Chapter 9 Notes
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Chapter 9 The Era of Thomas Jefferson
Warm up: Question: What important events (surrounding the presidency) happened in Chapter 8?
Answer: • G. Washington served as our 1st President • 4 Precedents (title, neutral, cabinet, 2 terms)
• J. Adams served as our 2nd President • Presidents were challenged by Britain and France
The Republicans Take Power Chapter 9: Section 1
Thomas Jefferson - Jefferson attended the
College of William and Mary, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, he was Secretary of State under Washington, Vice President under John Adams and the leader of the DemocraticRepublican Party.
Born April 13, 1743
Died July 4, 1826
Thomas Jefferson A watercolor of the White House grounds about 1827. Shown with the White House are Jefferson’s stone wall, the orchard, the vegetable garden and several workmen’s shanties left over from the construction.
The Election of 1800 FederalistsAdams & Pickney vs. RepublicansJefferson & Burr
Each elector received 2 votes which led to a tie. The House of Reps. had to decide the President and based on Hamilton’s recommendation Jefferson became President.
Election of 1800 Third President of the United States -Democratic Republicans take over the White House -President - Thomas Jefferson (Virginia) -Vice President - Aaron Burr (New York) -Inaugurated March 4, 1801
The 12th Amendment • To prevent another show down between a presidential candidate and vice-presidential candidate, Congress passed the 12th Amendment. • Electors will now vote for president and vice president on separate ballots.
Important Actions by T. J. • The new government allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire. • They cut the federal debt ($83 million) significantly in a few years. • Repealed the internal taxes. (ex: whiskey)
THOMAS JEFFERSON Judiciary Act of 1801 This was passed in Adams’ last days as President. He packed the regional court system with Federalist judges. He also appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
On January 18, 1800, Thomas Jefferson, then Vice President of the United States, alluded to plans for a new college . The University of Virginia was eventually be built on James Monroe’s land and opened January 25, 1819.
THOMAS JEFFERSON Midnight Judges Jefferson tried to prevent some of Adams’ judges from taking office. One such appointment was for William Marbury. Jefferson stopped his commission from being delivered. William Marbury
THOMAS JEFFERSON Marbury vs. Madison Marbury took his case to the U.S. Supreme Court. He said the courts should force the delivery of his commission. Justice Marshall didn’t agree with him. This resulted in the courts overseeing the other branches, i.e.-judicial review.
(See page 236)
Warm up: Question: What problem occurred during the Election of 1800?
Answer: Thomas Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr both received the same number of electoral votes. President and Vice President were elected based on a 1st and 2nd place vote-the tie caused a problem.
Eyewitness to History: Jefferson in the White House
Warm up: Question: Why was Marbury vs. Madison such an important Supreme Court case?
Answer: Marbury vs. Madison established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review. (Power to check the other branches.)
The Louisiana Purchase Chapter 9: Section 2
The Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase • In 1803 President Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to negotiate with Napoleon (French ruler) for the Louisiana Territory • Napoleon Bonaparte needed $ to fight Britain • For $15 million the U.S. purchased the territory, about 4 cents/acre • Largest land deal in history! • Americans knew they could convince France to sell because they couldn’t defend it…why?
Toussaint-Louverture • France lost control of Haiti in 1791 when African slaves revolted • They were led by a former slave in Haiti and the grandson of an African chief (Louverture) • Today Haiti is 90% African descent • FYI: This event concerned Americans because they were afraid that the U.S. slaves would also revolt.
Where is Haiti?
Lewis and Clark • Jefferson assigned two skilled frontiersmen, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark the task of mapping the Louisiana Territory • Lewis-Jefferson’s Secretary (military) • Clark- Friend of Lewis’ from military service
Lewis and Clark • Lewis & Clark traveled with a crew of 45 explorers and kept detailed journals of their findings.
Lewis and Clark Artifacts Virtual Journey
Sacagawea • Wife of a French-Canadian fur trader • Hired by Lewis & Clark as guides and interpreters • She showed explorers where to fish, to hunt, and to find wild vegetables • She also helped trade supplies with American Indians
3 Major Impacts! •
1. Found “new”
plant & animal species
Lewisia rediviva Pursh
2. Inspired Westward Expansion
3. Route across the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean
The Zebulon Pike’s Expedition
Another important explorer of the period was Z. Pike. He explored a great deal of western territory. He was often lost!
IMPACT!!! • Pike discovered Grand Peak in Colorado. Today it’s called Pike’s Peak after him.
THE HAMILTON - BURR
HAMILTON - BURR DUEL • •
Hamilton and Burr had a long standing hatred for each other. (Especially after the Election of 1800.) Hamilton accused Burr of treason (planned for N.Y. to secede). Alexander Hamilton
A contemporary artistic rendering of the July 11, 1804 duel between Burr and Hamilton.
HAMILTON - BURR DUEL Eventually their hatred led to Burr challenging Hamilton to a duel.
The Wogdon Pistols used in the duel
Eyewitness to History
HAMILTON BURR DUEL -Hamilton was shot and died (July 11, 1804) -Burr fled and his political career ended
A reenactment of the famous duel at the 2004 centennial
Warm up: • Question: What was the result of the Hamilton-Burr duel?
Answer: • Hamilton died and Burr fled. Burr’s political career ended.
Complete Lewis and Clark Activity (Lab or Classroom)
Warm up: • Question: Who were Lewis and Clark and name 3 impacts of their journey?
Answer: Two men who led an expedition for President Jefferson to explore the territory gained in the Louisiana Purchase. Three Impacts: 1. New plant and animal species 2. Inspired westward expansion 3. Discovered a route across the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean
A Time of Conflict Chapter 9 Section 3 Conestoga Wagon -Transported settlers and their freight over the Appalachian Mountains. First built in PA.
Barbary Pirates •After the Revolution pirates in the Mediterranean Sea began attacking U.S. trade ships. •The pirates came from the African nations of Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, & Tripoli. (These nations were called the Barbary States) •The pirates demanded bribes to stop attacking and imprisoning merchants. •The U.S sent warships to protect U.S. cargo ships.
Barbary Pirates •Pirates seized the U.S. warship, Philadelphia and threw the captain and crew in jail. •Stephen Decatur (Navy captain) snuck on and burned the captured Philadelphia to prevent the pirates from using it. •Tripoli agreed to stop demanding tribute, but the U.S. had to pay a ransom of 60K for the release of the prisoners.
•Shortly after the Marines captured Tripoli and demonstrated the dominance of the U.S. military. Burning of the frigate Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli.
Freedom of the Seas • During Britain and France’s
war, the U.S. remained neutral so shippers could continue doing business. •Both Britain and France threatened to attack any ships that traded with the other. •The U.S. traded with both.
Impressment • The British started to seize
U.S. sailors that they suspected of being deserters from the British Navy and forced them into service •This practice, known as impressment, was a clear violation of neutral rights •They impressed thousands of American citizens
Attack on the Chesapeake • The final straw for many Americans was the attack on the American vessel, The Chesapeake. A British warship demanded to search the ship for British deserters. (off coast of VA) •The captain refused and the British opened fire, killing 3, wounding 18, and crippling the American ship •Many Americans demanded war against Britain •Jefferson sought a course of action other than war
A Disastrous Trade Ban •To avoid war Jefferson pushed the Embargo Act through Congress.(The U.S. would not trade with any nation.) •He wanted to hurt Britain without going to war. •The embargo turned out to be a disaster (it wiped out all American trade with other nations.) •The British ended up trading with South America. •Before long, American shippers began smuggling their goods.
A political cartoon showing merchants dodging the “Ograbme” which is ‘Embargo’ backwards. This is how the people feel about the Embargo Act, because, like a turtle, it is slowing the economy down.
Madison into Office • Madison becomes the 4th president. •On March 1, 1809, Congress repealed the Embargo Act. •The U.S. continued to have problems with Britain and France. •Tensions also continue to grow between settlers and Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.
Tecumseh and The Prophet •Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet built a confederacy among Native American nations in Indiana, Ohio and Michigan •They thought that this would put a halt to white movement onto N.A. lands •Instead it led to the Battle of Tippecanoe •The Natives battled William Henry Harrison and the U.S. army •The Natives were defeated and pushed further west.
War Hawks • War Hawks-group of young Republicans elected to Congress •They pressured the president to declare war with Britain •Leaders were Henry Clay and John Calhoun •The War Hawks urged major spending to strengthen the U.S. military •By the spring of 1812, Madison concluded that war with Britain was inevitable
Question: Who were the Barbary Pirates?
Answer: The Barbary Pirates were a group of pirates who terrorized the Mediterranean. They demanded tribute (protection money) from the U.S. & European governments to let their ships pass safely.
Section 9.4 The WAR OF 1812 Madison is elected President
The U.S. is having continued problems with Britain
REASONS FOR WAR: 1) Battle over Canadian Border (U.S. / Britain) The British had become friends with the Native Americans in the west supplying them with weapons to use against the United States.
REASONS FOR WAR:
2) British Capture U.S. Ships (Impressment) Captured about 5,000 men, about 1,500 of them were U.S. citizens
REASONS FOR WAR:
3) Poor Economy – Embargo Act stops all trade with other countries War = More Jobs
REASONS FOR WAR: 4) War Hawks – 1810 – young Republicans in Congress pressured Madison to declare war
The American ship the Constitution destroyed the Guerriere in August 1812, and the Java four months later. After seeing a shot bounce off the Constitution’s hull during battle, a sailor nicknamed the ship “Old Ironsides”
1) Old Ironsides (August, 1812)
• Picture of the U.S.S. Constitution defeating the Guerriere • Huge victory for the U.S. Navy
FYI: Built in 1794 in Boston, the Constitution’s planks were 7 inches thick. Paul Revere was responsible for the spikes and bolts that held them together as well as the copper sheathing that protected the hull.. The U.S.S. Constitution still resides in Boston and is the oldest active ship in the U.S. Navy.
2) Battle of Lake Erie
(Sept 10, 1813)
Oliver Hazard Perry
Oliver Hazard Perry led 10 small ships on an attack against the British • He broke through the British Blockade and gained control of Lake Erie
3) Washington D.C./ Fort McHenry (Baltimore) British wanted to capture Baltimore (by way of Washington, D.C.)
• 4,000-6,000 British soldiers burned D.C. (Whitehouse, Capitol, Library of Congress) • Thankfully a hurricane put out the fires before more damage could be done • A tornado also came right through D.C. and stopped
What was left of the Whitehouse after
Before the British arrived to the President’s Mansion, the First Lady refused to leave. Dolley Madison remained there after many of the government officials had already left, gathering valuables, documents and other items of importance, notably the Lansdowne Portrait, a full-length painting of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart. She also took a set of red velvet drapes that she had made into a gown after the war. She was finally persuaded to leave moments before British soldiers entered the house. Once inside, the soldiers found the dining hall set for a dinner. After eating all the food they took souvenirs (silver shoes buckles, a sword, and personal love letters between the Madisons) then set the building on fire.
Washington, D.C. (August 19,1814)
The blue part shown was all that was constructed of the Capitol during Thornton’s time.
Dr. William Thornton (who created the Capitol) stood outside the patent office and convinced the British to leave the patent office because they would be destroying inventive science if they destroyed it. While it was spared, The roof was blown off in the coming storm (Hurricane and Tornado!) Dr. William Thornton
• After the fire President Madison met with his cabinet in the Post Office (one of the only government buildings that wasn’t damaged during the rampage.) • The Congress met in a local hotel. • Both groups met to discuss the course of the war.
3) Fort McHenry (Baltimore) (September 24, 1814) The British left Washington and sailed to Baltimore, however the Americans were ready and waiting.
Americans win in Baltimore (TURNING POINT!) Siege at Fort Mc Henry
the commander of Ft. McHenry asked for a flag so big that "the British have no trouble seeing it from a distance." He asked Mary Young Pickersgill to make the flag. She used 400 yards of fine wool. They cut 15 stars that were two feet across. There were 8 red and 7 white stripes. The stripes were each two feet wide. When it was finished it measured 30 by 42 feet and cost $405.90.
Francis Scott Key, a lawyer, boarded a British ship to negotiate the release of a captured friend, Dr. William Beanes. The British accepted the release but kept them overnight because they had heard of attack plans. Key watched as the bombs burst over Ft. McHenry. Finally, “by the dawn’s early light”, Key was able to see that the American flag still flew over the fort. Deeply moved by patriotic feeling, Key wrote a poem called, “The StarSpangled Banner.”
The caption reads "A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry”, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which lasted 24 hours & thrown from 1500 to 1800 shells in the Night attempted to land by forcing a passage up the ferry branch but were repulsed with great loss."
Notice the cow is not interested
4) The Creek Indian Uprising - Indians side with British
- Davy Crockett and Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek
Davy Crockett fought under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. It was his reputation as an Indian fighter and frontiersman that first established his popularity.
5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
Fought 2 weeks after The Treaty of Ghent
• Signed Dec 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium •Did not change any existing borders •Settled nothing
Andrew Jackson dominated (251 British casualties, 11 U.S. casualties)
Gives U.S. Complete Control of Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico to the U.S.
RESULTS: 1) World Respect (Recognized as a Nation)
Aretha Franklin – R E S P E C T
RESULTS: 2) Patriotism Whitehouse (Star Spangled Banner) Uncle Sam
The "WE OWE ALLEGIANCE TO NO CROWN" banner was a popular symbol of American pride for many years following the War of 1812
RESULTS: 3) New Heroes • Andrew Jackson • William Henry Harrison • Oliver Hazard Perry
RESULTS: 4)Native Americans pushed further west
RESULTS: 5)TRADE IMPROVES (Economy)
As people are hired to build supplies for the war the economy starts to grow again.
Results: 6) War Hawks Gain Power
Warm up: Question: 1. Who fought in the War of 1812? 2. What were the results? (Look for 6)9.4)
Answer: United States and the British •World Respect (recognized as a nation) •Patriotism (Star Spangled Banner) •New Heroes (Jackson, Harrison, Perry) •Native Americans pushed further west •Trade Improves (economy)
•War Hawks gain Power
Warm up: Question: Who wrote the StarSpangled Banner? How did it come about?
Francis Scott Key Answer:
The flag flew over Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 and inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The StarSpangled Banner.”
Warm up: Question: Who were the War Hawks and what role did they play in the War of 1812?
Answer: They were people who wanted to go to war with England. (H. Clay, J.C. Calhoun, A. Jackson) They tried to push Madison and other members of Congress to declare war with Britain.
Warm up: Question: Why is the War of 1812 sometimes called “The American Revolution, Part II”?
Answer: • It was a war between Great Britain and the Untied States • Fight over shipping and trade • Involved fighting in America and Canada • It ended in an American victory
Warm up: • Question: What treaty ended the War of 1812? What were the details of the treaty?
Chapter 9 Review Day!
Answer: • Treaty of Ghent • Signed Dec 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium (it took 2 weeks for the Treaty to arrive to the U.S.) • Did not change any existing borders • Settled nothing
Jefferson Trivia •
Thomas Jefferson was a very remarkable man who started learning very early in life and never stopped. *
At 5, began studying under his cousins' tutor..
At 9, studied Latin, Greek and French.
At 14, studied classical literature and additional languages.
At 16, entered the College of William and Mary .
At 19, studied Law for 5 years starting under George Wythe.
At 23, started his own law practice.
At 25, was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
* At 31, wrote the widely circulated "Summary View of the Rights of British America " and retired from his law practice. *
At 32, was a Delegate to the Second Continental Congress.
At 33, wrote the Declaration of Independence.
* At 33, took three years to revise Virginia 's legal code and wrote a Public Education bill and a statute for Religious Freedom. * At 36, was elected the second Governor of Virginia succeeding Patrick Henry. *
At 40, served in Congress for two years.
* At 41, was the American minister to France and negotiated commercial treaties with European nations along with Ben Franklin and John Adams . * At 46, served as the first Secretary of State under George Washington . * At 53, served as Vice President and was elected president of the American Philosophical Society. *
At 55, drafted the Kentucky Resolutions and became the active