c Chesapeake colony?

Focus Question • Why did colonial New Englanders abandon John Winthrop’s vision of a “city upon a hill”?

Big Picture: • NE based on religion • “Great Migration” of Separatist Puritans to NE

• King Charles II outlawed the Calvinist teachings in England (1620s) • Two groups formed: • Puritans: Moved b/c church reformed too slowly. • Separatists: Completely separated from the Church of England.

• All went to Massachusetts

• John Winthrop created “Modell of Christian Charity” • First governor of Mass.

• Cooperation & no slaves • Male dominated (only voters)

Sources of Puritan Migration

• Religious Leadership • “Saints” or church leaders had to prove conversion experiences before church members • Church free of state control • 1636—Harvard founded to teach ministers

New England Primer [1689]

• Roger Williams-popular Salem, MASS preacher • Puritans should break from CoE • Exiled & created Rhode Island • Colony for religious toleration

• Anne Hutchinson • Puritan church/saints corrupt • Women needed a stronger role in church • A “holy” life ≠ salvation • Exiled

• Land was given to church members • Women had no legal rights • Long life expectancy • Immunities & male to female ratio

• Relied heavily on shipping (rum, lumber, furs) • Government fixed prices (just price) • Church membership declined • Less were having “conversion experiences” • Created “halfway covenant”

Patriarchal Family

• 90% of NA population destroyed (disease & deforestation) • “Praying towns” created • 1635—Pequot Wars CT • Villages burned and NA pushed out

• King Phillips War 1765 • Metacom or King Phillip organized local tribes against Whites • Failed b/c New Englanders received help from Christian NA from NY

Population Comparisons: New England v. the Chesapeake

• 1691-1693 • Young girls accussing older female members of being witches • Real fear: Puritanism fading out as colony matures & progresses. • By 1693 hundreds die • Marks the end of Puritanism and leads towards materialism.

• Focus Question: What factors facilitated the extension of slavery from the English Caribbean to the Carolinas?

Big Picture • Rice in the Carolinas and Sugar in the Caribbean = slaves! • PA, NY, & NJ = Middle Colonies that were very diverse!

• SP, FR, DU, BR races to colonize • England monopolized tobacco • Dutch & French monopolized sugar • 3 x more slave labor • “new slavery”

• Navigation Acts-England & Dutch trade sugar & slaves • English start to immigrate to the Carolinas where the land is cheaper.

• “Restoration Colony” 1663 • Founded by Locke & Cooper “proprietors” • Created Fundamental Constitution-nobility in charge of land • Religious Toleration & elected assembly • White farmers left from West Indies

• Proprietors were ignored • Slaves were brought to the Carolinas b/c… • More immunities & skill • NA were being captured as slaves and traded to other NA for guns!

Settling the “Lower South”

Section 4 • Focus Question: In what ways did the middle colonies differ from the other English colonial regions?

Big Picture: • Middle colonies are more diverse and have a balance between religion and commerce.

New Netherland & New Sweden • 1638 Swedish colony • Guns for furs with NA • Beaver Wars • Competed with Dutch • Dutch attacked New Sweden in 1655 making it a part of NN. • Multi-cultural & multi-religion • 1664 colony attacked by English and renamed “New York” (given to King’s brother Duke of York)

Duke of York’s Original Charter

New York


• 1665 Duke of York named New York a royal colony • Immigrants included: • British, French, & New Englanders

• Lands divided among Dutch & English • “New York Patroons”

New Jersey • Formerly New Netherland • Granted to William Penn and VA Gov. Berkely • Penn’s vision: Quaker haven • Attracted New Englanders • W & E NJ • Protestants vs Quakers

• 1702 one colony

New York Manors &

Land Grants Patroonships

Dutch Residue in New York Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC.

New York City seal.

Names  Harlem, Brooklyn Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].

Pennsylvania “Penns Woods” • Penn advertised land to encourage Quaker settlement • Signed a formal treaty & purchased from NA • Religious Toleration • No slavery! • Representative assembly • Dominated by Quakers

• Organized cities in “grid system” • Philadelphia

Pennsylvania • Quakers • Established by George Fox • “Society of Friends” • Attracted poor men & women

• Belief in “Inner Light” • • • •

Emphasis on equality, not status Pacifists No church taxes Kept on hats

• George Keith • New Quaker leader took followers back to England

Ethnic Groups

Section 5 Focus Question: How did the French & Spanish colonies in mainland North American differ from English colonies?

Big Picture • France dominates Canada • Spain dominates NM, FL, & TX

• “New France” (Quebec) • Privately funded by lords • Populated by • indentured servants (free after 3 years) • Traders-granted “kings girls” • Missionaries

• Goal: to make ties with NA to trade & convert to Catholicism

• Jean Baptiste Colbert • “Mercantilism”

• 1690 Iroquois peace • Competition with furs led to war turning it into a royal colony

• “Coureurs de bois”

• 1625-Created alliances with NA for • • • •

Land, labor, & wealth Missionaries converted Encomiendas Cut off traded between NA

• Pueblo Revolt, 1680 • • • •

NA converted and followed Spanish rule Series of natural disasters led NA to believe they offended their Gods Spanish responded to revolt by smashing “kivas” Spain would not return until 1716 to establish permanent colonies

• 1635 • Homes to Spanish missionaries • Local NA resist conversion & slavery • Suffered attacks from NA in Carolinas who support English • Competition: • English slave trade to North • French control over Louisiana

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