Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies
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Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies AP U.S. History
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism • • • •
Catholic Church/Pope Leo – raising money, selling Indulgences – payments to reduce/cancel sin Martin Luther – started the Protestant Reformation • Belief of Bible? Source of God’s word • 95 Thesis – 1517 – statements on abuses of church
• John Calvin – conversion experience – intense identifiable personal experience leads to a sanctified life • King Henry 8th – church? Made himself head of the church, led to some wanting total reform in church • Edward “Bloody” Mary Elizabeth Protestant
The Pilgrims End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth • Separatists – went to? Holland Left there b/c? Children too Dutch • Charter – VA Company of London • 1620 – New England • Mayflower Compact – agreement to form a government and submit to the will of the majority • First Winter – 44 of 102 survived • Get help from – Squanto, Samoset. Next winter – better • William Bradford – Governor 30 times
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth • Non-separatists – sought to change the church from within • “City on a Hill” – agreement to build a holy society that would be a model to everyone • John Winthrop – 1st Governor • Economy based on? Fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding
Building the Bay Colony • Franchise – adult males who belonged to the church • Government – male property owners • Who had real power? Religious leaders
Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth • Quakers – persecution with fines, floggings, and banishments • Anne Hutchison – sharp in theology, predestination, brought to trial for heresy. Banished, went to RI
• Roger Williams – wanted clean break from church of England. Wanted Indians compensated for land. Banished
The Rhode Island Sewer/New England Spreads Out • Offered complete freedom of? Religion!! Even for Jews and Catholics. No oaths, no compulsory attendance, no taxes to support state church. • Hartford – CT – river where land was fertile • Thomas Hooker – Fundamental Orders of Conn. – gave power to many people. • New Haven Colony – Puritans wanting a closer church/state relationship. Merged with CT • New Hampshire – separated from MA
Puritans vs. Indians • Little resistance at first – diseases • Pequot War – 1637 – English set fire to villages and shot Pequots • King Phillips War – Metacom hit frontier settlements (52 towns), hundreds killed. Metacom captured and killed.
Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence • New England Confederation – 4 colonies together for defense from Indians, French, and Dutch. • Colonies did not like … - Ma ignored royal orders • Crown – gave CT a sea-to-sea charter, revoked MA’s charter
• Dominion of New England – New England, NY, NJ. Bolster colonial defense. Enforce the English Navigation Laws – restrict trade with other countries
• Edmund Andros – Head of Dominion. Very harsh – supported the Catholic Church, no town meetings, heavy taxes • Glorious Revolution – William and Mary (daughter of James II) took the throne. Colonists chased Andros out!
• Salutary Neglect – Navigation Acts were weakly enforced. **** Colonies were more prosperous when left alone****
Old Netherlands at New Netherlands • Henry Hudson – English but sailed for the Dutch – Hudson River • New Netherlands – multi-ethnic, rare, money, Iroquois • New Amsterdam – New York City
Friction with… /Dutch Residues… • Dutch allies with Iroquois • New Sweden – Peter Stuyvesant • Charles II – New York, Proprietary, Royal
Penn’s Holy Experiment • Quakers – Religious Society of Friends • Characteristics – no taxes to church, no paid clergy, spoke in church when moved, kept hats on, “thee,” “thou,” no oaths, refused military service • Practiced religious tolerance, …rich mix of ethnic groups • Exported – grain and other foodstuffs
Questions • 1. Compare and contrast the New England and middle colonies in terms of motives for founding, religious and social composition, and political development. • 2. What efforts were made to strengthen English control over the colonies in the 17th century, and why did they generally fail?