Chapter 9 The Jefferson Era (1800

February 4, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, Government
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What factor most influences people today on who they vote for in an election? A. The candidate’s political party affiliation B. The candidate’s opinion on a specific issue

C. How likeable the candidate is D. The candidate’s physical appearance

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Chapter 9 The Jefferson Era (1800-1816) Section 1 The Republicans Take Power

In what ways did Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans limit the powers of the government?

The Election of 1800 • The Federalists and Republicans fought a bitter election campaign in 1800 • The Federalists supported Adams again and Pinckney as VP • Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as VP • Neither traveled around the country to gather support • Instead they wrote letters to make their views public • Federalists accused Jefferson of being “godless” • Republicans warned that the Federalists favored the wealthy and would bring back monarchy

In their letter writing campaign, Thomas Jefferson’s supporters warned that reelecting President Adams would do what? A. Raise taxes

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D. Give too much power to individual states

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C. Weaken the military

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B. Bring back monarchy

Election Deadlock • The election came out a tie • Not between Adams and Jefferson, but between Jefferson and Burr (73 votes each) • The House of Representatives had to decide the election • The Federalists in the House of Reps saw a chance to prevent the election of Jefferson • They supported Burr

The Election Results

• 35 ballots- The election was tied • Alexander Hamilton urged one Federalist not to vote for Burr • Jefferson became president and Burr VP • To prevent this from happening again, Congress passed the 12th Amendment in 1803 • Separate ballots for President and VP

Jefferson’s Inauguration • Jefferson dressed in everyday clothes • Adams chose not to attend • Jefferson tried to bridge the gap between Federalists and Republicans in his speech • “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” • But Jefferson was no Federalist

Jefferson’s Ideas • Jefferson believed a large federal government threatened liberty • He believed states could better protect freedom • Jefferson wanted to reduce the power and size of the government • These ideas were similar to the French philosophy known as laissez-faire • “Let people do as they choose”

Cutting Costs

• Jefferson and Albert Gallatin (Secretary of Treasury) reduced the national debt • Scaled down military expenses • All federal internal taxes, including the whiskey tax, were repealed • Government funds would come from customs duties (taxes on imported goods) • Also from sale of western lands • Jefferson also limited the number of federal government workers to a few hundred people

Judiciary Act of 1801 • Before Jefferson took office, the Federalists passed this Act • Setup regional courts for the US with 16 judges and other judicial officials • Adams appointed judges to these positions and John Marshall to Chief Justice • Adams and Marshall worked around the clock to appoint these “midnight judges” • When Jefferson became president, a few of the appointment papers (commissions) had not yet been delivered • Jefferson told Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver them • One commission was to go to William Marbury

Marbury v. Madison

• Marbury took his case directly to the Supreme Court • Marshall said the Constitution did not give the Court jurisdiction to decide Marbury’s case • In Marbury v. Madison, three principles of judicial review were established • 1. The Constitution is the supreme law • 2. The Constitution must be followed when there is a conflict between it and any other law • 3. The judicial branch must uphold the Constitution and nullify unconstitutional laws

Which of the following statements is a principle of judicial review? A. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.

D. The legislative branch is responsible for upholding the Constitution.



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C. The Constitution should not be followed when it conflicts with any other law.

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B. State law takes precedence over federal law.

What Marbury v. Madison Did

• Marshall broadened federal power at the expense of the states • 1819- McCulluch v. Maryland- The Court held that Congress is allowed to do more than the Constitution expressly authorizes it to do • 1824- Gibbins v. OgdenThe Court held that federal law takes precedence over state law in interstate transportation

In what ways did Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans limit the powers of the government? –They reduced military spending and size, repealed all federal internal taxes, and kept government small.

Chapter 9 Section 1 Quiz

The election of 1800 was decided by A. the Senate. B. popular vote. C. the Electoral College. D. the House of Representatives.

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Regional courts were set up for the United States with the A. Judiciary Act of 1801. B. midnight judges. C. Marbury v. Madison case. D. Marshall Supreme Court.

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What case represented the first time the Supreme Court reviewed and ruled on acts of the other branches of government? Jefferson v. Madison Marshall v. Madison Marbury v. Madison Adams v. Jefferson


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Jefferson believed in reducing the power and size of government, or a philosophy called A. laissez-faire. 25% 25% 25% 25% B. judicial review. C. federalism. D. statism.

Which Secretary of State was asked to serve as chief justice? John Marshall Abigail Adams Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr


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