Chapter 7 A More Perfect Union(1777-1790)

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, Civics
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Chapter 7 A More Perfect Union(1777-1790) Section 3 A New Plan of Government

Roots of the Constitution

• Constitution written in 4 months • Unique American, but had roots in many other civilizations • The Framers of the Constitution were familiar with Parliamentary system of Britain

• They valued individual rights • They respected many of the British traditions (cultural beliefs and practices)

English Influences • Magna Carta- Placed limits on the monarchs

• Parliament controlled the funds for wars and gov. • The colonial assemblies worked the same way • The assemblies had some control over colonial gov. • Framers used ideas from Enlightenment philosophers John Locke and Montesquieu

John Locke

• Believed people should have natural rights:

– Life, liberty, and property

• Government based on agreement between the people & ruler • Americans agreed with these natural rights. • Protected the peoples’ rights by limiting the government’s power.

Baron De Montesquieu • Said powers of gov should be separated and balanced against each other. • This would keep any person or group from gaining too much power. • Powers of government should be clearly defined and limited to prevent abuse.

• Framers specified and divided the powers of government.

The Federal System • Federalism- sharing power between federal and state governments. • Under the Constitution, the federal government gained powers to: – Tax, regulate trade, control currency, raise an army, and declare war.

• Also can pass any law that is “necessary and proper” • Important powers were also left to the states

Debate and Adoption • 9 of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution. • Supporters of the Constitution were called Federalists. • Madison, Hamilton, and Jay wrote essays called the Federalist Papers • People opposes were called Antifederalists • Also wrote essays called the Antifederalist Papers

• Antifederalists argued that strong national government would take away American liberties. • Antifederaists favored local government

Protecting Rights

• The biggest criticism about the Constitution was that it lacked a Bill of Rights • Many states refused to ratify (agree to it) with out a Bill of Rights • Federalists feared disorder without a strong central government • Antifederalists worried about oppression that might result from a strong central government

Adopting the Constitution • New Hampshire became the 9th state to approve on June 21, 1788 • The new government could go into effect, but New York and Virginia had not ratified • Virginia ratified after being assured a Bill of Rights would be added • The Bill of Rights was added in 1791 • The final three states (NY, NC, and RI) approved the Constitution by May 1790

Homework: • Change of plans: – TONIGHT’S HOMEWORK: • Articles of Confederation & Constitution Packet (DUE MONDAY)

– FRIDAY’S HOMEWORK: • Read Chapter 8, Sect. 1 (pg.258-262)

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