January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Social Psychology
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8 Leadership Behavior

"Leadership is action, not position." ~ Donald H. McGannon, Westinghouse Broadcasting Corporation


copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, inc. All Rights Reserved 1-2

Introduction • One way to differentiate leaders is to look at results. • A key distinguisher between an effective and ineffective leader is their everyday behavior. – Leadership behavior can be observed. – Certain traits, values, or attitudes may contribute to effective performance of some leadaership behaviors.

• Two other factors that influence leadership behavior are the followers and the situation. 8-3

Why Study Leadership Behavior? • Many leaders either cannot build teams or get results, or do not realize the negative impact of their behavior. • Leadership behaviors are a function of intelligence, personality traits, emotional intelligence values, attitudes, interests, knowledge, and experience. • Over time, leaders learn and discern the most appropriate and effective behaviors. – Individual difference and situational variables play a pivotal role in a leader’s actions. 8-4

The Building Blocks of Skills


The Early Studies • Ohio State University: Developed the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) and identified two independent dimensions of behaviors: – Consideration – Initiating structure

• These dimensions were independent continuums. • University of Michigan: Identified two dimensions contributing to effective group performance: – Job-centered dimensions – Employee-centered dimension • These dimensions were at opposite ends of a single continuum. 8-6

The Early Studies (continued)


Alternative Conceptualizations of Leadership Behavior • Alternative conceptualizations are concerned with: – Identifying key leadership behavior. – Determining if these behaviors have positive relationships with leadership success. – Developing those behaviors related to leadership success.

• Leadership Grid: Profiles leader behavior on two dimensions: – Concern for people – Concern for production

• The most effective leaders are said to have high concern for both people and for production. 8-8

The Leadership Grid Figure


Organizational Competency Models • Every organizational competency model falls into four major categories: – Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. – Leadership and business skills.

• The Hogan and Warrenfelz model: – Allows people to see connections between various competency models. – Makes predictions concerning level of difficulty in changing various leadership behaviors and skills. – Points out what behaviors leader must exhibit to be effective.


Leadership Competency Model for Executives at Waste Management


Community Leadership • Community leadership: Process of building a team of volunteers to accomplish some important community outcome. • Community leaders do not have position power, and they also have fewer resources and rewards. • Three competencies needed to successfully drive community change efforts: – Framing – Building social capital – Mobilization 8-12

The Components of Community Leadership


Assessing Leadership Behavior: Multirater Feedback Instruments • 360-degree (multi-rater feedback) tools allow managers to get accurate information about how others perceived their on-the-job behaviors. • Questionnaire construction very important. • Leaders who received 360-degree feedback had higher performing work units. • 360-degree feedback systems can add tremendous value when used for development purposes.


Multirater Feedback Instruments (continued) • The key to high observer ratings is to develop a broad set of leadership skills that help groups accomplish goals. • Research shows that it is possible to change others’ perceptions of a leader’s skills over time. – Leaders must set development goals and commit to a development plan to improve skills.

• Societal or organizational culture, race, and gender play key roles in the accuracy and utility of the 360-degree feedback process. 8-15

Sources for 360-Degree Feedback


Example of 360-Degree Feedback


Managerial Derailment • Managerial derailment: Individuals who at one time were on the fast track but now had their careers derailed. • Patterns of derailment: – – – – –

Inability to build relationships. Failure to meet business objectives. Inability to lead and build a team. Inability to adapt. Inadequate preparation for promotion.


Themes in Derailment Research


Why Change Behavior? • Changing behavior, especially long-standing patterns of behavior, can be quite difficult. • Learning how to change your own and others’ behaviors is a key leadership skill. • Knowing how to change and modify follower’s behaviors is also important.


Development Planning • Insight about development needs is important. • Development plans that address the skills identified as having the highest payoffs need to be built. • A written plan seems to aid in the continuance of development. • Good development plans capitalize upon on-the-job experiences to hone needed leadership skills. • Leaders can build accountability by: – Having different people provide ongoing feedback on the action steps taken to develop a skill. – Periodically reviewing progress on development plans with the boss.


The Development Pipeline


Sample Individual Development Plan


Coaching • Coaching: Process of “equipping people with the tools, knowledge, and opportunities needed to develop and become more successful.” – Informal coaching: Takes place whenever a leader helps followers to change their behaviors. – Formal coaching: Programs provide a services similar to those of informal coaching for executives and managers in leadership positions.


The Five Steps of Informal Coaching


What Were the Most Useful Factors in the Coaching You Received?


The Power of Coaching


Mentoring • Mentoring: Personal relationship in which a more experienced mentor acts as a guide, role model, and sponsor of a less experienced protégé. – Informal mentoring – Formal mentoring

• Leadership practitioners should look for opportunities to build mentoring relationships with senior leaders whenever possible.


Summary • Leaders can benefit from the leadership behavior research in several ways. • Research has helped to identify factors that can cause high-potential managers to fail. • Research shows that some managers seem to be able to change on their own after gaining insight on how their behavior affects others. • Leaders can create development plans for themselves. • Leaders can also help followers with behavioral change through coaching and mentoring programs. 8-29

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