Chapter One - Falconer Central School

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Anthropology, Human Evolution
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Unit 1

Chapter 1 Section 1

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Culture: People’s unique way of life Paleolithic Age: Stone Age, use of tools Neolithic Age: Age of farming and domestication of animals Technology: Ways of applying knowledge, tools to meet a person’s needs Homo Sapiens: Modern Humans Archeologists: Learn about people by excavating and studying early settlements Artifacts: Remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human made objects. (Clues to the past) Anthropologists: Study of Culture, or people’s unique way of life Paleontologists: Study fossils and determine the age of the fossil rock

1970’s Tanzania (East Africa)

Mary Leaky Finds Foot Prints

Found a Hominid (Early Human) footprints over 3 million years old in East Africa

Homo Sapiens Developed between 200,000 and 40,000 years ago Neanderthals’ Way of Life   

Remains discovered in Europe and Southeast Asia Developed Religious Beliefs and Preformed Rituals Disappeared about 30,000 years ago

Chapter 1 Section 2

Nomad: Mobile people without permanent settlements Hunter-Gatherer: People who constantly hunt and gather for food/survival Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution): The shift from hunting-gathering to FARMING/DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS Slash-and-Burn Farming: Cut and burn method of farming. Returns nutrients to the soil. Domestication: Taming or training of animals for human use.

Nomads: Wonder from place to place in search of food and they never make permanent settlements

These people are called Hunter-Gathers

Followed the herds, seasons, etc.

Civilizations did not develop. Why?

Define: Domestic What is a “Domestic Cars vs. Imported Cars” Humans drove animals into man-made structures (Fences)

Herded animals to serve as food and labor sources!

Define: Neolithic Revolution

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution 

As climates warmed, grasses and grains had longer growing season

Farming provided a steady food supply, allowing people to stay in one area Slash and Burn farming allowed humans to clear large areas of land for farming

Chapter 1 Section 3

Civilization: Complex culture with 5 characteristics: (1) advanced cities, (2) specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, (5) Advanced tech.

Specialization: Development of “specific skills”

Artisan: Skilled craftsmen

Institutions: An established organization or foundation, especially one dedicated to education, public service or culture (Government, Religion, Economy, Schools)

Scribe: Professional writers

Cuneiform: “Wedge Shaped Writing”

Bronze Age: Time period when Bronze was primarily used for tools

Barter: Trade of goods without money

Ziggurat: Pyramid-shaped religious temple. (Layered)

Farming Develops in Many Places!!! 

What was needed for farming??

Humans developed agriculture independently in Africa, China, and South America The discovery of agriculture and the domestication of animals allowed the creation of villages Birth of Civilizations

Bronze Age: People used Bronze to make tools and weapons Villages grow into cities and force changes in society Economic Changes!!  

Surplus of food allows for specialized workers Specialization: Allowed people to make important advances in technology (Wheel and Sail)

Social Changes  

People needed to work together Religion becomes more organized

5 Features of Civilization MUST REMEMBER! 1.

Advanced Cities


Specialized Workers (artisans)


Complex Institutions (Government)


Record Keeping (Writing/Language, Scribes)


Advanced Technology

Specialized Workers

Complexed Institutions

Advanced Cities

Record Keeping

Advanced Technology

Economy Depended on goods from outlying farmers and merchants for trade  Why do people trade?  Used a Barter System 

 Money is not used to buy goods (Canal Street, NYC) 

Religion 

Center of city life was based around a Ziggurat, a massive temple

What is a Hunter-Gather?

Define the Neolithic Revolution

What does it mean to domesticate animals?

What did farming allow humans to do for the first time? List and/or describe one of the five elements of Civilization.

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