Chapter 9: Nation Building and National
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BY BERNADETTE LIM PERIOD 5
Chapter 9: Nation Building and Nationalism 1813-1825 Sections: Expansion Migration, a Revolution in Transportation, Emergence of a Market Economy, the Politics of Nation Building after the War of 1812, Conclusion: The End of the Era of Good Feeling
President James Monroe(5th) April 28, 1758, Westmoreland County, Virginia Died in July 4, 1831, New York City, New York Presidency: 1817–1825 Democratic- Republican “Virginia Dynasty” Other Occupations:
lawyer soldier diplomat governor senator cabinet official
Remembered for the “Era of Good Feeling”
John Marshall Studied law in the College of William and Mary. Born September 24, 1755 in Germantown, Virginia Died in July 6, 1835
January 27, 1801 he became Chief of Justice (for 34 years ) Note: 1789 was offered to be in the United States Supreme Court but refused
Virginia House of Delegates from 1782 to1795 1797 he was in a diplomatic mission in France 1799 he was in the House of Representatives 1800 Secretary of State under President John Adams
John Quincy Adams (6th) Born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1767 1848 Died of Stroke in the Speaker House One of America’s greatest Secretaries of State
Helped with arrangements of events like England in the country of Oregon. (RushBagot) First President to be a son of a President Obtaining from Spain the cession of the Florida (East part) Formulating with the President the Monroe Doctrine
• Other occupations: • • • • •
After graduating from Harvard College, he became a lawyer Age 26 he was appointed Minister to the Netherlands Promoted to the Berlin Legation 1802 elected to the United States Senate Six years later President Madison appointed him Minister to Russia
General Andrew Jackson (7th) Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767 “Old Hickory" retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June 1845 His Occupations:
Signed up for the continental army at nine years old A courier at the age of thirteen
A messenger who transports goods or documents, in particular
Decided to teach in school, changed to law later
Military career began in the Revolution
1802 as a major general for Tennessee Declared a war hero after the 1812 war and was given the name
Lafayette (In the opening of the chapter An extra)
Born in 1757 Died on May 20, 1834 at the age of 76 A noble Wanted to help the “romantic” American, glorious and exciting cause.
Disapproved by the King and his family Own voyage with Baron Johan De Kalb and Silas Deane
Landed in South Carolina Commissioned to be a Major General on July 31st
He Revisits America in 1824
found the nation to peaceful and prosperous
After The War of 1812 Rush-Bagot Agreement
Was made in 1817, and limited both U.S. and British Naval Forces in Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
1799-1830 Special acts were presented that granted squatters specific areas the right to purchase. This was to see if people would actual improve the land that they bought. Instead of being sold or bought out to be given to people who would actually cultivate the land.
Expanding towards the Spanish holdings:
Quincy Adams needed to find the window of opportunity to gain Florida
It was provided by General Andrew Jackson in 1816 Operation became well known as the First Seminole War.
To end conflict they needed to agree to comply with the Adams-Onis Treaty
February 22, 1819 was due to an opening by General Andrew Jackson, and created by Quincy Adams, to gain eastern Florida.
After The War of 1812 (Cont.) Natives:
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole became the “Five Civilized Tribes” in 1815 began to adapt the surrounding white cultures (from government to slavery) Cherokee being the largest of the group and Seminoles were the smallest of the five Cherokee developed even more until they were able to reach an American-style “civilization”
Creating their own writing system and adapted to trading, slavery, and their own central government
The other two tribes resisted instead (Seminoles) In the end majority of the time, they were still labeled as savages, civilized or not Andrew Jackson as the “Indian fighter”
Early Industrialism Revolution in Transport:
1815 flat boats were hauling wheat, flour and salt pork for 2000 miles, from Pittsburgh to New Orleans First great federal transportation project was the National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Potomac to Wheeling, Virginia and to the Ohio, which was from 1811 to 1818
System of canals to be created for the growing urban states Great Lake to flow into the Atlantic at the time for them was between Albany and Buffalo, it was approved in 1817
Continued in 1818 when De Witt Clinton persuaded New York Legislature to continue by issuing bonds 364 miles long, 40 feet wide and 4 ft deep the Eerie Canal was complete
From 1830-40 other places wanted to extend the canal systems like Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois. However, the boom ended because most of the waterways were unprofitable.
Early Industrialism (Cont.) Market Economy:
Canals did help with shipping of goods
Cheaper Faster Surplus and mass production
Steel or iron plows Grain cradle was more useful than a scythe was for harvest New crops, grasses and livestock were introduced
Staple crops like wheat remained in the North Westward has problems like diseases in the crops, pests and soil depletion become a problem and continue to grow as a problem in older regions
As regions specialized in crops
new market systems emerge
use of credit
Crucial element in this system
It was need when merchants reached their ultimate destination like Liverpool or New York. It was also to encourage growth in money and banking.
Early Industrialism (Cont.)
Stimulate Economy: gold and silver was available to only a few Bank notes were now issued to the public
Barely with the first Bank of the United States in 1811 to organize the money and credit
Attempt to create the second Bank of the United States in 1816 to check on state banks by forcing them to resume specie payments
Over extension of credit lead to the panic of 1819. In other words a financial panic that led to a depression.
People began to feel unsure about this method of economy
1815, most ideas of manufacturing goods were in a household. Southern New England the idea was changed towards mills.
Textiles and clothes Originally mainly by the women at home and the higher quality version of textiles and clothes would be by artisans. In this age the artisans mainly became entrepreneurs and journeymen became wage earners.
Lowell, Massachusetts became a great place for early American industry. Factory Production changed the course of capitalist activity in the regions.
Early Industrialism (Cont.) Cities
In the 1800s the nation was more of a rural state. Then as Canals, industry, factories, and banks formed, soon the city life-style spread like wildfire with the expansion. Canals mainly helped out through transport of people.
Era of Good Feeling
People’s sense of nationalism was beginning to take place in the United States. After the War of 1812, the Federalists were no longer a challenge in the political status, it was mainly the Republicans. 1816 Monroe would be the successor of Madison.
His challenge was to keep peace in the country.
The Missouri Compromise deals with Missouri being a slave state and Maine being a free state in February 1820.
Early Industrialism (Cont.) Monroe Doctrine:
December 3, 1823 It prevents any further colonization of European powers in the Americas. In Return the U.S. will not part take in internal European affairs.
So America had a chance to prosper but, with caution to remember that Europe
still has no true acknowledgement of America .
Court Cases John Marshall was the Chief of Justice for All three of these cases.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward:
McCulloch v. Maryland:
In 1819, the court was to decide if Hampshire legislature had right to convert Dartmouth from private to state university. The ruling was that privately own businesses are protected, but anything related to the state was of their own choosing. In 1819 Maryland levied a tax on Baltimore branch Bank. The issue here was the establishment of a bank and if a state had the right to tax. In the end some powers were implied but overall the government is the one to oversee these issues.
Gibbons v. Ogden:
The control of interstate commerce was rightfully for the congress however the right to protect private matters was important as well. It also shows Marshall’s decision making, and made the federal government broaden its powers at the expense of the states. This would lead to a nationwide capitalist country.
Textbook: America Past and Present: AP Edition (9th) By Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, Williams, Gross and Brands.
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http://www.unit5.org/hudsonimc/4th%20grade%20parent%20page.htm http://www.animationlibrary.com/animation/27943/Coin_trick/ http://www.e-greenstar.com/Music-Sample/ http://www.sitevip.net/gifs/flowers/ *** http://download.installmob.com/animation/ccontennt/10494-f/judge_pounding_gavel.gif?__sid=TNLAWIM&lang=en