Class XVI International Trip Report

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CLASS XVI INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Trip Reports February 15-27, 2014

South Africa

DISCLAIMERS The views and opinions expressed by contributors to this publication are strictly those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program, the OSU Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University, and/or any affiliated center, department, group, individual, institution, organization, section, or unit. Furthermore, all opinions expressed in this publication should not be considered absolute fact or necessarily representative of most people’s opinions. Trademarks are the property of their respective owners, and they reserve all rights to those names and products. The publishers of this publication make no representations or warranties expressed or implied with respect to any document herein. The publishers of this publication do not assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that any use would not infringe of privately owned rights.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Geography and Climate (Brent Howard, Steven McIntyre, Scott Stinnett and Jane Fuhlendorf) page 1 Agriculture (Debbie Wedel, Jennifer Jensen and Chris Hitch)

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Government and Military (Chris Kidd, Meriruth Cohenour, Janet Stewart and Justin Lingo) page 32 Culture and Religion (Stacy Howeth, Sandra Stevenson, Tracey Payton Miller and Jamie Cummings) page 51 Health and Education (Cheri Long, Patti Dewitt, Ginger Reimer and Dianne Jeans) page 65 Economics (Joe Gribble, Rusty Roush, Justin Whitmore and Karen Eifert Jones) page 81 Transportation, Communications and Infrastructure (Jamie Doyal, Steve Alspach and Casey Sharber) page 96

Geography and Climate

Brent Howard Scott Stinnett Steven McIntyre Jane Fuhlendorf

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Geography, topography, climate, weather and seasons Brent S. Howard Geography South Africa is the southernmost country in the continent of Africa. The country lies within 22º and 35º in southern latitude.1 In North America, this swath of latitude would be comparable in distance from the equator to the area from Norman, Oklahoma to about 100 miles north of Mexico City.2 You may also notice that this puts the northern tip of the country within the Tropic of Capricorn, with the remainder in a sub-tropic climate. South Africa is the 25th largest country in the world, covering 471,445 square miles.3 (Comparatively, the U.S. is the fourth largest country and covers 3,794,083 square miles.4 Also, comparatively, the country of South Africa is roughly 3x the size of California, 6.75x the size of Oklahoma, or roughly the size of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico and Hawaii combined.5) South Africa is about 1,000 miles from North to South and also about 1,000 miles from east to west.6 For our trip to South Africa, we will be traveling 9,050 miles, then, in country, we will travel another about 1,800 miles before our return trip of another 9,050 miles.7 (During our previous eighteen months in the program, each Class member has traveled an average of 6,800 miles throughout Oklahoma, Kansas and our trip through Pennsylvania and D.C.8 So, we will be travelling about three times the amount to and through South Africa as we have for the rest of OALP. Buckle up because we are in for a long ride.) South Africa shares borders with six different countries: Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, and then Lesotho is wholly contained within South Africa’s borders. The border with Botswana is the longest. South Africa has nine provinces, which in order from smallest to largest are: Gauteng (in the northeast region containing Pretoria and Johannesburg), Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, North West (not Kanye’s baby), Limpopo, Western Cape (contains Cape Town), Free State, Eastern Cape, and Northern Cape (largest and least populated).9 Over forty percent of South Africa’s population of 51.7 million people lives in the provinces of Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal.

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http://www.mapsofworld.com/lat_long/south-africa-lat-long.html. Accessed 11/20/2013. http://www.mapsofworld.com/lat_long/mexico-lat-long.html. Accessed 11/20/2013. 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area. Accessed 11/20/2013. 4 Id. 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area. Accessed 11/20/2013. 6 http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/geography.htm#.Uo0cms7nb4g. Accessed 11/20/2013. 7 http://www.distance-cities.com/distance-washington-dc-to-oklahoma-city-ok. Accessed 11/26/2013. 8 Calculation based on average starting distance and calculation from OALP Class XVI booklet with home addresses to each session. 9 http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/geography.htm#.Uo0cms7nb4g. Accessed 11/20/2013. 2

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Cape Town is the country’s most populated city with a population of about 3,140,000 people in the metro area.10 Cape Town thus has roughly the same population as Iowa. South Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town is home of the legislative capital; Bloemfontein is home of the judicial capital; and Pretoria is the home of the administrative capital and is considered the ultimate capital of the country.11 Water: There are only two major rivers in South Africa: the Limpopo which runs along the border of Zimbabwe and empties in the Indian Ocean; and the Orange River, which runs through the central plateau from east to west and empties in the Atlantic Ocean.12 A lack of freshwater (through both rivers and rainfall), has contributed to the lack of development of the country.13 More information on this will be provided in the section on climate. Topography Being that the country is the tip of Africa, there is a variety of terrain. South Africa has about 1,560 miles of coastline along the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, the low-lying coastal zone is very narrow for much of the distance and soon gives way to a mountainous escarpment that separates the coast from the high inland plateau.14 The lowest points in the country are at sea level and stretch along the coasts. The highest point in the country is Mafadi, which is a peak on the border with Lesotho.15 The peak is 11,320 feet in height and is the second highest point in southern Africa.16 For comparison, this is about the height of Vail Ski Resort in central Colorado.17 The interior plateau consists of a series of rolling grasslands and the Kalahari Desert in the north. This central area is known as the Highveld. In the northeast it rises into a series of rock formations known as the Witwatersrand (literally, "Ridge of White Waters" in Afrikaans, commonly shortened to Rand). The Rand is a ridge of gold-bearing rock, roughly 60 miles by 23 miles. It is also the site of the world's largest proven gold deposits and the country's leading industrial city, Johannesburg.18 North of the Rand is a dry savanna sub-region, known as the Bushveld, characterized by open grasslands with scattered trees and bushes. Elevation varies between 2,000 feet and about 3,000 10

http://www.infoplease.com/country/south-africa.html. Accessed 12/2/2013. Id. 12 Id. 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_South_Africa. Accessed 11/20/2013. 14 http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/geography.htm#.Uo0cms7nb4g. Accessed 11/20/2013. 15 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mafadi. Accessed 11/20/2013. 16 Id. 17 http://www.vail.com/mountain/explore-mountain/mountain-information.aspx. Accessed 11/20/2013. 18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_South_Africa. Accessed 11/20/2013. 11

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feet above sea level.19 The Bushveld, like the Rand, houses a virtual treasure chest of minerals, one of the largest and best known layered igneous (volcanic) mineral complexes in the world. Covering an area roughly 220 miles by 90 miles, the Bushveld has extensive deposits of platinum and chromium and significant reserves of copper, fluorspar, gold, nickel, and iron.20 The major diamond mining for the country takes place in the Northern Cape Province near Kimberely. South Africa produced over 15,800,000 carats of diamonds in 2005.21 Climate South Africa is mainly in a sub-tropical location, but because it is surrounded by cold oceans on three sides and the elevation of the central plateau, the temperature is fairly moderate and is often lower than other areas along the same latitude.22 South Africa is a relatively dry country with an average rainfall of only about 18 inches.23 For comparison, in Oklahoma, you have to go Guymon to get a comparably dry area (average rainfall is 19.25 inches).24 However, like Oklahoma, different areas get different amounts of rain. Cape Town, for example averages about 20 inches per year. Johannesburg will get about 28 inches. But the northwest central plateau may only get about 8 inches during the year. Precipitation and Temperature in South Africa varies each month. See the table below:25 Month Average Rainfall(inches) Average Temp (ºF) (H/L) January 2.55 86º /73º February 2.46 86º /73º March 2.28 86º /70º April 1.49 81º /63º May 0.69 77º /54º June 0.61 75º /46º July 0.50 73º /46º August 0.67 79º /52º September 0.78 84º /61º October 1.58 84º /64º November 2.10 90º /70º December 2.19 86º /72º

19

Id. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_South_Africa. Accessed 11/20/2013. 21 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_industry_of_South_Africa. Accessed 11/26/2013. 22 http://www.southafrica.info/travel/advice/climate.htm#.UpU9mM7nb4g. Accessed 11/26/2013. 23 Id. 24 http://average-rainfall.weatherdb.com/l/10988/Guymon-Oklahoma. Accessed 11/26/2013. 20

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http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportal/index.cfm?page=country_historical_climate&ThisRegion=Africa&This CCode=ZAF. Accessed 11/26/2013.

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For the most part, December, January and February are the wettest months, characterized by torrential downpours (monsoons) in the northeastern savannahs. Temperatures will get around 95º as a high, with very high humidity. The Western Cape is the exception to the rainfall amounts above, as it gets its main precipitation in the winter months of May through August. Along the Orange River in Northern Cape, there are sufficient water wells to feed irrigation systems and the area along the River can be seen as oases on satellite reviews. Climatic conditions vary noticeably between east and west, largely in response to the warm Agulhas ocean current, which sweeps southward along the Indian Ocean coastline in the east for several months of the year, and the cold Benguela current, which sweeps northward along the Atlantic Ocean coastline in the west. Air temperatures in Durban, on the Indian Ocean, average nearly 10º F warmer than temperatures at the same latitude on the Atlantic Ocean coast. The effects of these two currents can be seen even at the narrow peninsula of the Cape of Good Hope, where water temperatures average 7.5º F higher on the east side than on the west.26

Geography and Climate of Area of Travels Scott Stinnett South Africa is the most southern country on the continent of Africa. It is bordered on the north by (from west to east) Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland. A Unique feature is the country of Lesotho, which is surrounded by South Africa. The southern border is the Atlantic Ocean on the west and Indian Ocean on the east. It is located in the Southern Hemisphere and shares a similar climate to cities such as Sydney, Australia and Santiago, Chile. The geography varies from coastal to mountainous with several types of velds. Veld is the Afrikaans word for field and describes a shrub and grassland area. Velds are further defined by other factors such as altitude (Highveld, Lowveld) and vegetation (Bushveld, Thornveld). The climate also varies. The majority of the country 47.4% is considered desert or arid, receiving less than 400mm of annual rainfall. Semi-arid to sub-humid makes up 43.1% of the country receiving 400-800mm of annual rainfall. Only a small portion, 9.5%, is humid to super humid receiving 800mm or more of annual rainfall. Temperatures are variable based on elevation and distance from the ocean. Desert areas can be extreme with highs 32°C or more in summer with winter lows of 0°-2°C. Inland higher elevation areas can average 26°-28°C during summer and then be average a low of 0°-2°C in winter. Coastal areas are dependent upon the flow of the ocean currents, especially in winter. The Eastern coast is influenced by the warm currents of the Indian Ocean having a mild winter lows of only 8°-10°C. Western coast areas receive cold moist air from the currents bringing air from 26

http://www.sa-venues.com/no/weather.htm. Accessed 11/26/2013.

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the southern Atlantic Ocean. Though there is moisture in the air, it remains an arid area with most moisture coming ashore as fog. Cape Town Cape Town was first established in 1652. The Dutch East India Company used the site to resupply ships as they navigated around the southern tip of Africa. In 1781, the French built a garrison to help defend Cape Town from British invasion. Cape Town is the provincial capital of Western Cape and the legislative capital of the Republic of South Africa. Cape Town is located at slightly above sea level, on the northern portion of a peninsula. The Cape of Good Hope is the best know geographic feature of Cape Town. It is defined by Cape Peninsula which extends south into the Atlantic Ocean. As ships and sailors come around the horn, they see a significant change in their direction of travel from mainly north and south, to east and west. The peninsula protects False Bay. The east and west shores of the bay are rocky and mountainous with several peaks over 1400 meters. The northern shore of the bay is sandy and called the Cape Flats. On the south end of Cape Peninsula is Simons Town and the Boulders Penguin Colony. The name sake boulders along the shore provide refuge for African Penguins. Located on the north end of the Cape Peninsula is the well-known Table Mountain, which rises 1084 meters in elevation. It is highly photographed due to its location on the northern side of Cape Town and can be seen with a cloud cover that is considered its tablecloth due to its wide flat top. It is flanked by Devil’s Peak on the west and Lion’s Head on the east. Along the northern shore of Cape Town is the smaller Table Bay. At the mouth of Table Bay is Robben Island, known as the prison Island where Nelson Mandela was held. The climate of the area is very Mediterranean with pleasant summers and cool damp winters. Cape Town is exposed to winds from the southeast and northwest. Winter in Cape Town can be wet in June and July, with temperatures ranging from 7° to 20°. The average summer temperature ranges from 15° to 30°C with a limited amount of rainfall. February averages only 6 days of rain fall with less than 15mm (world weather online). Pretoria Pretoria was founded by Marthinus Pretorius in 1855 and named it after his father Andries Pretorius. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers, Dutch pioneers who moved inland from coastal colonies. It became the capital of the South African Republic in May of 1860. Pretoria is located in Gauteng province and is the executive branch capital of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria is at an altitude of 1350 meters and approximately 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg. Its location is south of the Bushveld and north of the Highveld. The Bushveld is a savanna area below 1400 meters and can have typical savanna climate with hot and wet summers and cool dry winters. The Highveld is a high plateau, above 1400 meters, of mainly grasslands with high summer rainfall, but can have severe frost in the winter. The Drakensberg Mountains 6

to the south and east defines the southern border of the Highveld and greatly affects the climate of Pretoria by blocking coastal winds, creating a trap of air. Climate in Pretoria has somewhat defined seasons. Winter temperatures can range from 5° to 20 °C with limited rainfall to 17° to 28°C and 100mm or more of rainfall in the summer. Kruger National Park Kruger National Park is the largest in South Africa and located in Mpumalanga province. It was originally established as Sabi Game Reserve and combined with other parks to form Kruger National Park in 1926. Currently the park covers nearly 2 million hectares of land and is considered a Lowveld, a grassland below 500 meters in elevation. Climate in the park is relatively mild in winter, with temperatures ranging from 9°C to 26°C with limited rainfall less than 12mm. Summer can be hot, 20° C to 32°C with strong thunderstorms that can release 100mm or more of rain in less than 10 days of rain per month. Land Use Agricultural production in South Africa is significant. South Africa has a total area of 121,909,000 hectares, with 96,374,000 hectares considered agricultural land. According to the Development Bank of South Africa, the largest majority of commercial agricultural land, 86 million hectares are used as commercial farm land. The other major uses are 71.9 million hectares is used for grazing of livestock and 11.78 million of hectares are being used for nature conservation. Water is the greatest limiting factor in the production ability of land in South Africa. 12% of land can be used for crop production, but only 22% of this is can be described as high-potential arable land. Currently, 1.3-million hectares are irrigated. Agricultural production includes intensive crop production and mixed farming in areas with winter rain or high amounts of summer rain. The grain industry is one of the largest in South Africa, producing between 25% and 33% of the country's total gross agricultural production. The largest area of farmland is planted with maize, followed by wheat and, to a lesser extent, sugarcane and sunflowers. Maize is the largest locally produced field crop, and the most important source of carbohydrates in the southern African region. South Africa is the main maize producer in the Southern African Development Community. More than 9 000 commercial maize producers are responsible for the major part of the South African crop, while the rest is produced by thousands of small-scale producers. Maize is produced mainly in North West province, the Free State, the Mpumalanga Highveld and the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Wheat is produced in the winter rainfall areas of the Western Cape and the eastern parts of the Free State. Barley is produced mainly on the southern coastal plains of the Western Cape. Sorghum is cultivated in the drier parts of summer rainfall areas such as Mpumalanga, the Free State, Limpopo, North West and Gauteng.

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South Africa is the world's 10th largest producer of sunflower seed, which is produced in the Free State, North West, Mpumalanga Highveld and Limpopo province. Groundnuts are grown mainly in the Free State, North West and the Northern Cape. South Africa is the world's 13th largest sugar producer. Sugarcane is grown in 15 areas extending from northern Pondoland in the Eastern Cape through the coastal belt and Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal to the Mpumalanga Lowveld. An estimated 2.5mt of sugar is produced each season. South Africa is the ninth largest wine producer in the world. Over 110 000ha of land are under cultivation, with over 300-million vines. About 84% of wines are produced by cooperatives. Over 4 000 primary wine producers employ over 60 000 people. Deciduous fruit is grown mainly in the Western Cape and in the Langkloof Valley in the Eastern Cape. Smaller production areas are found along the Orange River and in the Free State, Mpumalanga and Gauteng. Citrus is produced in the irrigation areas of Limpopo, Mpumalanga, the Eastern Cape, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Pineapples are grown in the Eastern Cape and northern KwaZulu-Natal. There are other major agricultural crops produced across South Africa. Cotton is cultivated under irrigation as well as in dry land conditions in Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Northern Cape, KwaZuluNatal and North West. Virginia tobacco is produced mainly in Mpumalanga and Limpopo, with smaller quantities of Oriental tobacco grown in the Western and Eastern Cape. Tea grows mainly in the coastal and mountainous areas of the Western Cape and in certain areas of the Eastern Cape. Ornamental plant production for export is concentrated in the central parts of Limpopo, Mpumalanga and Gauteng. Livestock production is the largest agricultural industry in South Africa, with a population of some 13.8-million cattle and 28.8-million sheep. Dairy is produced throughout South Africa, with most farms in the eastern and northern Free State, North West, the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, the Eastern and Western Cape, Gauteng and the southern parts of Mpumalanga. Beef production South Africa produces 85% of its meat requirements. Cattle ranches are found mainly in the Eastern Cape, parts of the Free State and KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and the Northern Cape. Sheep production is concentrated in the Northern and Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Free State and Mpumalanga, with Ermelo in Mpumalanga being one of the largest wool-producing districts. About 50% of the country's sheep are fine-wool Merinos with mutton produced from the Dorper. The indigenous meat-producing Boer goat accounts for about 30% of all commercial goats with Angora goats used for mohair production. Poultry and pig farms are more intensive than the extensive sheep and cattle production, and are found near the metropolitan areas of Gauteng, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. Non- traditional livestock are also raised in South Africa. South Africa accounts for around 65% of world sales of ostrich products - leather, meat and feathers. Game farming has grown over the years, and today is a viable industry with great economic potential. The country's main game 8

areas are in Limpopo province, North West, Mpumalanga, the Free State, the Eastern Cape, the Karoo, the Kalahari in the Northern Cape and the thorn scrub of KwaZulu-Natal. Useful Conversions: 1°C = (1°F-32)/1.8 1km = .62 miles

1 mm = .04 inches 1 hectare = 2.471 acres

1 meter = 3.28 feet 1 liter = .26 gallons

Sources: Palmer, T and Ainslie, A. Country Pasture/Forage Resources Profiles: South Africa, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 2006 SANParks, http://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/tourism/climate.php, 2013 SouthAfrica.info, http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors/agricultural-sector.htm, 2011 World Weather Online, http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Cape-Town-weatheraverages/Western-Cape/ZA.aspx, 2013

Wildlife of South Africa and Kruger National Park, Natural Resources of South Africa, Water Supply and Sanitation in South Africa and Drinking water on our Trip Steven McIntyre Wildlife of South Africa and Kruger National Park: When Class XVI was told that our international trip would be to South Africa the first thing that came to mind was the amazing and dangerous wildlife that exists there. South Africa is home to and best known for what the world calls the “Big Five”: elephant, lion, rhino, leopard and buffalo. These five animals are not the five biggest, prettiest, or rarest. They are merely the five that take the greatest offense at being shot and are most likely to retaliate. South Africa is full of wildlife; it is home to almost ten percent of the world’s known bird, fish, and plant species and about six percent of its mammal and reptile species. The South African seas are crowded with wildlife as well. About 2,000 marine species visit South African waters at some point during the year, which include thousands of hungry sharks, whales, dolphins, and seals. South Africa’s wild animals have suffered a decline in population due to decades of poaching. Unlike in North America, most of these animals roam free in a totally undeveloped environment. In an attempt to save these animals from extinction, governments throughout Africa, have enacted anti-poaching laws as well as an international ban on ivory trade. The South African government works to preserve its wildlife with dozens of protected land and marine areas, including the famous Kruger National Park.

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Kruger National Park was established in 1926 and is the one of the largest game reserves in all of Africa covering over 7,580 square miles, which is over two times the size of Yellowstone National Park. The park is home to the “Big Five” as well as over 142 species of other large mammals that include hippo, giraffe, zebra, wildebeest, kudu, eland, sable, antelope and others, 517 species of birds including the South African National bird the Blue Crane, 114 species of reptile that include the black mamba and the crocodile, 33 species of amphibians and 50 fish species. Kruger National Park is home to 9 of the 10 most deadly animals in Africa and possibly the world. The following is a list of those animals with the statistics to back up the claim. 1. Mosquito - Malaria, it is believed that between 600,000 and one million people die from malaria each year. 2. Puff Adder snake accounts for nearly 32,000 deaths per year and many more disabilities 3. Hippo - are said to kill 2,900 people annually in Africa. 4. Crocodile – estimated to kill hundreds of people a year in Africa. 5. Elephants - Zoologists estimate elephants kill 500 people a year worldwide. 6. Cape Buffalo - ‘The Black Death’ or ‘Widow Maker’, the African buffalo is widely regarded as a very dangerous animal as it gores and kills over 200 people every year. 7. Black Mamba - Anti-venom is now widely available and bite victims can rapidly access adequate treatment in most of South Africa, but is fatal without anti-venom. 8. Lion – They are said to kill and eat at least 10 people a year in the Kruger. 9. Rhino – Very unpredictable and dangerous and have killed humans. The park’s greatest responsibility is protecting its wildlife and the number one threat comes from poaching, despite the government’s strict anti-poaching laws. The park has an anti-poaching unit that consists of 650 park rangers, two drones and two helicopters. In 2012, some 200 poachers were arrested, and about 30 were killed in skirmishes. The poacher’s primary targets are the black and white rhino and the elephant. Rhino horn can be sold from about $66,000 to $82,000 per kilogram. The poaching of rhino horn has escalated over the past decade with 949 rhinos killed in Kruger from 2001 to 2012 with over 520 in 2013 alone. To help combat poaching the park began fitting Rhinos with invisible tracing devices in their bodies and horns, which enable officials to locate their carcasses and to track the smuggled horns by satellite. South Africa is home to 22,000 black and white rhinos of which 12,000 that are located in Kruger. This represents about 93% of the specie’s world population. The park hosts over one million visitors each year. There are campgrounds, bush lodges, and luxury lodges in the park that provides food and some shopping. Visitors may tour the park by car, take guided tours by open top jeeps, as well as guided hiking tours. If you hear that Kruger National Park is like a zoo or a circus this is a myth! As stated above, South Africa including Kruger National Park is home to some of the most dangerous animals in the world that, if provoked, can be deadly. Therefore, I would suggest the OALP class follow the safety rules closely on our planned tour through the park.

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Poaching, hunting and growth of farms and ranches has taken a toll on the Wildlife of South Africa. Yet, thanks to the foresight of conservationists past and present, South Africa remains blessed with abundant wildlife. Natural Resources of South Africa: South Africa’s most important natural resources come from mining many different metals. Gold and diamonds are the most valuable of these resources. The mines are very important as they create jobs and produce valuable metals that provide money and materials to the South African people. In addition to diamonds and gold, the country also contains reserves of coal, iron ore, platinum, manganese, chromium, copper, uranium, silver, beryllium, and titanium. Here are a few facts about some of the most important and valuable economic resources that South Africa produces: Gold. South Africa accounted for 15% of the world’s gold production in 2002, 12% in 2005, and 6% in 2013, though the nation had produced as much as 30% of world output as recently as 1993. Despite declining production, South Africa’s gold exports were still their biggest mineral export and they still hold over 50% of the world gold reserves. Diamonds. South Africa has been a world leader in diamond production since 1868. The DeBeers Consolidated Mines Company is the primary source of South African diamonds. In 2003, DeBeers operations accounted for 94% of the nation’s total diamond output of 11,900,000 carats (2.4 metric tons). This figure includes both gemstones and industrial diamonds. Diamond production rose in 2005 to over 15,800,000 carats (3.2 metric tons). However, in 2012 their market share has fallen to around 50%. The Cullinan diamond is the largest gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats rough weight. About 4.1 inches long in its largest dimension, it was found January 26th, 1905, in the Premier No. 2 mine, near Pretoria South Africa. The Cullinan was split and cut into 7 major stones and 96 smaller stones. Platinum and Palladium. South Africa produces more platinum and similar metals than any other nation. In 2005, 78% of the world’s platinum was produced in South Africa, along with 39% of the world’s palladium. Over 163,000 kilograms (5,200,000 oz.) of platinum was produced in 2005, generating export revenues of $3.82 billion USD Chromium. Chromium is another leading product of South Africa’s mining industry. The metal, used in stainless steel and for a variety of industrial applications, is mined at 10 sites around the country. South Africa’s production of chromium accounted for 100% of the world’s total production in 2005. Coal. South Africa is the world’s third largest coal exporter, and much of the country’s coal is used as their primary source of energy. South Africa is continuing to expand their coal operations and has invested over 45 million to expand their production. In 2012, South Africa produced 11

266.1 million metric tons of coal and are projected to produce 308 million metric tons by 2018. Their exports are primarily to China, India and Europe. Water Supply and Sanitation in South Africa: Water supply and sanitation has been very challenging, but there have been achievements made by South Africa. Once South Africa elected a new government at the end of the Apartheid they inherited massive backlogs of service with respect to access to both water and sanitation. Approximately fifteen million people did not have access to a safe water supply and more than twenty million people were without adequate sanitation services. The South African government made large investments and a formidable commitment to change the quality of services in the country. The government has increased the access to improved water sources from 83% to 91% from 1990 to 2010. However, there are great concerns to the financial sustainability of services leading to the lack of attention to maintenance as well as the government’s ability to maintain funding levels for service providers. There is a very distinctive feature of the South African water sector policy that gives every citizen the right to free basic water that began in 2001. This allowed all households with access a free allotment of water, which is subsidized by tariffs that penalize users once they surpass the allotment. In practice, the allotment of free water has proved to be inadequate even for most low-income households, forcing them into higher water bills than were charged prior to the introduction of the free water policy. Sanitation progress has been slower and according to estimates by the WHO/UNICEF global Joint Monitoring Progamme for Water Supply and Sanitation based on survey and census data, the share of South Africans with access to improved sanitation has increased slowly from 71% in 1990 to 79% in 2010. In 2010, an estimated 11 million South Africans still did not have access to improved sanitation: Those that used shared facilities (4 million), buckets (3 million) or practiced open defecation (4 million). The percent of homes with access to flushing toilets increased from 53% in 2001 to 60% in 2011. The health impacts of inadequate sanitation can be very serious even cause death. Drinking water on our Trip: The CDC recommendation for tourists traveling to South Africa is to drink and use ice only from bottled water that is sealed or water that has been disinfected. You can drink carbonated drinks, hot coffee or tea and pasteurized milk. Bottled water is readily available in most areas of South Africa. Sources: http://www.southafrica.info/ http://wikitravel.org/en/Kruger_National_Park http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_industry_of_South_Africa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Beers http://www.ibtimes.com/african-development-south-africa-seen-expanding-coal-developmentcontinents-energy-demand-grows http://ourwatercommons.org/water-solutions/case-4-free-water-south-africa http://www.thesouthafrican.com/columns/south-africas-top-10-deadliest-animals.htm 12

Packing Tips Jane Fuhlendorf  Packing tips to have the most comfortable clothes for the season and landscape given airline restrictions  Handling jet lag / time differences Airline restrictions for luggage: We are travelling on United Airlines and South African Airways. The following airline restrictions for carry-on and checked baggage should be followed: United Airlines 1 Carry-on 1 Personal Item Carry-on (shoulder bag, backpack or other small item) First Checked Bag ($25) Second Checked Bag ($35) South African Airways 1 Carry-on (emailed airline) Checked Bag (emailed airline to get info)

14 x 9 x 22 inches 9 x 10 x 17 inches

Weight restriction not posted Weight restriction not posted

Up to 62 linear inches L+W+H

50 lbs.

Up to 62 linear inches L+W+H

50 lbs.

Given the length of the trip and the luggage restrictions, it is imperative that participants pack wisely to avoid costly overages and to minimize the hassle. There are number of tips and tricks which can be employed to make the trip as hassle free and keep your luggage lightweight. Remember, the season is late summer, so it is recommended that you pack light-weight clothing and a light jacket. Your OALP jacket may be a bit heavy, but would be a good addition since it can protect you from the rain in case those conditions are present. You only need to bring one business outfit. Below is a checklist for what you need and these items if carefully chosen should fit in one carry-on sized suitcase or 1 checked bag with room to spare. __Business jacket __1 pair trousers/skirt __1 pair jeans __1 pair shorts __2-4 shirts/tops __3 pairs socks (not cotton) __3 pairs underwear __Swimsuit __1 Sleep pants/top __Light sweater 13

__Umbrella __OALP jacket __Necktie / scarf __Sun hat __Comfortable dress shoes __Walking shoes (or wear these on the trip) __Flip flops or slippers __Belt __Day Pack or Laundry Bag __Luggage Lock __Safety Pins / Sewing Kit __Ziploc bags __Tooth brush/paste __razor, blades, cream __shampoo/hairspray __cosmetics __Detergent __Aspirin/Advil __Diarrhea treatment __Antibiotic ointment __Cipro __Malaria pills __Insect repellent – DEET __Sunscreen / lip balm __Bandages or other first aid __Medications in original packages __Contacts/glasses/solutions __Sunglasses __Pen & notebook __Guidebooks or notes __Reading material __Passport __Vaccination record __ Drivers License __Copies of important documents __Travellers Checks/ cash / credit card __Camera / battery / charge cable __Cell phone adapter / phone __Electrical Adapter __Snacks __Gifts for hosts Trip insurance: OSU purchases trip insurance for all participants. I have requested information from Edmond about this insurance and how it works. We will need to make sure participants are aware of the coverage. 14

Handling jet lag What is Jet Lag? Jet lag is a temporary circadian rhythm sleep disorder that results from air travel across time zones. The symptoms of jet lag are fatigue, insomnia, disorientation, swelling limbs, loss of appetite, headaches, mood disturbances, bowel irregularity and light-headedness. How long does it last? Recovering from jet lag varies by individual, but the more time zones crossed, the greater the time of recovery. Most people are fully recovered at the rate of two time zones per day. There are 8 time zones in our trip to Africa, so everyone should feel pretty good about 4 days into the trip. Jet Lag Prevention and Recovery: 1. Stay in shape. Physical stamina prior to your trip will enable you to cope better during your trip. 2. Try going to sleep earlier and getting up earlier beginning a week or two before the trip. If you can adjust your schedule 1-2 hours, then you will have less adjustment to make when you reach Africa. 3. Avoid alcohol and caffeine the day before your flight and during your flight. Drinking can cause dehydration and issues with sleep. 4. Drink plenty of water to counteract the potential for dehydration. 5. Move around on the plane. Take a walk or do some exercises hourly. Below are some in-flight exercises to try. 6. Dress comfortably for travel. 7. Upon arrival, adapt to the local schedule as quickly as possible. In-flight comfort: Napping for more than 1 hour without moving around is discouraged. However, you may want to be prepared to vary your activities during the flight. Your MP3 player and a good set of ear buds or head phones are a great tool. Bring an audio book or create a playlist ahead of time. Bring a good book and check your watch so that you get up and move around the cabin during the flight every hour or so. Onboard Exercises In-flight Exercises to Reduce Jetlag Loosen your muscles and joints with these simple stretches in between hourly walks around the cabin during long flights. • • •

Feet: Circle your feet at the ankles - 20 times per foot. Legs: Starting with your feet on the floor, bring your legs slowly up towards your chest, as far as you can. Relax them slowly, and repeat three times. Knees: Press the knees and thighs together, and tighten buttock muscles. Hold to the count of five, and repeat five times. 15

• • • •

Hands: Grip the edge of your armrest, and hold to a count of five then relax. Repeat 10 times. Arms: Starting with your arms outstretched, flex at the elbow, and bring them slowly into your chest. Extend them again, and repeat five times. Respect the fellow sitting in front of you – no poking him in the back of the head! Shoulders: Hunch up your shoulders, hold and slowly relax. Repeat five times. Neck: Move your head slowly towards your right shoulder and hold, then towards your left shoulder and hold. Move your chin slowly down towards your chest - hold and relax. Repeat three times.

Other tips & tricks from onebag.com: 

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Even if you're checking one main bag, be sure to take one change of clothing and all your important items (documents, prescriptions, etc.) with you in a carry-on bag, in case your checked luggage is delayed or lost. If you're bringing a purse, try to fit it in your larger bag. That way, you'll have fewer pieces to lug around. Label your suitcase inside and out; luggage tags can get ripped off in baggage handling machinery. Glue a note to the inside of the case lid (or put one in an inside pocket) with your address /phone details. Do this too, with luggage taken onto the plane with you. Take photographs of your travel documents and credit cards, and keep these photos securely online, as well as leaving copies with family. You can retrieve online photos from an Internet cafe or hotel business center, or using room internet access. That way, if anything gets stolen, you will have the information when reporting it. Put your clothes in first, and then put in your toiletries. It will save a lot of extra room. Pack prescriptions in their pharmacy containers to avoid problems with TSA. Pick neutral colors so your outfits are easier to coordinate. Pack shoes at the bottom of the case, heel to toe and wrapped in a plastic bag; this helps weigh down the end, and acts as ballast to the case, esp. if it has wobbly wheels on. Oil the wheels before use, with a dollop of Vaseline. Plan to dress in layers, especially if you anticipate changes in the weather. For example, you could wear a sweater with a shirt underneath. Don't take the entire guide book . Photocopy or use print outs of the pages you need. Consider fast wicking (drying) layers of expedition clothing. These clothes are light, designed for frequent washing, have high durability, and are rated by "zones" for specific climates.

Sources: http://www.medicinenet.com/jet_lag/article.htm Interview with Leslie Elmore, international traveler http://www.onebag.com/ http://www.acefitness.org/updateable/update_display.aspx?pageID=494 http://www.wikihow.com/Do-an-In-Flight-Fitness-Workout http://www.flysaa.com/za/en/flyingSAA/baggage/airlink-baggage-policy.html http://www.onebag.com/checklist.html 16

Agriculture

Debbie Wedel Jennifer Jensen Chris Hitch

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Agriculture Debbie Wedel DO NOT BRING A DEVASTATING ANIMAL DISEASE HOME WITH YOU www.aphis.usda.gov/travel Traveling abroad to a foreign country is a privilege for members of the Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program. During our travels, we must be good stewards and work to ensure the continued health and safety of our own livestock and other agricultural assets at home by adhering to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) guidelines. As part of their efforts, the USDA and APHIS work together to protect livestock and poultry from the introduction of “high-consequence” foreign animal diseases and pests, that do not currently exist in the United States (U.S.). If any foreign animal diseases or pests were introduced in the U.S., they would pose a severe threat to animal health and, in some cases, the economy and human health as well. APHIS works every day to keep the “high-consequence” diseases and pests out of the country, to educate producers about signs to watch for and what to do if they see them, and to look for, detect, and eliminate these diseases if they occur in the U.S. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease that causes illness in cows, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other animals with divided hooves. While the U.S. eradicated the disease in 1929, it is currently found in parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. The Kruger National Park (KNP), a national game reserve, is the only endemic FMD disease area in South Africa, because the African Buffalo in the Park are permanent carriers of the virus. KNP is in the FMD Infected Zone. The Buffer Zone comprises the area bordering the western and southern boundary of the KNP. Vaccinated cattle in the Buffer Zone can be identified by an “F” brand on the right side of the neck. Vaccinations are allowed only in the Buffer Zone and these animals are not allowed in the FMD free zone at any time. When visiting a livestock or poultry facility during travel abroad, remember that items such as jewelry, watches, eye glasses, and hair pieces are difficult to disinfect should they become contaminated through contact with foreign animals. These items may transmit disease and should only be worn if needed. Upon your return to the U.S., note your visit to a farm or facility on the U.S. Customs Declaration Form. 11-D. Are you bringing with you soil or have you been on a farm/ranch/pasture outside the United States? 12. Have you or any family members traveling with you been in close proximity of (such as touching or handling) livestock outside the United States? When in doubt, always check “yes” on both of these statements. Also, follow the “5-day” rule: If you visited a farm or had any contact with livestock on your trip, avoid all contact with livestock, zoo animals, or wildlife for 5 days after your return to the U.S. And always wash and disinfect all clothing and shoes upon your return to the U.S.

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USDA GUIDELINES FOR BRINGING AGRICULTURAL ITEMS INTO THE U.S. Before departing on any travel abroad, we must be aware of the USDA’s guidelines for bringing agricultural items into the U.S. The USDA restricts or prohibits many of these items from entering the country because they could carry pests or diseases that could threaten human health or devastate the environment, crops, agricultural animals, ornamental plants, and community landscapes. That pretty well sums up all of our occupations!! It is very important to declare any and all food, plant items or handicrafts you have with you when returning to the U.S. Officers or agricultural specialists with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will inspect your baggage when you first arrive in the United States to ensure that the agricultural items you are carrying are allowable under USDA regulations. The following items are generally allowed entry into the U.S.:  Condiments such as oil, vinegar, mustard, catsup, pickles, syrup, honey without honey combs, jelly, and jam.  Foodstuffs such as bakery items, candy, and chocolate.  Hard cured cheeses without meat, such as parmesan or cheddar.  Canned goods and goods in vacuum- packed jars (except those containing meat or poultry products) for personal use.  Fish or fish products for personal use.  Powdered drinks sealed in original containers with ingredients listed in English.  Dry mixes containing dairy and egg ingredients (such as baking mixes, cocoa mixes, drink mixes, instant cake mixes, instant pudding mixes, liquid drink mixes containing reconstituted dry milk or dry milk products, potato flakes, and infant formula) that are commercially labeled, presented in final finished packaging, and require no further manipulation of the product are generally allowed. Meat, milk, egg, poultry, and products such as dried soup mix or bouillon, are either prohibited or restricted from entering the United States, depending on the types of animal diseases that occur in the country of origin. Fresh (chilled or frozen), dried, cured, and fully cooked meat is generally prohibited from most countries. Canned meat is allowed entry, except beef, veal, lamb, mutton, venison, elk, bison, etc., from countries affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy. USDA also regulates miscellaneous agricultural products such as birdseed, wood products, grains, nuts, cottonseed, and dried ornamental matter used to make decorative items for indoor use. These items must be declared to CBP agricultural specialists or officers and presented for inspection to ensure that they meet all import requirements and are free from harmful animal and plant pests and diseases. For additional questions, travelers may contact USDA’s Permits 19

Customer Service line at (301) 851-2046 or toll-free automated system at (877) 770-5990. The fax number is (301) 734-4300, and the e-mail address is [email protected] Individuals who fail to declare non-commercial agricultural items may be subject to penalties ranging from $1,100 to $60,000 per violation. These penalties are based on authorities granted to USDA through the Plant Protection Act and the Animal Health Protection Act. While these general guidelines are useful, be aware that they do not cover all of the possible restrictions that can apply to specific agricultural items. The admissibility of a given item can change very quickly because disease and pest outbreaks can occur anywhere in the world at any time. That's why it is critical that you declare all agricultural products stored in your baggage. SOUTH AFRICA’S FARMING SECTORS – Brief overview South Africa is divided into several farming regions according to climate, natural vegetation, soil type and farming practices. Agricultural activities range from intensive crop production and mixed farming in winter rainfall and high summer rainfall areas to cattle ranching in the bushveld and sheep farming in more arid regions. The grain industry is one of the largest in South Africa, producing between 25% and 33% of the country's total gross agricultural production. The largest area of farmland is planted with maize, followed by wheat and some sugarcane and sunflowers. Maize is the largest locally produced field crop, and the most important source of carbohydrates in the southern African region. Wheat is produced in the winter rainfall areas of the Western Cape and the eastern parts of the Free State. Since the deregulation of the wheat industry in 1997, farmers in South Africa have found it difficult to produce wheat profitably. With the pressure on profit margins, many local farmers scaled down wheat production and switched wheat fields to other crops like canola, oats, corn, soybeans or increased livestock production. Therefore wheat imports are expected to increase by about 25 percent this year. South Africa is the ninth largest wine producer in the world. Over 110,000ha of land are under cultivation, with over 300-million vines. About 84% of wines are produced by cooperatives. Over 4,000 primary wine producers employ over 60,000 people. South African wine exports rose from 22-million liters in 1992 to almost 314-million liters in 2007, with exports, between January 2007 and January 2008, rising above domestic sales for the first time ever. Potatoes make up about 40% of vegetable farmers' gross income, with tomatoes, onions, green mealies (corn on the cob) and sweetcorn contributing about 38%. Cotton constitutes about 74% of natural fiber and 42% of all fiber processed in South Africa. Cotton is grown under irrigation as well as in dryland conditions. Seventy-five percent of local production is harvested by hand.

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Livestock production of dairy, beef cattle, sheep and goat, poultry, pigs, game, and aquaculture is the largest agricultural sector in South Africa, with a population of some 13.8-million cattle and 28.8-million sheep. The four major dairy breeds in South Africa are the Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey and Ayrshire. The dairy industry is important to South Africa's job market, with over 4,000 milk producers employing about 60,000 farmworkers and indirectly providing jobs to some 40,000 people. South Africa's poultry and pig farms are more intensive than sheep and cattle production, and are found near metropolitan areas. Annual poultry meat production is around 960,000 tons and is the country’s largest individual agricultural industry. Broiler production contributes about 80% to total poultry meat production. South Africa accounts for around 65% of world sales of ostrich products - leather, meat and feathers. Sources: Gerald Theus, Assistant Regional Director for U.S. Wheat Associates, Cape Town Mike Schulte, Executive Director, Oklahoma Wheat Commission http://www.uswheat.org/resources

South Africa Agriculture Jennifer Jensen As the Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program, Class XVI prepares to visit South Africa and gain international agricultural knowledge; this paper is intended to be a helpful resource for the following topics:  Agricultural value chains  Imports  Food Safety  Biotechnology, including GMOs  Agricultural Households per Province  Agricultural Universities Agricultural value chains Professor Justin Barnes, University of KwaZulu-Natal, is an acknowledged expert in the global manufacturing sector, having worked in manufacturing policy development since 1996. Barnes has conducted extensive research on food processing value chains in South Africa. Barnes explains that South Africa (SA)

faces major strategic issues in five most prominent food processing value chains: meat/poultry/seafood, fruit and vegetable, confectionary, milk and dairy, and grains and related products. Meat/poultry/seafood The poultry and pork industries are under severe pressure from low cost imports. For example, the South Africa Poultry Association (SAPA) is asking the government to stop the European Union (EU) and Brazil from “dumping” cheap imports into SA due to their relatively lax import regulations. Additionally, lack of veterinary protocols and regulation has resulted in lapse of 21

certain trade agreements, limiting international market opportunities (Global Meat News.com). Industry consolidation has resulted in increased local industry competitiveness, but import infiltration has inhibited local investment in processing operations, and therefore affecting the industry’s long-term viability. Nevertheless, South Africa is a net exporter of agricultural, fish and forestry products. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are the major destination of these commodities and represents almost 20 percent of total exports. South Africa’s exports of agricultural, fish and forestry products to the United States were $218 million in 2010, 17 percent more than in 2009, and accounts for more than 3 percent of agricultural exports by South Africa (USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Gain Report, July 2011). Milk and dairy South Africa has undergone significant industry consolidation that has improved competitiveness, but the industry has received substantial import pressure in respect of UHT (ultrahigh temperature) products. An article posted by SouthAfrica.info, explains that as recent as October 2012 the Eastern Cape (EC) Province's eco-friendly Coega Dairy became the first South African dairy to be awarded an ISO 22000 Food Safety System Certification. ISO 22000 FSSC was the first single standard to attain worldwide recognition and is a sought-after international standard for food safety management. Located in the Coega Industrial Development Zone (IDZ) just outside Port Elizabeth, the dairy produces Coastal View UHT milk and butter and has the smallest carbon footprint of any dairy throughout the southern hemisphere. Grains and related products A report published on December 12, 2012 from USDA’s Foreign Agriculture Service explains SA is a net exporter of wine and beer, particularly wine of fresh grapes. The South African wine industry is relatively large and extensive ranked seventh in world output. South Africans’ tastes and preferences are becoming more sophisticated and the average consumer is increasingly expecting a wide range of beer. Imports South Africa is known for its well-developed food processing sector that produces a wide range of processed food products. However, the local production does not adequately supply the market, so opportunities exist for imports to supplement the needs. Despite competition from EU countries, who often benefit from low import tariff rates to enter the South African market, American brands are becoming increasingly popular due to their high quality attributes, including price. An example of potential growth sales is sausage casings, which SA is a net importer of the product. The import tariff rate is free from both the US and the EU countries. The US has 14% market share after China with 63%. Crops with a larger and more significant export market to the United States include citrus ($41 million), wine ($39 million) and nuts ($27 million). Imports from the United States increased by 60% to a record $269 million in 2010 and represents 5 percent of South African imports of agriculture, fish, and forestry products. The increase in imports from the United States was due to an increase in wheat imports. Wheat ($75 million), prepared food ($33 million) and animal offals ($6 million) were the major products imported 22

from the United States by South Africa in 2010 (USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Gain Report, July 2011). Food Safety Sue Blaine with Business Day Live reported, “African countries told to clean up food safety standards”. Blaine’s article recognized there are many challenges to food safety in Africa, but Malose Matlala, Department of Health Deputy Director of Regulatory Nutrition, said the continent as a whole has to establish safety standards before it can attain the United Nations Millennium Development Goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases per According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), there are an estimated 2,000 food safety-related deaths in Africa each day. Africa’s first Global Food Safety Initiative Focus Day was recently held in Johannesburg on September 11, 2013. The initiative’s chairman, Yves Rey, said food safety was a shared risk across the globe because most food products contained ingredients from several countries. “The food industry faces a huge number of food safety standards across the world. The Global Food Safety Initiative is an attempt to standardize (food safety standards) and to reduce confusion,” he said. The event was held under the support of South Africa’s National Consumer Commission, a legal body aimed at promoting a fair, accessible and sustainable marketplace for consumer products and services, and establishing national consumer protection standards. Matlala said food safety and food security were inextricably linked, and countries (presumably all African countries) needed to develop good science-based food safety legislation that was also enforceable. Biotechnology, including GMOs South Africa is unusual amongst developing countries, having only a short history of independent development and democracy, but having a well-developed economic and commercial sector, which has been based largely on natural resources such as mineral and agricultural wealth. South Africa also enjoys a rich environmental diversity and highly favorable conditions for agriculture and agro-industry. Biotechnology in South Africa has, until recently, focused mainly on first-generation applications such as those in the food industry. There are well-developed industries involved in brewing and food production, and as mentioned above, a high-profile wine industry (Electronic Journal of Biotechnology). Research directed to address local needs, such as in the agricultural field, is increasingly needed and of major importance to national needs, but tends to have lower international visibility and weight. However, South Africa has a long-standing and productive research activity in the area of plant biotechnology, which has earned international recognition for its major contribution to development of genetically improved crops suited for African needs. Although the GMO debate continues globally, it is a common view that developing countries, especially in Africa, cannot afford to reject GM-crops while food shortages and crop failures remain prevalent (The Epoch Times).

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According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, GMOs are allowed and grown in South Africa. In 2012, South Africa ranked as the eighth largest grower of biotech crops with 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares) of maize, soybean, and cotton. GMOs were accepted under the Genetically Modified Organisms Act of 1997 that permitted companies, such as Monsanto, to go through an application process to have crops approved. Agricultural Households per Province In 2009, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) conducted research on agricultural statistics in the country. One of the findings was that the country lacked information on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. The current list of farmers being used to conduct surveys was mainly confined to commercial agriculture. A decision was taken that three questions related to agriculture would be included in the Population Census 2011 questionnaire. The main objective was to identify all households involved in agriculture in the country, so that a complete frame of all individuals and entities involved in agriculture (both subsistence and commercial) could be generated. This will allow for a comprehensive agricultural census to be conducted.

Agricultural Households vs. Non-Agricultural Households WC: 94.8% / 5.2% FS: 75.6% / 24.4% GP: 92.9% / 7.1% EC: 64.6% / 35.4% KZN: 71.8 / 28/2% MP: 75.5% / 24.5% NC: 81.7% / 18.3% NW: 79.8% / 20.2% LP: 67% / 33%

Agricultural Universities - General list courtesy of Wikipedia. Agricultural Education and Research Institutions  University of Stellenbosch, Faculty of AgriSciences 24

SA: 80.1% / 19.9%

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Elsenburg Agricultural Training College, Western Cape Government, Department of Agriculture Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Department of Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Pretoria, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Fort Cox College of Agriculture and Forestry, faculties of Agriculture and Forestry

In summary, South African agriculture is varied and therefore produces several diverse commodities. However, the country faces deep challenges, including food safety, but is making strides with exports, such as wine and citrus. Visiting South Africa will provide a top-notch experience for an Oklahoma agricultural professional. Sources: Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries; http://www.daff.gov.za/ Electric Journal of Biotechnology, Development of Biotechnology in South Africa; http://ejbiotechnology.ucv.cl/content/vol5/issue1/issues/03/ Business Day Live; September 12, 2013; http://www.bdlive.co.za/national/2013/09/12/africancountries-told-to-clean-up-food-safety-standards The Epoch Times; October 19, 2013. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/323644-gmos-in-southafrica-facts-at-a-glance/ Global Meat News.com; June 12, 2013; http://www.globalmeatnews.com/IndustryMarkets/South-African-producers-issue-warning-on-poultry-imports International Service of the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications; http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/44/executivesummary/ Population Studies and Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal; http://sds.ukzn.ac.za/default.php?3,4,107,4,0 South Africa.info; http://www.southafrica.info/business/success/coega-dairy031012.htm#ixzz2nPZcBXzW Statistics South Africa; http://beta2.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=735&id=4&paged=2 USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Gain Report, July 2011; http://www.globaltrade.net/f/market-research/pdf/South-Africa/Processing-of-Food-andAgricultural-Products-Food-Processing-Ingredients-Market-Report.html

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Agriculture in South Africa Chris Hitch Agriculture in South Africa has a duality to it. There are modern farming and ranching techniques being used by modern style farms and ranches, but there are also of subsistence farming and ranching.1 This is a type of production where one eats what one grows and sells any extra from the harvest. I am going to focus my paper on 4 main topics. I will cover cattle feeding and ranching and contrast it with the United States system. I will look at swine production in South Africa and compare it to the United States system. I will attempt to explain, very basically, the educational path a student would take to become a licensed veterinarian in South Africa and compare it to the US as well. Lastly, I will briefly discuss a phenomenon in South Africa regarding the class of citizens called the Boers and their plight. Let’s begin with cattle. While dairy is a prominent industry in South Africa, I’m going to focus my time on the beef side of cattle production. South Africa is a net importer of beef. They grow about 85% of their needs and import the remainder from neighboring countries as well as Austrailia, New Zealand and the European Union.1 South Africa has three main forms of cattle production. The first would be a commercial beef producer.2 These are very similar to the US production system. They’re predominately white owned and technologically advanced. They’re also significantly more efficient than the other two forms of beef production in South Africa. These are ranchers and feedlot owners that use current technology at all levels in the production chain. The cattle are predominantly exotics and exotic crosses, like Simmental and Charolais, (55 – 65%) with a mixture of native and locally developed crossbreeds filling in the remainder of the genetics.3 The feedlots in South Africa are a part of this segment of the cattle industry. These employ everything a modern feedlot in the United States would. Their facilities, record keeping, machinery, etc. all would mimic anything found in the United States. In fact, the largest feedlot in South Africa would have a capacity of over 120,000 head!4 Not all feedlots in South Africa are large enough to justify the expense of all the modern technology that Karan Beef has. Many employ much less technology but make use of the excess of cheap labor, instead. They’ll feed a balanced ration with the use of hormones, implants, Zilpaterol, and other feed ingredients to maximize performance of the cattle in the feed yard, but will rely on men with shovels and a tractor to dispense feed instead of large feed trucks with on board scales and computers.3 It costs a lot to import and maintain all that specialized equipment since there isn’t enough demand for a company to either start a dealership and bring them over from the US or develop a manufacturing plant in South Africa to make the equipment and sell it 26

locally. Therefore, smaller feedlots that are unable to cover the expenses merely replace the equipment with labor. It’s less efficient but there are lots of people looking for work (unemployment estimates are around 25%5). Other than substituting labor for technology and equipment, these feedlots are very similar to ones found in the US. In fact, they have an organization not unlike Texas Cattle Feeders Association (TCFA) or Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association (OCA) called the South African Feedlot Association.6 The other two sections of the beef industry are a black cattle rancher that runs cattle on leased or owned land (very small, emerging group) and the communal cattle rancher that runs their cattle on communal (public) lands.2 Much like in the United States, these producers are smaller but significantly more numerous and can include tribal leaders in primitive society. While the feedlot owners do buy cattle from these groups, they try to purchase as much of the cattle from more commercialized producers where breeds, cattle age, feed, etc. have been more tightly controlled.3 While the South African feedlot industry uses modern techniques and feed ingredients, they feed a vastly different animal to a very different endpoint than in the United States. They tend to take a light calf weighing about 400-450 lbs. and feed the animal about 120 days to a weight of approximately 1000 lbs.3 The focus is red meat yield and extra fat is undesirable.6 Additionally, because the cattle are killed at a much younger age, the beef is kept very tender even without the extra fat.6 The swine production in South Africa mimics the beef production in all aspects, except for size. There is modern pork facilities not unlike the ones located in Guymon, OK. These facilities are more often located near metroplex areas.1 this is for two main reasons. 1) The industry is very small compared to cattle, goats, and sheep and requires much smaller land masses to support the industry and 2) African Swine Fever. The first reason is relatively simple. Since the pigs don’t need vast tracts of land to graze on and are kept inside barns for all of their lives, the people simply raise the animals near the population centers for convenience and to be near byproducts that can be fed to the animals. The second reason is likely not a disease you’re familiar with unless actively around hogs. African Swine Fever is a very nasty disease that is endemic in the native porcine population in Africa.7 Luckily, for the native wild hogs, the disease does nothing to the animals. For domesticated animals it is almost 100% fatal.7 This is why the animals are more often located near population areas. There are less wild hogs near cities than in the forests and plains.

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Since we are all involved in agriculture in some way or another, I thought it would be interesting to take a quick look at the educational system in South Africa and compare the path a student would take to become a veterinarian in South Africa compared to the United States. Elementary, Junior High or Middle School and High School are contrasted with South Africa’s versions of the same.8 There is very little difference between the US’s educational system and South Africa’s system and no real reason to discuss them. There is only one vet school in South Africa, and unlike in the US where you are likely to have to get a bachelor’s in a field of study before being accepted into vet school, a student begins his or her vet program immediately upon entering the university.9 Although the program has undergone many changes during the past several years, the length of the program really hasn’t changed if one wishes to be a licensed vet.9 It will take the prospective student approximately 6 years to finish with advanced degrees available.9 The curriculum was broken up into 2 different sections of 3 years a piece, but from 2011 on, it will be one 6 year program.10 After reading the focus during the various years of schooling, it appears that the type of study and the rigorous requirements of the US schools seems to be the same. Instead of cramming 3 years of classroom work at a student, the school, South Africa seems to take a more leisurely pace. Then again, the student is expected to be sufficiently educated when leaving the basic educational system to not need remedial training as we do in the US educational system. The student only studies vet science, but it appears that many of the classes would mimic courses one might take while obtaining a bachelor’s degree in the United States. In South Africa, they just skip all the national history and English composition courses and focuses on biology, instead. The last topic I wanted to touch upon is a bit of a mystery to me. When I originally looked at my specific area and chose topics to try and cover, this was not a topic on the list, but it was a huge topic for the South African who was staying with me 2 years ago. I emailed him and requested his help fleshing out the hatred of the Boers by the natives, the killing of the Boers and the forced relocation of the Boers since Nelson Mandela’s election in the early 1990’s. Unfortunately, he never actually gave me any information about the topic as of the time of this paper. Therefore, I’ll try to recount his comments as best I can, sum up what I was able to find on the internet and add a bit of my speculation. The reason I still included this section is because it was so monumental to him when he came. Even though it wasn’t listed on the list of topics, I felt it warranted discussion just so we’re aware of the situation while we’re in South Africa. If my contact finally responds with information, I’ll supplement this paper with another; smaller paper discussing the topic from his point of view. First of all, what is a Boer? The word Boer is a Dutch word for farmer.11 essentially; it is a very small subset of the Afrikaner (basically white) population in South Africa. Not all Whites in South Africa are Afrikaners and not all Afrikaners are white (there are about 100 black 28

Afrikaners in a settlement that are descendants of free slaves that were with white Afrikaners around 1886).11 Afrikaners speak their own language which is a mixture of Dutch, German, and local dialects.11 Afrikaners are approximately 5% of the total South African population with Boers being a smaller subset even of that.11 Basically, if you are white and farming/ranching, you are considered a Boer even if you don’t have the same cultural history as the Boer. To the black South African, it is a slur word. There have been many disputed attacks on white farmers in South Africa. The government does not recognize the attacks as aimed specifically at white farmers, but the white farmers argue that they are race crimes against them. Since all of this is disputed and I can’t get information from any source I trust, I’ll summarize what I have been told and read. Many South African blacks are VERY resentful towards whites in South Africa (probably with good reason). Additionally, the majority of commercial farming and ranching operations are owned and controlled by whites. Much of the land is at least contested as being stolen from Natives back when the whites were settling the area. Therefore, in the black South African’s frameset, the whites are now growing and controlling all the food on land they stole from blacks 100, 200, or even 300 years ago. The black population is often very poor. Lastly, South Africa has been in a severe drought for the past several years limiting food distribution. All of these factors have made white farmers significant targets for venting frustration. There are many documented attacks on white farmers in South Africa. Not only are the families killed and their homes destroyed, often there is evidence of severe torturing of the entire family, children included before death. What is at dispute is why and who are behind the attacks. The one white Boer I have spoken with claims it is racially motivated and young blacks are behind the attacks. Also, many claim the attacks are organized by a group instead of random senseless violence by individuals. The government denies this. It claims all the attacks are unrelated except that they are against white farmers. Additionally, my contact claims that the governmental system is set up to give land back to blacks in South Africa. He claims it began after Nelson Mandela was elected President and continues to today. All a black person must do is show that he or his family ever had ownership in the land in question, and the government kicks the white people off the land and gives all the livestock, equipment, etc. to the black man. The recipient of the property rarely tries to actually continue the business and just guts the operation and leaves. The white farmer is left penniless, homeless, and without recourse. There are two things to take from this on a 35,000 foot level, I think. 1) Be aware we could be mistaken for Boers and that racial hate is very real in South Africa. 2) Because of the danger of being killed or having your business taken away from you, educated white farmers are going to 29

be less and less likely to invest in their future in South Africa. With the whites being significantly more educated, it wouldn’t surprise me to see this country seriously devolve over the next several years. Sources: 1“South Africa’s Farming Sectors.” SouthAfrica.info. Brand South Africa. October 2008. 5 January 2014. http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors/542547.htm#.UsoIUMuA1D8. 2“Livestock Production”. Department: Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Republic of South Africa. Republic of South Africa. 5 January 2014. http://www.nda.agric.za/. 3 J. Simpson (personal communication 6 January 2014). 4 “The Group.” Karan Beef: Now Quality has a name!. http://www.karanbeef.co.za/AboutUs. 5 “South Africa Unemployment Rate.” Trading Economics. Trading Economics. Joana Taborda. 29 October 2013. 6 January 2014. http://www.tradingeconomics.com/southafrica/unemployment-rate. 6 “About Us.” South African Feedlot Association. 6 January 2014. http://www.safeedlot.co.za/index.asp?Content=129 7 “African Swine Fever Virus.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 November 2013. Web. 5 January 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_swine_fever. 8 “Education in South Africa.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 6 January 2014. Web. 6 January 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_swine_fever. 9 “University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 17 August 2013. Web. 6 January 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_swine_fever. 10 “BVSc Overview.” University of Pretoria. The University of Pretoria. 2011. 6 Janaury 2014. http://web.up.ac.za/default.asp?ipkCategoryID=1160&sub=1&parentid=50&subid=1149&ipkloo kid=13.

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11 “Afrikaner.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 3 January 2014. 6 January 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner.

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Government and Military Chris Kidd Meriruth Cohenour Justin Lingo Janet Stewart

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Politics Relationship of the media and government Treaties and laws and its relationship with the U.S. South African national symbols and meanings Chris Kidd Politics: It’s fair to say, South Africa’s political system is young and vibrant considering South Africa’s Constitution was recently passed in December 1996. South Africa’s Constitution states that the country shall be run on a system of co-operative governance. Parliament Legislative authority is vested in Parliament which is situated in Cape Town and consists of two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces. Like the United States, The South African Constitution states the president is the head of state and the head of government. Leading up to passage of the constitution, there was the union of South Africa formed in 1910, and in 1961 the union left the British Commonwealth. South Africa’s Government operates under a system known as the National Assembly of Parliament. This political system is made up of thirteen (13) political parties, but much like the United States, South African Government is dominated by two parties. The majority party is the African National Congress (ANC), which has grown immensely since Apartheid. The second largest party is the Democratic Alliance, which formerly was known as the Democratic Party. But in recent years the ANC has become the more popular of the two parties. Many South Africans consider the ANC as the country’s party for reducing the gap between the socioeconomic differences in society. Most citizens also believe the ANC creates balance despite having an unequal and segregated past. Most non-whites of South Africa belong to and vote for the ANC. The Democratic Alliance is considered to be the successor to the earlier Progressive Party which was relatively liberal and made up of white voters. The Democratic Alliance continues to support their liberal agendas. There are many other smaller parties including the Inkatha Freedom Party, and the New National Party. These parties also have their voice heard in government because of South Africa’s proportional election system. Many believe the current system is working because it provides collective and descriptive representation. On the other hand, this system has created no direct link between legislators and voters, and in my opinion, this translates into no accountability. Although we are similar in the fact both countries have two dominating parties, South Africa’s smaller parties are also represented in the government. When I hear the words, “South Africa” it is synonymous, as I’m sure it is for many, with the name Nelson Mandela. Considered to be a symbol of peace, Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multi-racial election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalized racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. 33

Internationally, Mandela was the Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. Relationship of the media and government: Another Constitutional similarity South Africa shares with the United States, they are both designed to protect their citizens and their rights. The freedom of press, religion and speech is located in both constitutions. “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble.” Both countries believe in thinking and saying what they would like to. They believe in freedom of expression and freedom of the press and media. They also believe in freedom of assembly. Treaties and laws (relationship with the U.S.) The United States has maintained an official presence in South Africa since 1799, when an American consulate was opened in Cape Town. The U.S. Embassy is located in Pretoria, and Consulates General are in Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town. Americans and South Africans also have many non-governmental ties: black and white American missionaries, for example, have a long history of activity in South Africa. South Africans, particularly the ANC leadership, also acknowledge support from and ties to the anti-apartheid movement in the U.S. but for over forty (40) years, from 1948 to 1990, South Africa was in conflict with both the international community and international law. Apartheid, caused by race discrimination and the denial of human rights, was in conflict with both the law of the UN and basic human rights. During this period South Africa became a pariah state within the international community; or a delinquent state according the new international law of human rights. Although treaties were incorporated into municipal law, the hostility of the apartheid undoubtedly influenced the attitudes of legislators, judges, and lawyers. International law received no constitutional recognition and was ignored by the courts and lawyers. Despite South Africa’s past, all this has changed. South Africa is now a democratic state, with a democratically elected Parliament. Human rights and racial equality are constitutionally protected, and there is a new attitude towards international law. Whereas international law was previously seen as a threat to the state, it is now viewed as one of the pillars of the new democracy. In 1993 twenty-six (26) political groups assembled at Kempton Park, near Johannesburg, to draft a constitution to bring an end to the apartheid legal order. Six (6) months was to serve as an interim constitution, pending the drafting of a constitution by a democratically elected Constitutional Assembly. As the Interim Constitution represented a political compromise between rival groups, and the African National Congress, it was agreed at Kempton Park that the final constitution would comply with thirty-four (34) constitutional principles. This Interim Constitution, approved at Kempton Park, was endorsed by the last Apartheid Parliament and became the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 200 of 1993. On April 27, 1994 the Interim Constitution came into effect to govern South Africa's first democratic elections. The Parliament then served the role of both the legislature and Constitutional Assembly. From January 1995 to May 1996 the Constitutional Assembly met 34

regularly to draft the 'final' constitution in accordance with the thirty-four (34) constitutional principles agreed upon at Kempton Park. A draft constitution was approved by the required twothirds (2/3) majority vote in the Constitutional Assembly on May 8th and forwarded to the Constitutional Court for certification. The Constitutional Court, however, found fault with a number of provisions in the draft constitution, on the grounds that they failed to comply with the constitutional principles contained in the Interim Constitution, and referred it back to the Constitutional Assembly. After these faults had been resolved by the Constitutional Assembly, the Constitutional Court gave its final approval to the Constitution on December 4th 1996. The new Constitution, the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, was signed into law by President Mandela on December 10th 1996. This ceremony took place on Human Rights Day at Sharpeville, which was the scene of the massacre of African demonstrators against the laws of apartheid in 1960. Since the abolition of apartheid and the first-ever democratic elections of April 1994, the United States has enjoyed an excellent relationship with South Africa. Although there are differences of position between the two governments (regarding Iraq, for example), they have not impeded cooperation on a broad range of key issues. Cooperation in counter-terrorism, fighting HIV/AIDS, and military relations has been particularly positive. Through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the United States also provides assistance to South Africa to help them meet their developmental goals. Peace Corps volunteers began working in South Africa in 1997. On January 28, 2009, newly elected US President Barack Obama telephoned his newly installed counterpart Kgalema Motlanthe as one of a list of foreign contacts he had been working through since his presidential inauguration the previous week. Given primary treatment was South Africa's role in helping to resolve the political crisis in Zimbabwe. According to White House spokesman Robert Gibbs, the pair "shared concerns" on the matter. Obama credited South Africa for holding "a key role" in resolving the Zimbabwean crisis, and said that he is looking forward to working with President Motlanthe to address global financial issues at the 2009 G-20 London summit. Over the past (2) years, the U.S.-South Africa bilateral relationship has been a diplomatic minefield. Issues include everything from military equipment and nuclear energy and weapons to oil, communication companies, and the global north versus the global south. The most recent and the most serious issue regarding U.S.- South Africa relations is Iran. According to a press release sent out by the South African Revenue Service, South Africa imported 3.37 billion rand or $435 million of crude oil from Iran in March 2012. This means South Africa nearly doubled its purchases from the Islamic Republic compared to the same period in 2011 despite the strong objections by the United States to cut off Iran financially and halt Iran’s nuclear program. Despite the U.S. and South African bilateral relationship hitting a “rough patch” due to differences in their policies and stances on Libya and Iran, I believe the situation will be managed as it has been in the past. I think the road will be bumpy at times but that the United 35

States is a friend and ally and that we will continue to have a great and continuous relationship with South Africa. South African Symbols and There Meanings: We will see a number of symbols while visiting South Africa. Here is a short guide to the national symbols of South Africa. National flag. The national flag of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on Freedom Day which is April 27, 1994, and first flown on the day Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as President on May 10, 1994. The central design of the flag begins at the flag-pole in a V form and flows into a single horizontal band to the outer edge of the flag; to us it looks like a sideways Y. This stands for the convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity. The national anthem is Fly, the beloved flag. National Coat of Arms. South Africa's coat of arms, or state emblem, is the highest visual symbol of the state. They have placed a lot of symbolism into this single coat of arms. The motto of the coat of arms - !ke e:/xarra//ke - is in the Khoisan language of the Xam people, and means "diverse people unite", or "people who are different joining together". National animal. The country's national animal is the springbok, which also gives its name to the South African rugby team - fondly known as "the Boks". The springbok gets its common name from its characteristic jumping. National bird. The national bird of South Africa is the blue crane, the distribution of which is almost entirely restricted to the country. Although usually quiet, the blue crane can emit a distinctive high-pitched and rattling croak which can be heard from some distance. National flower. The giant or king protea is widely distributed in the south-western and southern areas of the Western Cape. South Africa's national flower is the largest of the proteas, which make up an important part of the Cape Floral Region. The proteas also give their name to South Africa's national cricket team. National fish. South Africa's national fish is the galjoen. The galjoen was chosen as the country's national fish because of its endemism - it is found along the coast from Namibia to Durban, and nowhere else in the world - fighting qualities, abundance and popularity. It keeps to mostly shallow water, is often found in rough surf, sometimes right next to the shore, and is known to anglers as a game fighter. National tree. The yellowwood family is ancient, having grown in this part of Africa for over 100-million years. 36

Brief history of rule, type of government Important historical government leaders Obtaining news while traveling Meriruth Cohenour

Brief History of Rule: Prior to colonization, many native tribes ruled over small portions of what is now considered South Africa. These native peoples included the San, Bantu, Zulu, Swazi, and Khoisan. Although the area was originally explored in 1488 by the Portuguese, it was not until 1652 that the Dutch East India Trading Company established the Dutch Cape Colony and started settling small areas of the coast in order to better serve their trade ships. The British took over in 1795, eventually relinquishing control back to the Dutch in 1802, who promptly turned it back to the British in 1806. In 1854, the British government granted local control to the colonists but retained the area as a part of the British Empire. Finally, in 1881, the Boers gained independence and formed the South African Republic. This republic did not last however and the British regained control again twenty (20) years later. The Union of South Africa, established by the British in 1909, united many of the separated areas and granted local rule again. It was not until 1961 that the Republic of South Africa gained independence from Great Britain. The independent government was modeled closely after their former rulers but in 1983, the prime minister position was eliminated and a presidential position was created. Type of Government: South Africa currently employs a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government which includes the legislative branch, executive branch and the judicial branch as outlined on the website www.southafrica.info. The Constitution states the country shall be run on a system of co-operative governance. In both the national and provincial levels, there are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa’s traditional leaders in order to maintain this ideal. In addition, national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres and are defined in the Constitution as “distinctive, interdependent and interrelated.” Even though the provincial governments have their own executive and legislative branch the judicial system remains independent and national. Legislative Branch. Legislative authority is vested in Parliament, which is situated in Cape Town and consists of two houses: The National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces. The National Assembly consists of no fewer than 350 and no more than 400 members elected for a five (5) year term on the basis of a common voter’s roll. The number of seats awarded to each political party is in proportion to the outcome of the national election, which is held every five (5) years as well. Prominent parties who earn seats include: African National Congress, Democratic Party, Inkatha Freedom Party, New National Party, United Democratic movement. A Speaker and a Deputy Speaker preside over the Assembly. The current Speaker is Dr. Frene Ginwala and current Deputy Speaker is Ms. Baleka Mbete. 37

The National Council of Provinces includes 54 permanent members and 36 special delegates. This body elects its own chairperson. All of the nine (9) South African provinces send ten (10) representatives; six (6) permanent and four (4) special delegates headed by the provincial Premier or a member of the provincial legislature designated by the Premier. Local government representatives may participate in the National Council of Provinces but may not vote. Ten (10) part-time members represent different categories of municipalities. Executive Branch. Executive authority is given to the President, Deputy President, and Cabinet members. The president is elected by the National Assembly from among its members. This individual serves as the Head-of-State and leads the Cabinet. The president may not serve more than two (2) five-year terms in office. The president appoints the Deputy and the ministers, assigns their powers and functions and may dismiss them. The government-run website www.gov.za lists 45 national departments that make up the Cabinet, most of which have separate ministers and deputy ministers. These departments include but are not limited to Agriculture; Forestry and Fisheries; Arts and Culture; Communications; Defense; Energy; Environmental Affairs; Human Settlements; Police; Labor; Public Works; Sport and Recreation; Tourism and Transport. Judicial Branch. The Judicial branch of the South African government remains independent. The legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law. Four major tiers of courts make up the system: Magistrates’ Courts-tries minor civil cases and minor crimes; High Courts-serves as a court of appeal for cases from magistrates courts as well as tries major civil and criminal cases; Supreme Court of Appeal-serves as the final court of appeal for matters not pertaining to the Constitution; Constitutional Courts-serves as the final court of appeals for matters related to the constitution. Important Historical Government Leaders: Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi, a native of India, encountered racial discrimination for the first time when travelling to South Africa in 1893. This visit and encountered discrimination led to twenty-one (21) years of fighting for the rights of Indians in South Africa. Gandhi organized the Natal Indian Congress in order to earn rights and respect from the British government as well as the white population of South Africa. Gandhi made great progress in the area of human rights and eventually won the hearts of millions people all over the world. His philosophy of nonviolent protest has propelled many human rights activists to recognition including Martin Luther King Jr. Paul Kruger. Paul Kruger was born in the Cape Colony in 1825. Kruger was a farmer, soldier, and statesman. He was the leader of the Boer movement for independence beginning in 1877. Kruger was highly respected by many for his negotiating skills and leadership ability. For these efforts he is recognized as the builder of the Afrikaner nation and was the first president of the first independent South African Republic. Kruger National Park is named after this influential leader. Desmond Tutu. Desmond Tutu, a native of South Africa, led the South African council of churches opposition to apartheid. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning “apartness” or 38

“separateness” and used as a policy of racial segregation both politically and economically against non-European groups in South Africa. The term was first used as the name of the official policy of the National Party in 1948, even though racial segregation through official laws was already widely practiced. Using his leadership position of Archbishop of Cape Town, he challenged the Christian community to get involved in the anti-apartheid movement. He believed apartheid was a sin to be condemned and destroyed. After the country became a democracy he chaired the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that was charged with investigating the human rights abuse experienced under apartheid. For his efforts, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984. Nelson Mandela. Without a doubt, Nelson Mandela is the most notable of South Africa’s long list of influential people. In his lifetime, he was a man of complexities. He went from a militant freedom fighter, to a prisoner, to a unifying figure, to an elder statesman. He was born in the small village of Mvenzo in the hills of the Eastern Cape on July 18, 1918. His school teacher named him Nelson as part of a custom to give all schoolchildren Christian names. His father died when he was 9, and the local tribal chief took him in and educated him. During his early life he faced persecution and racial discrimination which led him to join the African National Congress (ANC) political party in 1944. Working towards racial equality and human rights, Mandela led many peaceful protests but it was his not-so-peaceful intentions that sent him to prison for treason several times leading to twenty-seven (27) total years in incarceration. In 1990 he was released into a world not unlike the one he left but one that was on the verge of change. "As I walked out the door toward the gate that would lead to my freedom, I knew if I didn't leave my bitterness and hatred behind, I'd still be in prison," Mandela said after he was freed in 1990. His message of reconciliation, not vengeance, inspired the world. Apartheid, the separation he had fought so hard against as a young man, was finally ended in 1994. Mandela was an important player in the negotiations that ended apartheid and his message of forgiveness and reconciliation was extremely helpful to the peaceful transition of all South Africans during the early 1990’s. Mandela became the first democratically elected and first black President in 1996 and he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 as well. His beliefs are evident in all of his writings and actions. This particular quote illustrates his dedication to his cause: “I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if need be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” -Nelson Mandela, Speech From The Dock, 1964. In 1999, Mandela did not seek a second term as president, keeping his promise to serve only one term. Thabo Mbeki succeeded him in June of the same year. After leaving the presidency, he retired from active politics, but remained in the public eye, championing causes such as human rights, world peace and the fight against AIDS. It was a decision born of tragedy: His only surviving son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS at age 55 in 2005. Another son, Madiba Thembekile, was killed in a car crash in 1969. Mandela's 90th birthday party in London's Hyde 39

Park was dedicated to HIV awareness and prevention, and was titled 46664, his prison number on Robben Island. In his recent book, Peter Hain strives to condense Mandela’s story while still letting the readers understand the impact of one man. He writes “Millions worldwide took part in the long and bitter, but ultimately victorious, anti-apartheid struggle. Most were foot soldiers in the rise and fall of apartheid, including my family. Some played an absolutely decisive role; many a significant one. Nelson Mandel was the leader: in the resistance, in prison after his release in February 1990 and, finally, when in power.” In 2004, a few weeks before he turned 86, Mandela announced his retirement from public life to spend more time with his loved ones. "Don't call me, I'll call you," he said as he stepped away from his hectic schedule. When South Africa was awarded the 2010 football World Cup, Mandela said he felt "like a boy of 15." Mandela beamed and waved at fans during the final of the tournament in Johannesburg's Soccer City. It was his last public appearance. He died December 5, 2013 at the age of 95. "I would like to be remembered not as anyone unique or special, but as part of a great team in this country that has struggled for many years, for decades and even centuries," he said. "The greatest glory of living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time you fall." Obtaining News While Traveling: According to www.mondotiems.com, there are six (6) newspapers published in English available in Cape Town and seven (7) in Johannesburg. All four of the national TV stations are available in English. All of these media outlets have accompanying websites that can be accessed at internet cafes. A good resource for finding internet cafes is www.world66.com.

Military Relations with other countries around the world Relations with the United States Justin Lingo Military: The South African Department of Defense is the responsible for defending South Africa. The Department of Defense over sees the South African National Defense Force or (SANDF). The SANDF was created in 1994 by a volunteer force. It was formed by the combination of the South African Defense Force, African Nationalist Groups, and Bantustan Defense Forces. There are four branches of the SANDF; they include South African Army, South African Air Force, South African Navy, and South African Military Health Services. The SANDF is currently working with the United Nations in many peace keeping missions in African countries. South Africa is the only African country to successfully develop a nuclear weapon. In 1960, South Africa became a republic gaining freedom from the British Empire. South Africa was ruled by the Apartheid regime from 1948 to 1994. The Apartheid was known to be racist political party that created many programs that limited the pursuit of happiness for non-white 40

people. The African National Congress was one of the parties that were against the Apartheid. In the 1960’s, Nelson Mandela lead a revolt against the Apartheid. At first it was peaceful resistance, but with time, the ANC with the help of the South African Communist Party tried to sabotage the government. The Military wing of the ANC was known as the Umkhinto we Sizwe. In the 1990’s the Apartheid took steps to end discrimination and that lead to the success of the ANC. The ANC is non-racial political party. South Africa is 80% non-white, since the ANC is nonracial it has become a popular party. Many of the current government leaders come out of the ANC party. The Umkninto we Sizwe is now part of the SANDF From the 1960s to 1980s, South Africa took advantage of several programs from the United States that gave them nuclear technology. One of the first steps in South Africa’s development of nuclear weapons was a program started by Dwight D Eisenhower. President Eisenhower gave a speech titled Atoms of Peace. The program was created to give nuclear information to hospitals, schools, and countries around the world. The United States gave the South Africa their first reactor in 1965. The SAFARI-1 was a 20 MW research reactor, which was to be used for advancement of non-weapons purposes. The United States supplied the reactor and the fuel for the reactor, but in 1975 the US stopped delivery of Enriched Uranium. It was determined that South Africa was using the reactor to create a nuclear weapon. South Africa first started the nuclear program to stop the advancement of Communism. South Africa was developing the nuclear weapons at the same time as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Civil war in Angola. Both of these conflicts were backed by a communist regime. This weapon could be any type of weapon; nuclear, biological, or chemical. Over the period of 20 years South African created six nuclear weapons. South Africa developed the capability to produce Uranium domestically, which caused several countries to become concerned about South Africa’s capabilities. In 1976 and 1977, Soviet intelligence suspected that South Africa was going to test two Nuclear weapons in the Kalahari Desert. The Soviets, US, and several European Countries urged South Africa not to test. It is thought that several countries worked with South Africa to create a Nuclear weapon. One of the countries was Israel. .” It is thought that South Africa and Israel created and tested a Nuclear weapon in the Indian Ocean September 1979. There has never been any definite proof that it existed, but they were known to work together. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 418 of November 4, 1977 made it clear that South Africa wasn’t allowed to have nuclear weapons. The resolution tells all countries to refrain from “any co-operation with South Africa in the manufacture and development of nuclear weapons.” South Africa ended their nuclear weapons program in 1989, which they thought would help bring them back into good standing with international powers. It would also bring peace to the countries around them. In 1994, it was determined that six nuclear weapons where dismantled and one partially constructed bomb was also dismantled. Since disarmament, South Africa has been a leading country in the development of several treaties to make Africa a nuclear free zone. Since 1994, the South African military has fallen behind most countries in the advancement of the military. The first issue that has affected the success of the South African Military is the outbreak of Aids in the country. It is estimated that nearly 10 percent of the country’s 53 million people, or 5.3 million, are HIV positive. This causes a tremendous strain on the resources of the 41

country. With nearly 1.5 million children dependent on the South African Government for support it is impossible to give more money and resources to the military. The Second problem with the South African military is bribery. In 1998, South Africa was involved in an arms purchase. South Africa approved the purchase of 4.8 billion dollars of weapons from countries around the world. The purchase included warships, submarines, helicopters, and planes. The purchase was shrouded with accusations of bribery of up to 150 million dollars. The budget for South Africa’s Military is 4.572 billion dollars compared to 554.2 billion for the United States. There are 88,500 active military personnel in the SANDF. The United States has 1,429,000 active military personnel, plus 850,000 reserve personnel. The main role of the SANDF   

Protection of the Border Disaster relief Safety and Security

Jacob Zuma is the President of the Country and Commander-in-Chief. He took office May 9th 2009 and before becoming president Jacob Zuma was President on the African National Congress and Deputy President of South Africa. The African National Congress is South Africa’s governing political party. Jacob Zuma is not a well-liked President; he is known for his corruption and accepting of brides. Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakul is the Minister of Defense and Military Veterans. She took office June 12th, 2012. She was born in 1956. She has a teaching diploma from Bensonvale Teachers College. She has previously been the Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Correctional Services. She left South Africa in 1984 to receive training in Angola and Soviet Union. General Solly Shoke became chief of the South African National Defense Force in May 2011. Solly Shoke joined the Umkhinto we Sizwe in the 1970’s and served as a field commander fighting against the Apartheid in the 1980’s. In 1994, Solly Shoke became Director of Personnel Planning in the SANDF. Solly Shoke also received training in Angola and the Soviet Union. Before being named the Chief of the SANDF, Shoke was Chief of the South African Army. The Military headquarters is in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. During World War I and II, South Africa allied with the United States, but the South African Republic Allied with Germany. Relationship with countries around world: South Africa has worked hard in the post-Apartheid Regime to be a leader in the effort for global peace. South Africa has worked as a peace keeper in several different countries around the world. Since 1965, South Africa has been involved in five different wars in neighboring countries. All of the wars have been civil wars in those countries. The conflict weren’t actually against South Africa, but the government of South Africa felt the need to help one side or the other. The opponents in most cases were rebel groups and war lords. South Africa has also taken in many refugees from surrounding countries, but there has been much controversy about the treatment of those refugees. Hundreds of thousands of those refugees have been deported back to their countries. South Africa has closed several of its refugee offices and limited the amount of funding to refugee programs. 42

South Africa is a founding member of the United Nations. South Africa is also a founding member of the African Union. The African Union promotes unity between all African Countries. After the reign of Apartheid ended, South Africa was re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth of Nations is a group of formally British controlled states. South Africa was a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council from 2006-2008 and again from 2010-2012. In the past ten years South Africa has increased its partnership with Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRICS). South Africa’s President has said this relationship represents the largest trading partners with South Africa. President Zuma also stated that the BRICS would work together through organizations like the UN, G20, and IBSA. Relationship with United States: The US Ambassador to South Africa is Patrick Gaspard. The South Africa ambassador to US is Ebirhim Rasool The United States and South Africa had no real relationship before 1929. In 1929, South Africa had the ability to act as an independent region within the British Empire. In the 1950’s-1960’s, the South African government and the United State had a program where the United States shared nuclear technology with the South African government. From the 1970’s to the 1990’s the relationship between South Africa and the United States was extremely limited, for two reasons. The first reason was the fact that South Africa started using the nuclear reactor that the United States gave them to produce a nuclear weapon. The reactor was originally given to South Africa for research purposes only. The second reason the relationship between the South Africa and United States was limited was the political party in power from 1948 to 1994. The Apartheid was a racial political party that severely limited the freedom and rights of everyone that was nonwhite. Most countries around the world pressed the South African Apartheid government to change the way it view its people. The Apartheid fell apart in 1994, and now most people that are in power in the South African government are part of the African National Convention. Since, 1994 the United States and South Africa have worked on several different issues. The two countries have a bilateral relationship. The United States’ aid to South Africa comes in many forms. The United States helps by providing healthcare and healthcare technology. This is a huge help to South African, because almost 10% of the population has Aids. The US helps training teachers to increase education standards. There are several other areas where the US helps. They include; training and supplying law enforcement, improving agriculture capacity, developing clean energy. South Africa has one of the highest percentages of rape among women, almost 1/5 women say they have been raped. The country also has one of the highest crime rates. It is a theory that most crime is black people attaching white people. The reason for this is the oppression the white people had on the black people during the Apartheid reign. Another major problem in South Africa is unemployment. The US Agency for International Development is helping to encourage small and midsized business that will decrease un-employment, decrease sexual assaults, and promote healthcare. South Africa provides the United States with many opportunities that wouldn’t be possible without their relationship. South Africa has taken a leadership position with the African Union. 43

This position allows the US to have intelligence of the African Continent. Another key asset from the relationship between the US and South Africa is the opportunities for trade the US receives. There are several treaties and acts that make trade between the two countries easier. This is a big benefit for the United States.

Specific laws to know, passport requirements State park regulations, information, and history Current issues at places we will visit Janet Stewart Specific laws to know, passport requirements: While traveling in South Africa visitors are subject to South African laws. There are differences, some small and some drastic, regarding South African laws, its legal systems, and in its forms of justice and punishment. If a visitor commits an offense of South Africa’s laws, even unknowingly, they can be expelled, arrested, fined and/or imprisoned. Below is a quick summarized version of some of the laws a visitor might want to know or might even be curious about: Drugs. The smuggling, possessing, trafficking, or using of illegal drugs is a serious offense in South Africa that can result in severe punishments. If convicted of a drug charge a visitor should expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Homesexuality. South Africa has pending legislation which bans any discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Smoking. South African law prohibits smoking in most public spaces, including airports and railway stations. It is common for the restaurants to have designated smoking and non-smoking areas. Fireworks. Apart from a few special exceptions the lighting of fireworks by residents is only allowed eleven (11) days annually. No person may light or ignite fireworks in any place where animals are present, this includes domestic homes. No person may use fireworks on any agricultural holding or at any school or senior citizens’ residence without special authorization. No person can use fireworks within 500 meters of any gas station (petrol depot). Children’s Rights. The South African constitution provides for the rights of children in South Africa. The South African Government is also a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. This is very different from United States provisions because South Africa has some unique problems regarding children. The Children’s Rights provisions are based off of four major principles: 1. The right of the child to survival, development, and protection from abuse and neglect; 2. The right to have a voice and be listened to; 3. That the best interests of the child should be of primary consideration; and 4. The right to freedom from discrimination. The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has impacted children and made children’s rights an important issue. The HIV and AIDS epidemic is 44

a major catastrophe which threatens South Africa’s ability to meet its commitments to its children. The HIV and AIDS epidemic intensifies the difficult circumstances of many children in South Africa that are already greatly affected by poverty, lack of access to resources and services, minimal infrastructure, fragmented families, and violence and abuse against women and children. Child-headed Households. Child-headed households are recognized as a family type in South Africa due to the impacts of HIV and AIDS. This is something that we do not see in the United States. A household is defined as child-headed when one of the following applies: 1. The parent or primary caregiver of the household is terminally ill or has died; 2. No adult family member is available to provide care for the children in the household; and/or 3. A child has assumed the role of primary caregiver in respect to the other children in the household in terms of providing food, clothing, and psychosocial support. Adoption Laws. In the past, adoption by a non-citizen of a child born of a South African citizen in South Africa was possible only if the non-citizen qualified for naturalization as a South African citizen. South African courts also had no legal power to undertake adoption procedures in respect of non-South African children by South Africans. Currently, South Africa has signed an international convention on inter-country adoptions. The Children's Act of 2005 sets out the procedure for inter-country adoptions. To legalize any inter-country adoptions it is important that social workers liaise directly with the Registrar of Adoptions in Pretoria. Who qualifies to adopt a child is as follows: 1. A husband and wife can jointly adopt a child; 2. Partners in a permanent life-partnership (including same-sex partners) can jointly adopt a child; 3. A married person whose spouse is the parent of the child, or by a person whose permanent domestic life partner is the parent of the child; 4. A widow or widower or an unmarried or divorced person can adopt a child; 5. Other persons sharing a common household and forming a permanent family unit; and 6. A biological father of a child who does not have guardianship in respect of the child or the foster parent of a child has the right to be considered as a prospective adoptive parent when the child becomes available for adoption. For more information on adoptions you can look at http://www.westerncape.gov.za/service/adopting-child. Instructions for US Citizens Arrested in South Africa. Pursuant to bilateral agreements with the United States, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, and customary international law, if U.S. citizens are arrested in South Africa, they should request the police, prison officials, or other authorities to notify the nearest U.S. consulate of the arrest and circumstances, and to have all communications regarding the arrest forwarded to the nearest U.S. consulate. Driving Information. South African law does not require an international driver’s license for U.S. citizen tourists who are licensed to drive in the United States and who are in South Africa for less than six months. A valid driver’s license from any U.S. state or territory that has the signature and photo of the driver is valid to drive in South Africa for stays of less than six months. Please note that while South African law does not require an international driver’s license, insurance companies for both long-term residents and rental car customers often require proof of a South African or international driver’s license in order to honor an insurance claim, even when such proof was not requested at the time the policy was secured. Unlike the United 45

States, where traffic moves on the right-hand side of the road, traffic in South Africa moves on the left, and the steering wheel is on the right-hand side of the car. Traffic laws are not followed closely by the locals so be ready for anything. Pedestrian Safety. Take extreme care when crossing streets. Accidents involving vehicles and pedestrians are too common in South Africa. Pedestrian deaths are a regular occurrence and during a quick search I found at least four cases involving U.S. citizen victims since 2008. South African drivers are often aggressive towards pedestrians and fail to yield the right-of-way, even in marked crosswalks, so be careful!!! Passport Requirements. South African law requires travelers to have one (1) totally blank (unstamped) visa page in their passport in order to enter the country. In practice, however, travelers often need to have more than one (1) blank page. There have been numerous instances in which South African immigration officers required travelers to have two (2) fully blank pages. Some travelers have been refused entry and returned to their point of origin. All travelers are strongly advised to have at least two (2) fully blank passport visa pages upon arrival in South Africa. Travelers without the requisite blank visa pages in their passports may be refused entry into South Africa, fined, and returned to their point of origin at their own expense. In many cases, South African authorities have not granted approval for U.S. Consular officers to assist U.S. citizen travelers by adding extra visa pages. As a general precaution, all travelers are advised to carry a photocopy of the photo/bio information page of their passport and keep it in a location separate from their passport. State park regulations, information, and history: This portion of the report on South Africa includes information regarding entrance into the national parks, as well as a little history on Kruger National Park and the baboons in the Cape of Good Hope Reserve. Indemnification. Usually at the national parks visitors will be required to sign indemnification forms that waive the visitor’s right to file any claim, action, judgment, and costs or expenses against the national park for any injury to person or property while in the park. Identification. All visitors need to make sure that they have an acceptable means of identification with them when visiting the national parks. Driving Information. Stick to the speed limit! All general rules of the road apply within the Kruger National Park and the other national parks. You are not allowed to drive “off-road” or on roads with a “no entry” sign. Each camp has its own gas station! In Africa, you have to fill up at every opportunity, because one never knows where the next gas station is located! Driving a vehicle in a reckless or negligent manner or in a deliberate disregard for the safety of a person, animal, or property is a serious offense and can result in charges being filed. Gate Times. Gate times for the parks must be strictly adhered to. After hours driving is not allowed in the Parks and will result in fines. 46

Stay in Your Vehicle. At Kruger and several other parks you are required to stay in your vehicle at all times because there is a possible threat from dangerous animals. In these parks visitors may only alight from their vehicles in designated areas. No part of your body may protrude from a window or sunroof and doors should remain closed and locked at all times. If you have vehicle problems do not step out of your vehicle! Wait in your vehicle and call the park administration to send a breakdown service. In the ''Cape of Good Hope" nature reserve baboons have developed the ability to open car doors so especially lock those doors! In the past visitors have made the mistake of getting out of their vehicles and have been killed. They have been trampled by wild herds of animals, trampled by scared or aggressive animals, and even killed by wild cats that were hiding in the dense bushes and high grass. If attacked you will stand no chance! Animal Viewing. In Kruger especially, to ensure that you see all the animals you want, have a look at the spotting board in the various receptions to track the latest game spotting. Feeding Wildlife is Prohibited. The feeding or disturbing of animals is a serious offense. By feeding any wildlife you are potentially signing the animal’s death warrant, as they may become dependent and often become aggressive and dangerous to people and therefore have to be put down. Monkeys and baboons lose respect to people if you offer them food. In their eyes, you are becoming submissive when you offer them food and this can make them attack. An adult baboon has fangs almost as big as those of a lion. Litter-Free Zone. Remember, animals see litter as food! Therefore littering is prohibited. Wildlife. The wild animals will always have priority. Especially when approaching elephants, buffalo or rhinos, you should keep a safe distance! It can happen that elephants will block your path for several minutes or even hours. If you are rushing back to the gates during the evening, do not try and pass the herd of wild animals. Rather call the camp and let them know of your situation. Killing of Animals. Poaching and killing or injuring of animals is strictly prohibited. Noise and Cell Phones. Several national parks, including Kruger, have stringent noise restrictions which are enforced between 21:30 and 06:00. The use of cell phones is permitted only in camps, gates, and in cases of emergency. Behaving in an offensive, improper, indecent or disorderly manner including the playing of any radio, compact disc player, music system, musical system or instrument, or in any way cause of any noise in any manner likely to disturb any species or specimen or other person is strictly prohibited. Taking Pictures. Please try to take photos without flash. Elephants are easily disturbed by flash cameras. Pets. No pets are allowed. The only exception is for guide dogs for the visually impaired. If a pet is brought to a park the owner is fined and the pet put down.

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Flora & Fauna. No plant, animal, wildlife, or any natural or cultural items may be removed from a national park without permission. To cut, damage, destroy or be in possession of any plant or part, including dry wood or firewood is a serious offense. Importing of any specimen of an alien or listed invasive species into a national park is prohibited. Alcohol. The consumption of alcohol in public areas is prohibited. Smoking. Smoking restrictions are different for each park so pay attention to each parks’ rules. Fire Hazard. Starting or causing of any fire other than in a fireplace or container purposely made available for fire is strictly prohibited in the parks. Malaria. The Kruger National Park is a malaria zone. All visitors are encouraged to adhere to their doctor’s instructions. There is a 24 hour malaria hotline that is available if needed, the number is 0822341800. Cape of Good Hope Baboons. The Cape of Good Hope is one of the Parks we will be visiting. The Chacma Baboons (Papio ursinus) are found on the Cape Peninsula and are the only protected population of this species in Africa. They subsist on fruits, roots, honey, bulbs, insects and scorpions. During low tide, they may be seen roaming the beaches, feeding on sandhoppers and shellfish, behavior believed to be unusual in primates. Please be aware that baboons can be dangerous and are attracted by food. Visitors must not feed or tease them. DO keep a safe distance from baboons; DO move away slowly if a baboon approaches you; DO NOT display food when baboons are visible; DO NOT open the windows or doors of your car when baboons are present; DO NOT feed baboons. You will be fined. Kruger National Park History. The park was first proclaimed in 1898 as the Sabie Game Reserve by the then president of the Transvaal Republic, Paul Kruger. He first proposed the need to protect the animals of the Lowveld in 1884, but his revolutionary vision took another 12 years to be realized when the area between the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers was set aside for restricted hunting. On May 31, 1926 the National Parks Act was proclaimed and with it the merging of the Kruger National Park. The first motorists entered the park in 1927 for a fee of one pound. Historical sites and information. There are almost 254 known cultural heritage sites in the Kruger National Park, including nearly 130 recorded rock art sites. There is ample evidence that prehistoric man roamed the area between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. More than 300 archaeological sites of Stone Age man have been identified in the park. There are also many historical tales of the presence of Nguni people and European explorers and settlers in the Kruger area and there are significant archaeological ruins at Thulamela and Masorini. Current Issues at Places OALP Plans to Visit: Crocodile Farming. South Africa’s crocodile farming industry is under scrutiny following an application by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSPCA) to change laws which governs the treatment of crocodiles in captivity. One of the NSPCA’s concerns 48

regarding the industry as a whole relates to the use of electrical stunning. Electric stunning is widely used in crocodile farming, here and elsewhere, and the South African Crocodile Farmers’ Association (SACFA) which represents half of the country’s 60 crocodile farmers and “90% of its output” argues its beneficial use. The SACFA argues that studies show that stunning is effective without being cruel, and that it “results in improved safety for crocodiles and people”. SACFA is working to draw up standard guidelines for the use of stunning machines and after a trial period intends to offer training to members. The NSPCA has also sought criminal charges against crocodile farmers for violations of the Animal Protection Act in the Pongola area. The charge is for keeping crocodiles in single pens which are “too small, too shallow, and unsheltered”. Irrespective of size, the NSPCA views the concept of single pens as cruel to a social species, which should therefore not be allowed. Do these arguments sound familiar? More information on crocodile farming laws can be found at https://law.resource.org/pub/za/ibr/za.sans.631.2009.html. Wine Regulations. In 1973, the Wine of Origin System was introduced and it established boundaries for South Africa’s winelands. The winelands are divided into official regions, districts, wards and estates. South Africa’s wine regulations are defined by the South Africa Wine and Spirit Board and are enforced by South Africa Wine Industry Information and Systems (SAWIS). A wine label can carry the designation of a Wine of Origin, which shows that the wine is one of the highest quality wines in South Africa. In order to carry this designation, 100% of the grapes must be from the defined appellation, 75% of the wine must be from the specified vintage and 75% of the wine (85% if exported to the EU) must be from the stated grape variety. If a wine label carries the name of a place, such as a region, sub-region or appellation, 75% of the grapes must come from that place. If two grapes are named on the label, the grapes must be stated in the order of importance, such as Cabernet-Merlot when the wine contains more Cabernet Sauvignon than Merlot. When a wine label carries the name of a grape variety, the wine must be made from at least 75% of that grape variety. Sources: Chris Kidd www.southafrica.info/about/history/national-symbols.htm#ixzz2mdh7y9QE www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography www.sahistory.org.za www.sahistory.org.za/south-african-and-world-leaders www.southafrica.info http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa Mandela, Nelson. 1995. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. A Back Bay Book Publishing Company Meriruth Cohenour www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/323870/Paul-Kruger www.gandhi-manibhavan.org/aboutgandhi/biography_southafrica.htm www.gov.za 49

www.mondotimes.com/1/world/za/335/5066/30734 www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography www.sahistory.org.za www.sahistory.org.za/south-african-and-world-leaders www.southafrica.info www.southafrica.info/about/history/gandhi070609.htm#.UpUR5NKshNc www.world66.com/africa/southafrica/johannesburg/cybercafes/ Hain, Peter. 2010. Mandela: The Concise Story of Nelson Mandela. Octopus Publishing Group Ltd, London. Justin Lingo http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2898.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa http://www.nationmaster.com/country/sf-south-africa/mil-military \ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html http://www.gov.za/ Communication with David Handyside, resident from South Africa who moved to US in mid2000’s Janet Stewart www.law.georgetown.edu/library/research/guides/southafricanlegalresearch.cfm www.environment.co.za/environmental-issues-news/know-the-fireworks-laws.html Guest, Emma. 2002. Children of AIDS; Africa’s Orphan Crisis. Pluto Press, London http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1008.html www.sanparks.org/assets/docs/tourism_reservations/park-regulations www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/tourism/history.php www.westerncape.gov.za/service/adopting-child www.southafrica.info/about/sustainable/conservation-030506.htm www.southafrica.info www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/2005-038%20childrensact.pdf https://law.resource.org/pub/za/ibr/za.sans.631.2009.html www.pir.sa.gov.au/wine/sa_wine_industry_council

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Culture and Religion

Stacy Howeth Sandra Stevenson Tracey Payton Miller Jamie Cummings

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Culture & Religion – ethnic groups/religion/cultural history Stacy Howeth Ethnic Oppression and Transition A glimpse of society today in South Africa looks quite different than any previous moment in time. The country and its people have made strides in changing the widespread societal problems and oppression within their borders. As in most countries today, the threat of racism, violence and unfairness remains an issue, but South Africa has come a long way. Previous to 1994, apartheid was in existence. Apartheid means “apartness.” The Afrikaner National Party established apartheid in 1948. The purpose was to basically take over the South African population by eliminating the rights any race besides the white class of people. At the time, there were three major classes: white, black or African and Coloured people, who were of mixed decent. The Coloured group had two major subgroups of Indians and Asians. There were two influential pieces of legislation that created legal boundaries between the mentioned races: the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act and the Immorality Act. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act was established in 1949 and forebodes a marriage union between white and non-white individuals. At the time of enactment, there had only been 75 recorded mixed marriages, as compared to the over 28,000 documented marriages of whites. The Immorality Act became law in 1950 and prohibited adultery, attempted adultery or related immoral acts between white and non-white people. Both of these laws were repealed in one legislative move in 1985. The official legislation was called the Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act. But these were not the only legislative actions taken to segregate whites and non-whites. Another impactful wave of legislation pushed by the Afrikaner National Party during apartheid was the elimination of the voting rights of Coloured and African people. Territories within South Africa were reviewed and altered to favor white government. The purpose was to hold Africans “hostage” to their newly established homeland and revoke citizenship in the general South African borders. It was this point in time that black people were required to carry passport-type documentation to access non-black areas. The controlling government went on to gain control of the educational system. They denied blacks of higher education opportunities. Eventually, the same oppressive government decided to move approximately 60,000 non-white people to an alternative area of South Africa. The individuals moved were of African, Indian, Chinese and Coloured decent. This monumental movement was called the Western Areas Removal Scheme. This movement led to the foundation of the Congress of the People, who adopted a Freedom Charter. It established four points: 1) The People Shall Govern 2) All National Groups Shall Have Equal Right 3) The People Shall Share In The Country’s Wealth 52

4)

The Land Shall Be Shared Among Those Who Work It

The creation of this charter and the organization of the non-white political groups grew stronger and stronger. By 1959, the Pan African Congress was founded. Yet in 1960, the government banned African political organizations. It appears that this was the beginning of the end of apartheid. It was just a few years later that Nelson Mandela and other movement leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment. One cannot discuss the current standing of South Africa without mentioning Nelson Mandela. His is widely considered the driving force behind the much-improved standard of living in his native country. His involvement began in 1944, by joining the African National Congress. As noted, Mandela was imprisoned in 1964. Mandela was housed in a special confinement, separate from the “common” people of the same resistance movement. The theory was that the influence of the commander would be abolished. Instead, approximately 30 leaders of various political organizations were kept together in what was known as B Section of the prison. While imprisoned, Mandela embodied leadership qualities. On several occasions, he led the prisoners in fights against unfair labor, petitions to authorities and hunger strikes. Government officials often visited him. In 1976, the Minister of Prisons, Jimmy Kruger, offered his release. The condition was that he be quarantined to a certain area of South Africa. Mandela refused. For about a year, Mandela secretly wrote his own autobiography. He hid the writing passages in the prisoners’ vegetable garden, to be ultimately smuggled out by a fellow prisoner, who was to be released before him. Prison construction workers eventually foiled the plan when digging in the area. Mandela was released in 1990, after 27 years in prison. He spent the next few years traveling around South Africa and visiting countries around the world. The research and knowledge gained of other countries’ social, political and general makeup served as inspiration for reform. Mandela called for disciplined and peaceful protest upon his return to South Africa. Mandela was elected unopposed as president of South Africa in 1994. Since 1994, South Africa has focused on economic, social and political standings. The transition to democracy was initially sparked by the political sector. The African National Congress continued to build on the original Freedom Charter with emphasis on the following focuses: 1) Building “an integrated and growing economy from which all South Africans can benefit” 2) Striving ‘for macro-economic balances that support sustainable growth and development … as requirements that ensure higher rates of growth, labor-absorption and poverty-reduction” 3) Putting in place “an industrial strategy and corresponding program which continually identifies and addresses constraints to investment to help build an economy 53

characterized by high levels of manufacturing activity, modern services, expanding trade, cutting edge technology and a vibrant small business and cooperative sector. 4) Ensuring that ‘benefits of growth are shared by all, there will be a focus on creating decent jobs and ensuring an improving quality of life for workers. Government will implement programs to eliminate economic dualism and exclusion. These include skills development, specific attention to industries that lend themselves to involvement by marginalized communities, access to micro-credit and small business assistance, land reform, public works projects and promotion of sustainable livelihoods at community and household levels. In recent years, the South African economy has grown at unprecedented levels – specifically around 4% on average between 1994 and 2006. Additionally, and as a result, the growth of economy has increased the creation of jobs in the country. If South Africa continues to expand trade options, stimulate economies and job creation, utilize collective bargaining and the like… it will continue to evolve for the better. South Africa will not forget its dark past, when apartheid was in place. But it can strive to continue to move forward as a more productive, positive and peaceful place to live. Sources: About.com: African History Http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cal/cs201/apartheid.hist.html Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949. Enacted by the Parliament of South Africa. Republic of South Africa. 2012-2013. Annual Report. Department of Environmental Affairs South African History Online: http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/nelson-rolihlahla-mandela South Africa’s National Liberation Movement: http://www.anc.org.za Thompson, L. 1996. A History of South Africa. Revised edition. Yale University Press. New Haven and London.

Etiquette in South Africa Sandra Stevenson CULTURAL AND BUSINESS ETIQUETTE According to Business Directory, the definition of culture is an expected behaviors and expectations for individual actions within society, group, or class. Within a place of business, it involves treating coworkers and employers with respect and courtesy in a way that creates a pleasant work environment for everyone. Known as the Rainbow Nation because of the different cultures represented, South Africa is one of the most multicultural countries in the world. It is a 54

a very diverse country with a variety of customs due to the vast array of people from South Africa colonialism, immigration from white people of European descent, and Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Indian subcontinent backgrounds; all of whom reflect their individual cultures. South Africa has many diverse cultures, and while visiting there, it is very important that you understand the manners to go with each of them. Being familiar with the etiquette will be important to you as is not making the mistake of assuming all cultures and etiquette are the same. Unlike America where immigrants have created a type of “melting pot” identity that has ever blending cultures and etiquette, people in Africa tend to stay near their own and remain separate from others. Collectively, they make up the category of people in South Africa. It is a huge mistake to assume it is a blended culture. There is a broad distinction amongst culture, socioeconomic class, race, regular working class, and level of education across the continent. Therefore, it is important to not generalize and inflict assumptions and to avoid value judgments. Equally, avoid topics of discussion that are controversial. It is imperative that you understand the individual’s culture as well as the country’s culture. Most like win-win situations and prefer to not have to haggle over the price of something. White South Africans tend to be more prepared/experienced in business and may not be as open or willing to share all information or motive. They may be considered shrewd in business. Regarding business meetings, appointments should be made far in advance; preferring more than a month. Do not expect a meeting with upper-level managers with limited notice given. Avoid desired vacation times that include the two weeks around Easter and prime vacation time from the middle of December to the middle of January. A call the day before the meeting to remind the person you are meeting with is recommended. Be prompt for the meetings regardless of the location where the meeting is being held. A meeting during a meal does not make it any less formal than one held in an office setting. Appropriate clothing is required. Dress conservatively, especially for the initial meeting, with men wearing darker color business suits when attending meetings. Women are expected to wear dark and conservative business suits or modest dresses. Slight discrepancy in the research I found in that women wear more elegant suits or dresses; regardless it is expected that attendees dress professional. Developing a personal relationship is important. The first meeting is typically used to determine your level of trustworthiness. Having a shared mutual trust is critical to future business negotiations. The business culture in South Africa relies heavily on both parties experiencing a personal level of trust with each other. It is recommended to have a trusted third party provide a letter of recommendation prior to the initial meeting if the South African business or individual is unaware of whom you (or your business) are. It is considerably rude to interrupt when someone else is speaking so remember to be patient and polite. Women will experience a much more difficult time establishing relationships than their male colleagues will and do not currently fill upper-management positions. Decisions are typically made at the top but do include input from lower-level staff and that may cause a delay in the process. A letter detailing a summary of the meeting, decisions made and planned steps to happen next should be sent to meeting participants. Established deadlines may not be viewed as a commitment.

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ETHNIC GROUPS Majority of people are black South African. There are also colored South Africans (different shades of color due to being a mixed race), Indian South Africans as well as some Chinese Africans and a few other minority groups that also include white South Africans. South Africa is made up of 75.2% black, 13.6% white, 8.6% colored, and 2.6% Indian. Although South Africa has eleven (11) official languages, English is spoken throughout South Africa and is the language of administration. Other official languages include: Afrikaan, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swazi, Tsongo, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. Communication styles among the different ethnic groups vary. Interactions may be direct or indirect, depending on the cultural background, and may at times be a mixture of direct and indirect interactions. Often times, the senior most family member, not necessarily a parent, will be looked upon to settle a problem with family members. People living in rural areas tend to be less formal and direct than those living in larger cities. Most South Africans prefer to not argue and disagree with people they do not know and may ignore a question or give a non-committal answer if they perceive a potential conflict or if their answer could be considered controversial. Regarding socializing and conversing with different ethnic groups in South Africa, it is recommended that you be aware of the racial terminology when referring to black and white people. If a person is of African ancestry, it is preferred to refer to them as “black” and if a person is of European ancestry, it is preferred to refer to them as “white” and as earlier mentioned, people of mixed decent are referred to those of “color” as opposed to terminology in the United States where a person of African descent may be referred to as a colored person and a person of mixed race would be referred to as mixed or bi-racial. While the Dutch played a large role in the history of South Africa, Afrikaners do not consider

themselves as Dutch and take offense to being called “Dutchmen”. Realize in traditional African society, the tribe is considered the most important community and is considered the equivalent of a nation, with the family as the ultimate basis of the tribe. Colored and black cultures tend to value extended family members as important as their nuclear family members where white cultures tend to focus more directly on their nuclear family. It is not uncommon for rural black communities to remain deeply entrenched in traditions of their heritage while more urban black communities that are being established are attempting to combine their heritage with more urban influences surrounding them. Disruption among family and tribes is occurring due to changes in the economic reorganization of South Africa. Challenges also exist as more people move into more urban areas and still attempt to maintain their family ties and cultures. Value placed on materialistic items over human decency that is seen more often in urban areas adds to the disruption as more typically rural ethnic groups migrate toward larger cities. This speaks to a few of the vast difference between rural and urban (typically black and white) dwellers and the clashing of their very distinct cultures. Concepts of time vary widely in that some areas will pay close attention to timeliness and punctuality where in other areas it is quite acceptable to start a meeting an hour or so after it is scheduled and agreed upon time. Safe to anticipate very similar etiquette and restrictions in 56

African cultures as is found in the Middle East and women to be considered a lower-class citizen. It is consistent across South Africa that all ethnicities prefer more personal face-to-face interactions, dealing, meetings, etc… rather than conducting those activities through email, written correspondence or telephone that tend to be more impersonal. PROPER WAY TO INTRODUCE OURSELVES AND OTHERS In an effort to show respect, it is not uncommon for a handshake to be soft and eye contact to not be direct. Generally, two white men in South Africa will greet each other with a handshake similar to an American / European greeting while one white man and one black man will add a thumb grasp before returning to a full handshake. Women may greet each other with a kiss on the cheek. When introducing someone, use their formal professional title. Do not use their first name until you are given permission to do so. South African’s may often address a foreigner as “doctor” or use another type of professional title at an effort to give honor or establish high regard. Titles such as Mr. and Mrs. are acceptable. Protocol is not officially set in the exchange of sharing business cards. If you are given one, treat it with respect. Addressing everyone in a business meeting is considered appropriate and polite but remembers to start with the most senior person in the room. It is not appropriate to stand too close to someone. Usually one arm’s length way is acceptable. In more formal settings, refrain from touching someone on the arm. When standing, it is preferred that you keep your hands and arms at your sides and when in a seated position, have them folded loosely on your lap. It may be considered offensive if you stand with your hands on your hips, in your pockets, or arms folded across the front of your chest. Yawning without covering your mouth, spitting, chewing with your mouth open and biting your finger nails are offensive behaviors as well as picking your nose. Expect a leisurely greeting that provides time for pleasantries and perhaps social discussion. Avoid embarrassing and potentially offensive moments by observing those around you and how they are conducting themselves. Best rule of thumb is to observe your host’s behavior. Use caution and restraint to not bring attention to yourself. In an effort to not offend someone, and not being positioned to know exact practices in a person’s culture in may be best to In South Africa it is considered extremely rude to make the “peace” sign hand gesture with the back of your hand facing away from your body. It is even more insulting to take that same hand gesture and point it directly at someone. And while it may be difficult for those of us who are predominately left handed to use our right hand when eating, interacting with someone else and passing or holding items, much attention should be given to using your right hand due to the fact many cultures in western Africa expect personal and bathroom hygiene to be conducted with the left hand; making it very offensive to touch another person with that hand; best to err on the side of caution. A “thumbs up” is considered a sign of saying okay, good job, or well done. Putting your fingertips together from both hands is a sign of saying thank you or display of you being grateful. Recommended reading: “When Culture’s Collide” by Brad Lewis 57

Sources: African Business Etiquette by Dana Griffin, eHow Contributor Kwintessential relocationjobs | Global relacation services Kwintessential: South Africa Country Profile Communicaid: Doing Business in South Africa OKSBDC International Trade Center

www.wikipedia.com www.cyborlink.com www.kwintessential.co.uk www.culturecrossing.net

Tracey Payton Miller Republic of South Africa Deemed a republic on 31 May 1961 (white vote.) Motto: Unity in Diversity Language and Religion South Africa has 11 official languages: English, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. The country has a population of approximately 53 million, with 80% from black African ancestry. S. Africa houses about 5 million immigrants, including 3 million Zimbabweans, Somalians, and those from the Congo. Most immigrants are refugees or seeking asylum. Christians are 79.8% of the population, while Muslims are 1.5%, Hindus are 1.2%, Traditional African religion is 0.3%, Judaism is 0.2%, 1.45% are unspecified, 15% have no religious affiliation, and 0.6% assume other religions. There are 200,000 indigenous traditional healers (sangomas or inyangas) in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers. Healers use a combination of ancestral beliefs, as well as medicinal properties of local plants and animals, known as muti. Many people combine Christian and indigenous influences as their basis for religion. Many blacks in South Africa live in rural areas, on meager means. However, this is where most of the traditional, cultural practices still survive most strongly. Other blacks have become members of the middle class along with whites, and have a lifestyle similar to those of North America, Western Europe, and Australia. Apartheid and The Rainbow Nation: Apartheid is an Afrikaans word, which literal translation means “apart-hood”, or a state of being apart. Apartheid in S. Africa is very similar to the Civil Rights movement in the United States. However, Apartheid was longer and may have a more bloody reputation. The National Party enforced the segregation legislation, which lasted from post WW2 until 1994, and limited the rights of the black majority. Schools, beaches, hospitals, and other public service organizations were segregated, and often supplied poor care. Even though segregation had been practiced since Dutch colonial times, apartheid was legal under the current government. Similar to the 1960’s in the Southeastern U.S., apartheid consisted of forced removals, assassinations, protests, prison sentences, anti-apartheid uprisings, etc. However, because of the long term nature, unrest and militarization led to more violent scenarios. In 1970, non-white representation was banned, and the denial of black citizenship began. Black citizens then became part of 10 tribal based, selfgoverning homelands, referred to as bantustans. Negotiations to end apartheid began in 1990 by 58

the current president Frederik Willem de Klerk. In 1994, multi-racial democratic elections were held, and the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela won. Nelson Mandela is well known as an anti-apartheid revolutionary, but he was also a politician, attorney, and philanthropist. In 1990, Mandela was released after serving 27 years in prison for conspiracy to overthrow the state, a sentence associated with his anti-apartheid mission. Mandela became president of S. Africa until 1999. Mandela is fondly referred to as ‘Madiba.’ Madiba is an African clan name, and an affectionate term for older males. Nelson was a name given to him by a teacher. It was customary to give English names to African children, by whites or Africans. There are multiple ethic groups in S. Africa. Post-apartheid, the term Rainbow Nation was coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu from a phrase used by Nelson Mandela. This was just after their first democratic election in 1994. Mandela proclaimed: "Each of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld - a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world." Archeological Sites There is an area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, termed the ‘Cradle of Humankind.’ Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province, including Sterkfontein, which is one of the prominent hominin fossil sites in the world. Many ancient populations migrated around S. Africa, and as they moved, larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated. At the time of European discovery, the dominant ethnic groups were Bantu-speaking tribes which migrated from other parts of Africa roughly one thousand years prior. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples. Arts & Literature Modern art in S. Africa is an eclectic mix of ancient, Dutch, folk, European, and current influence. South Africa has some of the oldest cave art in the world, dating from 75,000 years ago. In 1930, one of the first well known novels by a black author in an African language was published; Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi. In the 1950s, Drum magazine became a voice for urban black culture. White South African authors include Alan Paton, who published the novel ‘Cry, the Beloved Country’ in 1948. (Film in 1995). In 1991, Nadine Gordimer became the first South African Nobel Prize winner for Literature. In 2003, J.M. Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Olive Schreiner's ‘The Story of an African Farm’, published in 1883, was a popular read for Victorians, as it is introduced feminism in a novel format. Andre Brink was an Afrikaner writer banned by the government during apartheid, after releasing the novel ‘A Dry White Season.’ (Film in 1989.) Popular culture South Africa is a major media center for the African continent. English is the most commonly used language, but the other 10 are also represented. 59

Like everything else, there is a lot of diversity in S. African music. Black musicians developed a unique style called Kwaito, which has taken over all media outlets. Brenda Fassie, is a popular Kwaito musician, who is known for her song "Weekend Special", sung in English. Famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo and the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavor. South Africa is home to many world renowned jazz musicians, including Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. Afrikaans music covers multiple music genres, including contemporary and punk rock styles of Steve Hofmeyr and Fokofpolisiekar, respectively. . The most well-known movies about South Africa include District 9 and Invictus. ‘Tsotsi’ is another S. African movie which won the Academy Award for Foreign Language Film at in 2006. Food Diversity is everywhere in South Africa, including the food. Cuisine from many cultures may be presented to tourists wanting to sample the varied flavor. Like a Hawaiian Luau, music and dancing are often included in dining. Meals in S. Africa are very meat-based, tying into the social gathering known as a braai (barbeque). The country has also become a major wine producing nation, with some of the best vineyards in the Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl, and Barrydale valleys. Sports The most popular sports in S. Africa are soccer, rugby and cricket. However, swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis, and netball are also popular. Soccer is most popular with youth, but basketball, surfing, and skateboarding are gaining in popularity. South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup. South Africa is also home to numerous famous rugby players and also hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup (detailed in the movie Invictus). In 2007, S. Africa won the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France. South Africa holds many Olympic medals, the most notable in swimming, sprinting, and golfing. Random Trivia World’s first successful, adult human heart transplant was performed by S. African Doctor Christiaan Barnard. Famous South Africans: Charlize Theron-Actress, Sydney Brenner-Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine, J.R.R Tolkien-Writer-Lord of the Rings, Manfred Mann-Musician‘Blinded by the Light’, Shaun Morgan-Lead singer for Seether, Dave Matthews-Dave Matthews Band, Trevor Rabin-Yes, Thomas Baines-Painter/Explorer, Harry Oppenheimer-Businessman, Marmaduke Pattle-Allied Ace WW2, Desmond Tutu-cleric/Nobel Peace Prize winner, Ezra Butler-linebacker for NY Jets, Jerome Pathon-WR for Indianapolis, New Orleans, Atlanta, Steve Nash-LA Lakers, Thabo Sefolosha-OKC Thunder

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Sources: CBS Sunday Morning—Nelson Mandela Tribute http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2013/12/06/nelson-mandela-madibameaning/3889469/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa http://www.slate.com/blogs/behold/2013/12/10/nelson_mandela_and_apartheid_rise_and_fall_of _apartheid_examines_the_fight.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid_in_South_Africa

Appropriate Speaker gifts, tipping, & ordering food Jamie Cummings Traveling to a new place can be intimidating, but with proper research and preparation the dining, tipping and professional gift giving can be a fun adventure. South Africa is the Rainbow Nation, a title that captures the country's cultural and ethnic diversity. The population of South Africa is one of the most complex and diverse in the world (South Africa Explored http://www.sa-venues.com). Most of the customs take on a western tradition but many of the experiences can have a traditional touch. Restaurants and dining are always a concern when traveling to a new place. Urban South Africans will dine the Western way: rural South Africans will often dine in the more conservative African way, with a wooden spoon, communal bowl. Or no utensils (using the right hand) Breakfast is served from about 6 to 9 A.M., lunch from 12 to 2 P.M., and dinner from 8 to 10 P.M. the main meal of the day for most all groups is dinner. The typical diet is a combination of local ethnic group cuisine, Western foods, and Asian foods: much is available in South Africa. All groups enjoy barbecues, for example. Local food is rich in rice, yams and cassava (a root vegetable), plus breads, fresh vegetables, and fruits. Meats are enjoyed when available, and fish along the coast and rivers. Each ethnic group has its own specialties and preferences, and remember. Muslims will not eat pork or drink alcohol (although it is available). A typical dish is mealie meal (the South African version of the ubiquitous African porridge), served in any number of different ways. Braai is a traditional word for Bar-BQue Restaurant selections can be from fine dining restaurants, trendy restaurants, family eateries and wine estates. Restaurants in South Africa offer the diner an extraordinarily wide range of food types to choose from including traditional South African fare, German, Greek, Italian, Thai, Cajun, French and Vegetarian to satisfy your culinary desires. Tea, coffee, beer, water, and soft drinks are all available in most places. Some of the world's best wines are now coming from South Africa. When you come to a South African home, even for 61

just a brief visit, you will most likely be offered tea, sometimes served English style-with milk and sugar-if available. Many South Africans really do take the time to have afternoon tea. When offered, always accept the cup of tea and/or coffee, even if you only put it to your lips or just take a few sips. Your cup will always be refilled if it is less than half full. Typically, beer and other alcoholic drinks may also be served: fruit juices and lemonades, along with tea, may accompany meals. The food in South Africa is very different from the USA, the portions are much smaller and generally everything has more of a European influence than American. The menus will always be in English and you can always order in English so that won't be difficult but you may seems some cuts of meat that are different and some fish that you have never heard of here in the US (Kerry Eales). Tipping is a standard practice that is not too different than we do here in the United States. US Currency is widely accepted as a common tipping currency (tripadvisor.com). Rands are also accepted. The Rand is just shy of the value of a US Dollar and so the follow guidelines can be considered for either currency (moneyconverter.com). Frommer’s recommends that you convert enough funds before you leave home just to take care of airport incidentals and transportation to the hotel and then use the ATM at the airport for your time in South Africa. Using ATM’s and banks will be a better rate than exchanging at a hotel (Frommer’s South Africa). A normal tip is 10 - 15% for good service at restaurants and in bars. Most waiters earn a basic living wage so tips are a welcome supplement and reward for good service. If you're just buying a beer or coke, it's fine to just leave the small change, but according to The Lonely Planet's "Cape Town City Guide." Bartender tips run a couple of rand (R2) for every drink. If your party is 6 or more at a restaurant, the tip/service charge is frequently included in the check (http://goafrica.about.com). At hotels it is customary to leave R50 per person per day for housekeeping. If a porter assists with your bags, it's normal to tip the porter R15 per movement, assuming about two normal-size bags per person. Outside of larger cities, you may be asked to pay your tips to the hotel front desk. You may want to consider tipping the person directly, however, because the hotel may lay claim to this money and the intended recipient may never see it, which is unfortunate because these people are not well paid and depend on these tips. This information is consistent with what Kerry has advised me also she said “Tips are generally given at between 10 and 20% of the total bill, I would suggest never tip lower than 10% and anything from 15% upwards would be considered extremely generous. Most of the waiters and waitresses in restaurants and busboys, maids etc. in hotels are earning minimum wage and/or loving on their tips so anything you give them would be great.” She also said that one thing to 62

note, however, is in the larger cities, like Johannesburg, Cape Town and Pretoria it would probably be more customary to tip around 15% as the cost of living is more expensive and the general public will tip slightly more. Gift giving while abroad can sometimes create unintended consequences that we may not be used to thinking about while expressing a token of appreciation or trying to send a message of goodwill. Misguided contributions can perpetuate cycles of dependency, cause corruption, burden communities with unwanted or inappropriate donations, and require recipients to spend time and resources to handle ‘gifts’ they didn’t request or cannot use. CRESTTravelersPhilothrapy.com) Keeping traditional promotional items for professional situations, making sure that any tips or gifts go directly to the person you want to receive them, not to business management or staff, and making sure of the needs of a facility if you are going to donate are all good practices when giving in Africa. A native of the South Africa, Kerry Eales, says that a lot of the time a speaker really does not expect a gift when addressing a group, however to give them a small token of thanks or appreciation is a wonderful gesture and would be greatly appreciated. She suggested giving them something small that is unique to USA or even OK as this is not something that they will be able to purchase for themselves and will make it all the more special. South African's are generally very hospitable and friendly and just given the opportunity to show off our country will probably be gift enough. (Personal interview- Kerry Eales, South African Citizen) According to USA Today, The professional environment in South Africa is culturally diverse and you can you can never go wrong by using last names and titles when you first meet. Academic titles add a great deal of luster. Business attire is considered conservative for men and women, but do not be surprised if the hosts show up in dressy traditional attire. Even in business culture, you may receive an invitation to a South African home. If you do, you should bring a small gift for the hostess. A bottle of South African wine, flowers or chocolates works well as a hostess gift. Africans are justly famous for the pleasure they take in eating and entertaining and for their generosity. If you are invited to someone's home almost anywhere in Africa, be prepared - your host will go all out to impress you. In many countries, you will find no utensils of any kind and will be expected to eat with your hands. (traveltips.usatoday.com) Travel in South Africa can be intimidating at first but if you research properly you will find that the culture is contributed by many other cultures that lean toward many western culture traditions. Dining, meeting the locals and conducting business should be safe and enjoyable.

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Sources: Frommer's South Africa Author: Pippa De/ Bain Bruyn Pippa de Bruyn Kerry Anne Eales, HR Director Retail Industry, South African Citizen working in the USA http://goafrica.about.com moneyconverter.com CRESTTravelersPhilothrapy.com The Lonely Planet's "Cape Town City Guide." http://www.sa-venues.com

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Health and Education

Patty DeWitt Cheri Long Ginger Reimer Dianne Jeans

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Health concerns for visiting tourists traveling to South Africa Patty Dewitt Pack your sunscreen, Pack your bug spray, Pack the camera but, wait what about my Prescriptions and Vaccinations? Yellow Fever, Typhoid Fever, Malaria and countless other health issues are only a few concerns for Traveling to South Africa. It is recommended that if you are traveling from a yellow fever endemic area that you will need certification to prove your inoculation status when you arrive in South Africa. It is required of inoculation four to six weeks before our travel. A Yellow fever inoculation certificate only becomes valid 10 days after inoculation, after which remains valid for 10 years in your system. Typhoid fever also will need to be taking before the trip to South Africa. An oral type vaccine can be administered and stay in a travelers system for 5 years or a person can choose the injection and will be immunized for 2 years. Typhoid conditions are dangerous when exposed to poor sanitation conditions. Malaria like Yellow Fever is transmitted by mosquitos and usually will bite from dusk to dawn. Preventing Malaria in affected areas of Africa recommendation of taking medication. There are 3 options of prevention: Atovaquoine(Malarone) Doxycycline Mefloquine (Lariam) Passport Health of Oklahoma is recommending the use of Malarone 2 days before our visit to Hazy View the Malaria effected area and continue taking throughout the entire dose. 12 tablets total dosage. Also, when considering your mosquito biting prevention. It is recommended using repellant with DEET of 20 to 40%, insect repellent lotion and clothing insect repellent. One name brand is Duration that can be applied to the clothing before packing and will last up to 6 washings. Do not spray Duration directly on your skin but on clothing will last up to 6 weeks. Whether you take oral prophylaxis or not, avoid being outside at night as much as possible. Wearing light colored long pants, long-sleeved shirts and closed shoes at night and wide brimmed hats during the day. Hepatitis A & B are recommended for traveler also and a booster shot is available with the initial shot and then a second 6 months following. Hep A affects the liver and is transmitted person to person and by contaminated food and water. Hep B is spread by contact with bodily fluids especially blood and semen. When traveling another concern is traveler’s diarrhea it usually occurs within the first week away from home. It affects between 20 and 50 percent of all international travelers, especially those in Africa. Ciprofloxacin can be prescribed for traveler’s diarrhea along with over the 66

counter medicine of Immoduim. Immoduim should be taken a couple of days before starting the Cipro. Drinking an ample of amount of water is always encouraged when taking Cipro but, as we know to be wise with our water selection of water in Africa. Drinking water will remain one of our biggest health concerns. High quality tap water is available in South Africa’s urban areas, but not all water in rural areas is safe to drink straight from the tap. In some areas, the water is mineral-rich, and you may experience a bit of gastric distress for a day or two until you get used to it. Bottle mineral water, both sparkling and still, is readily available in most places. Drinking water straight from rivers and streams could put you at risk of waterborne diseases especially downstream of human settlements. The water in mountain streams, however, is usually pure and wonderful. Since it is not practical to pack your entire medicine cabinet, your travel destination and your itinerary may help you decided which medications to buy for your kit. The following medicines are a few suggestions from Oklahoma Department of Health: Anit-diarrhea medicine Antihistamine for an allergic reaction Anti-motion sickness medication Ibuprofen or acetaminophen anything for pain or fever Mild laxative or stool softener, changes in your eating routine and access to different foods can cause constipation. Antifungal ointment or cream, fungal infections of the skin, such as ringworm and athlete’s foot are common especially in warm climates, Tinactin or Lotramin. Antibacterial ointments or creams, to help prevent a skin infection from a minor cut or scrape, Neosporin Ointment. Managing Prescription Medications on this trip will be somewhat different. It is recommended that you leave any prescription medications in their original containers, make sure that all containers are properly labeled and place them in your carry -on luggage. If you use a controlled substance, such as a sedative, tranquilizer or narcotic pain medication, make sure you obtain a letter from your doctor, on the doctor’s stationery, stating why you need the drug. Without such a letter, these medications may not be allowed into another country or allowed back into the U.S. when we return. Likewise, you should have a letter from your doctor if you take any medication by injection and you have to carry needles and syringes. When filling your prescriptions at your local pharmacy you will receive a copy of what the prescriptions consists of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that we take the copy of the medications in our luggage so we will have copies of what we are taking. 67

So, pack the sunscreen, pack the bug spray and pack the camera…but, don’t forget to get your inoculations and your over counter meds. See you in February!! Sources: Passport Health of Oklahoma, November 2013 www.Travel.State.Gov, International Travel Information wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel goafrica.about.com, Travel Warnings for Africa

Education in South Africa Cheri Long Education in South Africa has similarities and difference to the education here in the United States. They face some of the same issues and encounter some of the same problems schools here in the US face. Structure of South Africa’s Education System The structure of South Africa’s educational system is similar to the US with a few varying differences. The academic year is January to December and not August to May as here in the US. Primary School or Elementary School is from Reception (Kindergarten) to Grade 6. Secondary School is grades 7-9 and then Further Education and Training is grade 10-12. It is a mandate in South Africa that children must attend through the 9th grade. They can choose to go further. That is different from us where as we require up to a High School diploma. Higher education is broken down into different degrees. Certificates and diplomas are generally 1-2 years of study. Bachelor’s degrees are from 3 to 6 years of study and depend upon the course. Honor’s degrees require 1 extra year of undergraduate study and require a thesis. A master’s degree is 2 years of post-graduate study and the Doctorate degrees vary in duration with a minimum of 2 years, following a Master’s degree. There are several similarities but, also some big differences. South Africa has 11 official languages but, schools and universities generally use English or Afrikaans as the language for instruction. As stated before, education is required up to grade 9. Students may opt after this completion to obtain their General Education and Training Certificate and pursue employment or some type of technical training at one of the Further Education and Training Institutions. The Ministry of Basic Education focuses on primary and secondary education which includes early childhood development centers. The Ministry of Higher Education and Training is responsible for tertiary education up to the doctorate level, technical and vocational training, and includes adult basic education and training. The government aims to have one million students enrolled at colleges by 2014. Elementary Education Based on data I found, in 2012 there were 12, 428,069 learners in ordinary public schools and independent schools. There are 25, 826 schools in South Africa. The number of educators to serve these schools is 425, 167. After looking at the map to locate the place we will visit on our trip to South Africa, here are the numbers for those areas. Eastern Cape – 5,558, Gauteng which include Pretoria and Johannesburg – 2,045 and the Western Cape – 1,453, Mpumalanga which 68

include Whitbank and Nelspruit – 1,807. The students in elementary or primary grades concentrate on languages and math but include science, social studies, music and art as well. The typical school day is from 8 am to 2 pm. Students begin to learn a second language when they enter third grade. They have their home language but, must learn English and one of the other country’s eleven languages. Schools vary widely in structure, design, cleanliness etc. Some of the schools have modern buildings that include computers, hockey fields, indoor gyms, and swimming pools. These are more likely to be your more affluent areas of South Africa. Some schools have no water, toilets or telephones. This of course would be the more rural area schools. Here in the US there are always some districts and schools that deal with issues of class sizes and teacher/student ratios. This is the same in South Africa. In South Africa the typical ratio of students to teachers is 30 to 1 which isn’t that bad in most people’s perspective. A teacher in a poor school could have to teach to 50 students in a classroom. Generally it is the public schools that have the larger classes versus the independent schools. The former Gauteng MEC, Angie Motshekga oversees the Ministry of Basic Education. Secondary Education With the approximately 49 million people in population, South Africa has 6000 secondary schools. Data shows that in 2009, 580,577 candidates took their matric final exams. Out of this number, 61% passed to obtain the National Senior Certificate. Out of these, a little more than half achieved a “bachelor’s pass” which made them eligible to apply for university studies in South Africa. We here in the US are somewhat familiar with Outcome Based Education which are education are student-centered learning methods that focus on empirically measuring student performance. This same curriculum has been in place in South Africa since the mid 2000’s. The aim is to develop critical thinking skills needed to succeed at the tertiary level. Due to the impact and legacy of apartheid and resource constraints, many public schools are severely challenged to meet the bars that are set for introducing OBE. Data shows that the average achieved for most exams in most subjects across South Africa is now between 50-60%. If a student received anything over a 70% is considered very good and a result of over 80% is excellent and rare. The grading scale we use here in the US is a letter grade of either A, B, B+, C, D, or F. In South Africa, they chose to use numbers instead. So an A would have the number 7 and the percentage would be from 80-100%. A B+ would be a 6 and the percentage would be 70-79%. A B would be a 5 and be 60-69%. A C would be a 4 and be 50-59%. A D would be 3 and be 4049%. An F has 2 numbers that are 2 and 1. The percentages for those would be 30-39% and 2029%. Higher Education South Africa’s higher education systems consists of 23 publicly funded universities which were consolidated in 1994 from 34 universities. These institutions are responsible for the Further Educations and Training Certificates which is training from grades 10-12. Some of these universities are career-oriented education programs to technical colleges, community colleges 69

and private colleges. The Higher Education Act of 1997 which is: to regulate higher education; to provide for the establishment, composition and functions of a Council on Higher Education; to provide for the establishment, governance and funding of public higher education institutions; to provide for the appointment and functions of an independent assessor; to provide for the registration of private higher education institutions; to provide for quality assurance and quality promotion in higher education; to provide for transitional arrangements and the repeal of certain laws; and to provide for matters connected therewith. Basically it mandates that all higher education institutions come under the authority of the national government, while FET colleges report to the individual provinces. Data shows that in 2010, the public higher education institutions produced or graduated 153,741 qualifying students at all levels. 41,724 were in business and commerce and 37,405 were in science and technology. 74,612 were in the human and social sciences. South African Communist Party secretary-general, Blade Nzimande is the Minister of Higher Education and Training. Spending and Challenges This research showed that compared with most other countries, education gets a very large slice of the public pie so to speak. The total state expenditure for education is 20%. It receives the largest share of government spending. Due to the apartheid education system, white South African children received a quality education basically for free. The Black students had only “Bantu education”. The 1953 Bantu Education Act was one of apartheid's most offensively racist laws. It was a keystone of the overall apartheid system. It brought African education under control of the government and extended apartheid to black schools. Previously, most African schools were run by missionaries with some state aid. Nelson Mandela and many other political activists had attended mission schools. But Bantu education ended the relative autonomy these schools had enjoyed up to that point. Instead, government funding of black schools became conditional on acceptance of a racially discriminatory curriculum administered by a new Department of Bantu Education. Most mission schools for Africans chose to close rather than promote apartheid in education. Today’s government is still working to rectify these imbalances in education. The apartheid legacy remains in some areas. Illiteracy is a big issue. Data shows that about 18% of adults over 15 years old are not functionally literate. That is around 9 million adults. Teachers that are in township schools are poorly trained. The South African Education system has had to overcome some major obstacles. Things are improving. Since apartheid legislation was taken out things are slowly getting better. In 1993 almost half of all students in higher education were white but in 1994 black African enrollments nearly doubled. It grew by 91% and overall enrollments have grown by 41%. Equity is still an issue. 58.5% of whites and 51% of Indians enter higher education but, the blacks are only 12%. This is due to poor primary and secondary education. This has become a priority for the current government to address. The greatest challenges for schools lie in the poorer, rural provinces such as the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. As here in the US, schools are generally better resources in the more affluent provinces such as Gauteng and the Western Cape. New Strategy for Education The government in South Africa has a new strategy for turning education around. It is called Action Plan to 2014: Towards the Realization of Schooling 2025. The purpose or aim of this strategy is to improve learning and the work of teachers. With the new curriculum in place, the 70

main significance and focus is on literacy and numeracy. It is about Language Arts and Math. This is what Common Core is for us here in the US. Other subjects are taught but this is the main focus. This curriculum is connected to the National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement or CAPS. The curriculum provides specific and targeted guidelines to streamline what is taught in schools with the purpose or aim to close the divide between well-resourced and poor schools. Here in the US most states have adopted the National Common Core Standards which close the divide between states, so that students moving around in different states will have the same standards taught. Another measure is the introduction to assessment. They want standardized tests of grade three, six and nine. This will ensure better tracking progress. It puts an emphasis on early childhood development and universal access to Grade R or Kindergarten. This will also ensure that the students will have access to good quality textbooks, improve school infrastructure and strengthen school management. This action plan includes two programs to help with the poor schools. One of the programs is no-fee schools. This means the school receives all the required funding from the state and they will not have to charge school fees. These schools have been identified and are located in the country’s most poverty stricken areas. The other is the National Schools Nutrition Program. This program will give more than 8.8 million school children a cooked meal five days a week. The Action Plan consists of 27 goals. Goals 1 to 13 deal with the outputs to be achieved in relation to learning and enrollments. Goals 14 to 27 deal with how the outputs are achieved. South Africa has chosen 5 priority goals. They are as follows: Goal 11 – Improve the access of children to quality Early Childhood Development below Grade 1. Goal 16 – Improve the professionalism, teaching skills, subject knowledge and computer literacy of teachers throughout their entire careers. Goal 19 – Ensure that every learner has access to the minimum set of textbooks and workbooks required according to national policy. Goal 21 - Ensure that the basic annual management processes take place across all schools in the country in a way that contributes towards a functional school environment. Goal 27 – Improve the frequency and quality of the monitoring and support services provided to schools by district offices, partly through better use of e-education. The Action Plan has set out the goals that the NES will work towards and actions to achieve these goals by 2014. This is just the first of many steps towards South Africa’s realizing the bigger, longer term vision of quality education in schools by 2025. Everyone has a part to play in achieving the goals. The goals are clear and the strategies are flexible. This flexibility allows the schools and their communities to come up with strategies that best suit their own situation. This is how it should be. The plan has a part where measuring progress using annual national assessments. Every year all students in grades 1 to 6 and in grade 9 will take national standardized tests. Someone in the data I researched quoted, “By improving performance in these areas, learners will benefit from a higher quality of education”. 71

Personal Thoughts Students, teachers and administrators have had a long battle and many, many adversities and challenges to overcome in the area of education. This is true in South Africa and in the United States. Education is ever changing. I have been in education for more than 15 years and I have seen that pendulum swing back and forth many times. In doing my research I learned a lot about apartheid that made me put connections with our segregation laws we had way back when. South Africa isn’t what is used to be and is becoming more grounded and more established in the area of education and I was glad to see the Action Plan that the Ministers of Education have put in place. There are many children, educators and schools in South Africa that will make an impact on their world. It is overwhelming but it must be done. I am excited about getting to see South Africa first hand and learning how I can be an impact in my part of educating children. Sources: Spengler, Kremena. South Africa as Question and Answer Book. Capstone Press. 2007 Oluonye, Mary N. South Africa. Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. 2009 www.southafrica.info/about/education/universities.htm www.education.gov.za http://southafrica.usembassy.gov/root/pdfs/study_sa_profile_rev100630.pdf Works Cited Author’s last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Date Published: Pages. Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Online Article.” Title of Online Publication Version (Year Published): Pages. Date Accessed . “Title of Article.” Title of Media. CD-ROM. City: Publisher, Year. Safety In South Aftrica Ginger Reimer “When you travel to South Africa the odds are in your favor that you will have a safe and incident-free experience.” Safety begins when you pack. To avoid being a target, dress conservatively. Don't wear expensive looking jewelry. A flashy wardrobe or one that is too casual can mark you as a tourist. As much as possible, avoid the appearance of affluence. Always try to travel light. You can move more quickly and will be more likely to have a free hand. You will also be less tired and less likely to set your luggage down, leaving it unattended. Put your name, address and telephone numbers inside and outside of each piece of luggage. Use covered luggage tags to avoid casual observation of your identity or nationality. If possible, lock your luggage. Carry the minimum amount of valuables necessary for your trip and plan a place or places to conceal them. Your passport, cash and credit cards are most secure when locked in a hotel safe. When you have to carry them on your person, you may wish to conceal them in several places 72

rather than putting them all in one wallet or pouch. Bring travelers checks and one or two major credit cards instead of cash. Pack an extra set of passport photos along with a photocopy of your passport information page to make replacement of your passport easier in the event it is lost or stolen. Avoid handbags, fanny packs and outside pockets that are easy targets for thieves. Inside pockets and a sturdy shoulder bag with the strap worn across your chest are somewhat safer. One of the safest places to carry valuables is in a pouch or money belt worn under your clothing. Keep camera put away until you are ready to use it. It’s suggested that if you wear glasses, pack an extra pair. Bring them and any medicines you need in your carry-on luggage. To avoid problems when passing through customs, keep medicines in their original, labeled containers. Bring copies of your prescriptions and the generic names for the drugs. If a medication is unusual or contains narcotics, carry a letter from your doctor attesting to your need to take the drug. If you have any doubt about the legality of carrying a certain drug into a country, consult the embassy or consulate. “Don't bring anything you would hate to lose. Leave at home: · valuable or expensive-looking jewelry, irreplaceable family objects, all unnecessary credit cards, Social Security card, library cards, and similar items you may routinely carry in your wallet.” So, people leave your library cards at home.  Leave a copy of your itinerary with family or friends at home in case they need to contact you in an emergency. Personal Safety and crime in South Africa: There is continuing and significant street crime such as muggings, pickpocketing, and random street violence, which affects foreigners as well as local residents, especially in the center of major cities such as Johannesburg. Road conditions are generally good but there is a very high incidence of highway casualties, especially over holiday weekends. Safety on the Street: Use the same common sense traveling in South Africa that you would at home. Be especially cautious in or avoid areas where you are likely to be victimized. These include crowded subways, train stations, elevators, tourist sites, market places, festivals and marginal areas of cities. Don't use short cuts, narrow alleys or poorly-lit streets. Try not to travel alone at night. Avoid public demonstrations and other civil disturbances. Keep a low profile and avoid loud conversations or arguments. Do not discuss travel plans or other personal matters with strangers. Avoid scam artists. Beware of strangers who approach you, offering bargains or to be your guide. Wear the shoulder strap of your bag across your chest and walk with the bag away from the curb to avoid drive-by purse-snatchers. Try to seem purposeful when you move about. Even if you are 73

lost, act as if you know where you are going. When possible, ask directions only from individuals in authority. If you are confronted, don't fight back. Give up your valuables. Your money and passport can be replaced, but you cannot. Safety in Your Hotel: Hotel safety kept surfacing in printed material so as a reminder: Keep your hotel door locked at all times. Meet visitors in the lobby. Do not leave money and other valuables in your hotel room while you are out. Use the hotel safe. Let someone know when you expect to return if you are out late at night. If you are alone, do not get on an elevator if there is a suspicious-looking person inside. Read the fire safety instructions in your hotel room. Know how to report a fire. Be sure you know where the nearest fire exits and alternate exits are located. Count the doors between your room and the nearest exit. This could be a life saver if you have to crawl through a smokefilled corridor. Safety on Public Transportation: In South Africa this is more of an issue of vehicles being unsafe rather than tourists being targeted by criminals on public transport. While Johannesburg is infamous for carjacking, the incidence of this kind of crime is still relatively low. Most tourists to the bustling city will find the traffic too heavy and the roads too confusing to even consider renting a car. Outside of Johannesburg, the biggest threat on the road is reckless, aggressive drivers. South Africans drive on the left side and measure speed in kilometers per hour. Be wary of minibus taxis, the white vans that are often driven by unlicensed drivers. Their rates are fixed, so drivers try to maximize profits by getting from point A to point B as quickly as possible. Many do not heed speed limits or traffic signs. How to Handle Money Safely: To avoid carrying large amounts of cash, change your travelers' checks only as you need currency. Countersign travelers' checks only in front of the person who will cash them. Be sure to watch for your credit card to be returned to you after each transaction. Deal only with authorized agents when you exchange money or purchase souvenirs. Do not change money on the black market. If your possessions are lost or stolen, report the loss immediately to the local police. Keep a copy of the police report for insurance claims and as an explanation of your plight. After reporting missing items to the police, report the loss or theft of: travelers' checks to the nearest agent of the issuing company, credit cards to the issuing company, and airline tickets to the airline or travel agent, passport to the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. Safety is an issue that is paramount in the minds of tourists visiting South Africa. Although South Africa is in many respects a developed country, much of its population, particularly in rural areas, lives in poverty. It is the impoverished areas that cause the most concern. High 74

violent crime and murder rates have earned South Africa a reputation as a dangerous destination, but while crime is certainly a problem, the vast majority of it occurs in South Africa’s poor townships, which are seldom frequented by tourists. Robberies There is a huge disparity between the haves and have-nots in South Africa. The former apartheid government’s exploitative economic policies led to widespread poverty, which bred crime, and the cohabitation of the rich and destitute has led to an informal redistribution of wealth through robbery. While no plan is foolproof, there are common-sense tactics to reduce your likelihood of being targeted. It is suggested to stay in a place with 24-hour security guards. ATMs in South Africa are a hot spot for robberies, so when you need to withdraw money, look for an ATM in a busy city center or mall. If possible, withdraw money during the day. Never accept help from anyone when withdrawing and immediately put the money in your wallet. Safety of Women While South Africa has disturbingly high sexual assault and rape statistics, tourists are not generally targeted, and the vast majority of violence toward women occurs in the townships. Still, women visitors to South Africa should be cautious. South Africans living outside the cities tend to be conservative, both in mindset and dress. Outside of urban areas, women should cover up to avoid unwanted stares. Many South African women travel alone on minibuses, trains and in their own vehicles, but visitors--both men and women–are wise to travel in groups. Hiking and Water Safety Beyond being streetwise, visitors to South Africa should also be aware of natural hazards. Table Mountain in Cape Town, one of the most popular tourist attractions in South Africa, claims more lives than Mount Everest, according to Lonely Planet Cape Town. It is rare that a week goes by without a serious hiking accident or fatality. Dress and pack appropriately for hiking trips, and bring a cell phone to call rescue personnel in an emergency. The water along the coast is usually rough and sometimes frigid, and drowning and hypothermia deaths are common. When possible, swim and surf in areas that are marked off for those purposes. Drinking Water Drinking water in South Africa is safe to drink and cook with when taken from taps in urban areas. Not all tap water in rural areas is safe for consumption, so take precautions if necessary. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry maintains that South Africa's national standard of water quality compares well with World Health Organization standards. Some tap and natural water may have a slight brown tinge from humic acid, which is harmless and does not affect drinking water quality in South Africa. Food Available Standards of hygiene in relation to food health and safety in South Africa are generally high in hotels, restaurants, pubs and nightspots. It is safe to eat fresh fruit, vegetables and salads, and put ice in your drinks. Fish, meat and chicken are of excellent quality, so there is no need to limit yourself when enjoying the local cuisine. Restaurants are subject to South Africa's food safety 75

control legislation, which is implemented by local government. Regulations include certification and regular inspections by health inspectors to ensure hygienic standards are maintained. Street food is not as common in South Africa as it is in other countries, although vendors selling traditional snacks and meals can be found in city centers and townships. Food safety in such instances cannot always be guaranteed. Medical Treatment Medical facilities are good in all urban areas of South Africa and in the vicinity of game parks and beaches, but may be limited elsewhere. Private hospitals in the urban centers of South Africa offer first-world medical care. If you are visiting remote areas, it’s wise to purchase travel insurance, which generally covers the cost of a helicopter ride if you need to be flown to a city for treatment. If you forgo travel insurance, check with your home insurance provider to see if any hospitals in South Africa are covered. Keep their names and phone numbers with you when you travel so you can direct ambulances. Travel insurance is recommended and can be purchased for $80-$150. Some restrictions apply concerning purchase date within range of purchasing airline ticket. Travel insurance covers ticket costs as well as medical emergencies and rescues. In case of an emergency The nationwide emergency number for the police is 10111, and the nationwide number for ambulance service is 10177. It is not necessary to dial an area code when calling these numbers. “It is true that visitors to South Africa face risks that those to the Caribbean or Europe might be less likely to encounter, but with the proper precautions, your trip to the beautiful country of South Africa should be safe and enjoyable.” Sources: Traveltips.usatoday.com/south-africa-safe-visit-1222.html Southafrica.inspiringnewways.net Travel.state.gov Travelguard.com South Africa’s Urban and Rural Housing Dianne Jeans The goal within both urban and rural areas is to improve the quality of living of all South Africa. The South African government’s approach to the housing issue is aimed at mobilizing and harnessing the combined resources, efforts and initiative of the communities, the private sector, and the state. The goal and emphasis must be on the poor and those who have been previously disadvantaged. Housing in South Africa has been an enormous issue for many decades and continues to be a struggle for both the residents and the government officials. In 2010, nine South African towns received the ultimate makeover for the 2010 World Cup. Each of these nine towns, Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Nelspruit, 76

Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria, and Rustenburg received a state of the art soccer stadium as well as hotels, restaurants, and office buildings. The so called “Tin Towns” were cleaned up, their shacks and shanties were removed and everything was modernized, making the area breathtaking to residents and visitors alike. Many of these towns are more beautiful and up-todate than many of the metropolitan cities found in the United States. A South African saying is, "When the Europeans came they had the bible and we had the land, now we have the bible and they have our land. Everyone here, regardless of color, tells you that white people are still riding high” (Dillard). The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) reported in 2001 to 2012 these findings: Black Africans make up about 76% - 80% of the population. Their income ranges from only 29% to 30%, while whites who make up less the 11% of the population have an income of 59% (Knight). South Africa Urban Housing “Regardless of their political conflicts, all major urban protagonists have agreed that there is an enormous shortage of affordable housing for the black and white South Africa working class population.” (Napier). South Africa reported in September 2003 that the poorest 20% of people spend less than $10.00 American dollars per person per month on housing. Those living in poverty still lack access to basic socioeconomic rights. In 2003, 35 million people in South Africa qualified for government subsidies housing (Turner). This is similar to the United States, where in 2013, 12.4 million people qualified for government subsidies housing (Turner). The types of social classes in South Africa are: white Dutch multimillionaires, black and Indian educated millionaires, white Dutch blue-collar new poor (this class has become economically despaired and is growing vulnerable), and the Black and Indian old poor (this class faces social exclusion and extreme poverty). The wealthy white Dutch owned and operated many of the businesses in South Africa during Apartheid. They hired only white Dutch employees to manage and work in these facilities. When Apartheid ended in 1994, the white Dutch began to hire the poor black and Indian citizens. Over the years, some of the poor population became educated. Within a decade, the new black and Indian educated millionaire social class was born. The white Dutch multimillionaires sold their homes and businesses to the black and Indian millionaires. Following this, the black millionaires exclusively hired members of the poor black social class; hence the white Dutch new poor social class was formed. The black millionaires started purchasing the white Dutch working class’s homes and businesses. Consequently, this began the new “White Tin Towns.” South Africa is known for the rapid delivery of houses. It's been acknowledged that there are still many challenges faced in terms of the generation functioning neighborhood as opposed to house units (Dealing with South Africa). South Africa's concern with crime is comparable to New York City or Chicago. One of South Africa's main concerns is political instability and dealing with the disruption of race riots, poverty, environmental degradation, disconnection, social exclusion, and uncoordinated development. These concerns are comparable to the United States 77

during racial segregation in the 1960s. The types of housing for the South African poor population include: Shanties, Shacks, Housing Units, Functional neighborhoods, and Single-sex hostels for workers. “It is interesting to note that demand for houses increases proportionately to the governments subsidized provision of housing" (CIA). The issues that the above poor population faces include, but are not limited to high crime rate, economic disparity, incredible poverty, disease, and high rate of HIV. Many of the impoverished do not have the money to pay the water and sewage bill while living in a subsidized government home, and opt to erect a shack or shanty where the government will provide free water and substandard sewage facilities. This has evolved into sterile, regimented and inefficient settlement patterns. The Rehabilitation and Development Programme (RDP) has added to the problem of new "Tin Towns" (Dealing with South Africa). In an article, RDP interviewed a 35 year old mother of five who deliberately chose to live in a shack in Military Heights, Cape Town. She lived with her family and had a house of her own in a rural South African town. Seven years ago she was told and promised by the RDP if she came to Cape Town she would receive a new free house of her own. She sold her old home and moved, but it was a lie (Knight). This is reminiscent of the SNAP program here in the United States. Why work if one can receive more government handouts than if one tries to better oneself? These programs have evolved generational and inefficient patterns of behaviors. The moral and the "Sweat Equity" motivation have caused people to think "What can the government give me or the attitude of the government owes me." This type of philosophy in a society can cause dismay, hopelessness, entitlement, misery, and degradation. Executive homes in Johannesburg, Alexandra and Pretoria were accustomed to high walls and alarm systems were installed to guard against the country's high crime rate. Even today South African cities are very much dictated by policies and economic segregation. At one time a town called Sandton was mostly farmland and known as the "Mink and Manure Belt" for its wealthy landowners and horse trails. Now it's the Sandton City, the new location of South Africa’s largest office space which has almost half-a-million square feet of office space. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange moved here in 2000. The cost of one dwelling here can be up to 5.9 million American dollars and includes four bedrooms, a swimming pool, a steam room, a home theater, and a seven car parking space. The Sandton City residents access their property with a fingerprint scan. Visitors to this city are required to submit their phone numbers, car license registration and state their business to the city. Once application has been approved to enter the city an entrance and exit code is then texted to their cell phone. The attraction of this new city is "a lock-up and goliving." The high walls around each dwelling are a thing of the past. The high walls now surround the city. This new city contains the newest in hotels, clubs, and boutiques. They also offer a secure high speed rail service to Johannesburg and to Pretoria, low to no crime and maintenance free living. South Africa Rural Housing In Pretoria one white farmer shows sympathy and compassion to the new poor white family. This farmer allows only white squatters to reside on a few acres of his farmland. He also provides fresh running water, sewage and one hot meal a day to each of the white squatters. According to Ernst Rotes, a leading Afrikaans campaigner, there are estimated 80 white squatter camps in 78

Pretoria and believed to be as many as 400,000 poor whites in the squatter camps (BBC). Twenty years ago there were about 60,000 white farmers, today there are only about 30,000 white farmers. The reason is due to Apartheid. Today, which do you think would have a chance to be killed or murdered……A white farmer or a police officer? A white farmer is twice as likely to be murdered as if they were a police officer. This can be likened to the number of family owned farms and ranches here in the United States. The average age farmer/rancher has increased while the number of family owned farms and ranches have decreased. In the impoverished rural areas, families work together to gather materials and build rondawels. A rondawel is the Afrikaans word for a round or oval shaped dwelling. The word rondawel has been westernized to rondavel. These dwellings are made by hand and usually can be erected in one day (Problems in South Africa). The dwellings can withstand the weather and age well. There are a few rondavels that are over 100 years old. The building materials consist of tree limbs, spars or poles called gumpoles. The gumpoles are placed, erected, and embedded into the soil. The mixture for the mortar is a combination of soil, sand, and cow dung. The recipe for the mortar is a family recipe; each recipe is different depending on if the dwelling will be made out of bricks, mortar like stucco or a combination of both methods. The mixture is then troweled on to the gumpoles. Some families use a homemade trowel, while many use their hand as a trowel. The mixture is then troweled on the inside and outside of the dwelling. Some of the floors are made of a cow dung mixture to make it hard and smooth (South Africa at Its Best). This process can be done in less than two days. The dwelling will be painted, elaborately carved, or decorated either inside or outside which will add one or two more days to the process. Next, the conical (cone like) roof will be added. Materials needed for the thatched roof are the gumpoles and grass rope. A thatching job or sewing can take anywhere from three days to a year if made by a skilled artisan as it is sewn one section at a time, starting from the bottom working upwards. As each section is sewn, it may be weathered and aged to form a complete weatherproof seal (Dillard). The rondavels are comparable to rooms in our homes. One rondavel can be used as a bedroom, winter kitchen, holiday cottage, tool sheds, milk rooms etc. Traditional rondavels didn't have running water, electricity or other modern amenities. Today many are now equipped or have been adapted to accommodate these services; each family can afford them or as the infrastructure is developed. In my research, South Africa has made great strides in providing housing and basic services such as electricity and water to its inhabitants. However, much remains to be done to overcome the housing backlog and to make water and electricity available and more affordable. I look forward to seeing the progress of the many cities and towns that I will tour and I am excited to be immersed in their culture. Sources: The CIA World Factbook 2014. New York: Skyhorse, 2013. Print. "Dealing with South Africa." Interview by John Simpson. BBC. N.d. Television. Dillard, Tom, and Rose Dillard. "Residents of South Africa." Personal interview. 01 Nov. 2013. Knight, Richard. Community Kraals. Pretoria, South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture, 79

2003. Print. Napier, Mark. Conference Papers. Cape Town: SALDRU, 1984. Print. "Problems in South Africa." Interview by Peter Hain. BBC News. N.p., 08 Feb. 2013. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. . "South Africa at Its Best." Reuters via Yahoo! Finance. N.p., 10 Dec. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. Turner, Margery A. Federal Programs for Addressing Low- Income Housing Needs. N.p.: n.p., 2008. Print.

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Economics

Joe Gribble Rusty Roush Justin Whitmore Karen Eifert Jones

81

South Africa Economy Joe Gribble South Africa’s economy acts very similar to the United States. There are both imports and exports that keep the economy moving. Trade happens on an everyday basis with products such as metals, currency, agricultural commodities, and many other things. With South Africa covering 1.22 million square kilometers, it has allowed the trade environment to remain stable and diverse. The market also operates in high volumes and transactions that can happen very quickly in a liquid market such as South Africa’s Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). At the JSE, market fluctuations occur on a rapid basis much like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT). Due to proximity to Chicago, South Africa has its own commodity price index. It is known as SAFEX Commodity Derivatives. This is a place to come to price discovery where buyers and sellers can exchange and manage their risks. South Africa has the most modernized and productive economy on the continent of Africa. With the country being so large, I found it interesting that 90% of the population lives on the coasts as opposed to the United States. With that mentioned, the majority of the imports will stay on the coastal areas with very little making its way inland. This makes inter-country trading very important for South Africa. Like the United States, the majority of the agriculture and other raw commodities originate in the central portion of the country and then rely on the infrastructure to get the commodities to be further processed or to an exportable terminal. The central part of the nation plays an integral part to the survival of the country. South Africa has three main import/export terminals for goods: Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth. The busiest of the three is Durban. It is located on the eastern part of the country and services the Indian Ocean and trade routes that link North America and South America with the Middle East, India, Asia, and Australia. According to the US Commercial Service website, the Durban Container Terminal is the largest and best-equipped container terminal in the southern hemisphere. A crucial part that the Durban terminal has is rail access. Rail access is key to moving any type of export or import cost effectively in South Africa. Although after visiting South Africa, the government controls the majority of the rail and has it shut down. Much like the Mississippi River is to the United States; it opens a gateway from origin to destination efficiently. Most of their imports come via airplane and land at the country’s biggest airport in Johannesburg. South Africa is the largest producers of platinum, vanadium, chromium, and manganese and the second largest producers of gold. South Africa is the world’s 3rd largest exporter of coal. These metals and raw commodities are a valuable piece to the South African GDP and provide a supply to a hungry export market. South Africa is also a net exporter of farm products, meaning they produce more than can be physically held or consumed in country. Their main exportable manufactured products are iron and steel, motor vehicles, metals, chemicals, and petroleum products. These products alone make up 50% of their exports with the United States being the top importer. They also export agricultural commodities such as wheat, and white corn. South Africa had a trade deficit in 2012 of 117.7 billion Rand ($11.2 billion USD) according to South African Trade Statistic company SARS. Their top imported items are vehicle parts, motor vehicles, refined petroleum products, televisions, radios, and computers. They are also a big 82

importer of animals and animal products in the sum of $480 million USD per year and fats and oils of $633 million. One of their top 5 imports is textiles and clothing of which is a substantial $1.7 billion industry. They are a net exporter of vegetable products of $960 million. The United States and South Africa have trade agreements in place to trade freely between one another. The trade between the United States and South Africa totaled in 2011 at $22 billion USD with goods and services according to the Office of the United States Trade Representative. We have a trade deficit of $2.2 billion USD in goods and a $1 billion USD surplus in services. The US exported a total of $361 million worth of agricultural products to South Africa in 2011. The largest commodity of interest was wheat with $95 million, followed by poultry meal ($33 million), vegetable oils ($31 million), and dairy products ($28 million). Imports into the United States from South Africa totaled $210 million with fresh fruits being the leader with $46 million, followed very closely with wine and beer ($45 million), and tree nuts ($33 million). According to the United States Department of Commerce, trade statistics with South Africa and Oklahoma range year to date 2013 at $1.7 million to $18 million. There are multiple companies in Oklahoma that deal indirectly with South Africa. Agricultural companies such as ADM, Bunge, Cargill, and Land O’ Lakes, and PCOM to name a few originate or process materials that will later end up in countries such as South Africa. Personally, PCOM has done business indirectly with a company by the name of Bunge, LTD out of St. Louis, Missouri. They have a direct investment in a trading company in South Africa by the name of Senwes. Bunge will take vegetable oils like cotton, canola, and soybean, further process it to food grade edible, and then export it to the South African coast where it will be bottled and distributed. In dollars, the value of the oil in the United States is worth $0.50/lb. FOB US Gulf and by the time it is delivered to the South African port, it might be worth $1.00 USD/lb. or 10.30 Rand. This oil will be taken by ocean vessels that can hold around 22 million pounds worth of vegetable oil. One note I found particularly interesting was that the European Union is has a trade agreement in place that allows many of their products to enter South Africa duty-free and at lower rates than the United States. As far as foreign investment, the United States and South Africa both are very heavily invested in each other’s economy. The United States has Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of $6.5 billion in the South African economy in land, stocks, and other manufacturing sectors. We are the largest portfolio investor in South Africa with over $70 billion, but 2nd to the United Kingdom in FDI. The South African government is not quite as invested as the United States, but they have $687 million mostly invested in the United States trade sector. According to an article by the Wall Street Journal, during apartheid, trade and investment were directly affected with sanctions and boycotts that other countries imposed on South Africa. Many countries, including the United States, were against apartheid and used these sanctions as “a civilized alternative to bullets, bombs and invasions”. Much like we are doing to Iran today, sanctions such can take a country to its knees economically until finally there must be a truce or agreement. The lifting of the apartheid signaled a win for the international community. South Africa relies on many things to spur its economy. One of the major energy sources domestically is coal as heavily as 87% in 2008 according to the International Energy Agency. As we have seen in the United States, we are starting to move away from coal due to emissions. South Africa is now in process of taken after the United States and expanding its renewable 83

energy, nuclear energy, and carbon capture and storage. Another important industry to the South African economy is mining. Being the world’s largest producer of certain metals has made South Africa very well developed and sophisticated. This, more than agriculture, has helped the infrastructure of the country because it is a reliable source of energy and a huge exportable product to the rest of the world. The exportable terminals have upgraded substantially to be able to handle such big volumes of energy and metals that the South African government has added stimulus to many industries to keep local investment as well as foreign investment funneling into the country. Like the United States, South Africa is also looking to make a government mandated bio-fuel standard that has to be met by the year 2015. They are looking at bio-diesel for their transportation, but have not set a standard yet. I also read there is a plant in South Africa that can convert natural gas into diesel, jet fuel, and other chemical products. Something I have found interesting is that the majority of their corn is fed in one form or another. They do not currently have much of an ethanol grind, but it looks like the government is going to intervene and make that a mandate as well in 2015. I would like to see how long ethanol lasts there because they have such a large group of animals to feed and the main feed ingredients are derived from corn. Chickens and cattle revenues combined are double what maize (corn) revenues are. This sets the stage for a good debate within their government much like the United States has going on right now. The agricultural equipment market provides $919 million worth of revenue to the country. Statistics show that sixty percent of the equipment industry are tractor sales followed by combines and balers. With $919 million worth of equipment only 5% is produced within the borders and 20% of the sales coming from the United States with equipment like Agco, John Deere, Case IH, and New Holland. Comparatively to the rest of the continent, South Africa has the most modern and diverse agricultural economy, but only accounts for 2-3% of the actual GDP. The government’s plan of action is to create more jobs within the agricultural industry because it is an industry that is under-developed as compared to the energy and metals. The expansion of agriculture in South Africa has a lot in common with what we are facing in the United States today. Not many people want to work in agriculture because there is more money in natural resources. There is only 10% of the South African population that directly works in agriculture. It’s good to know that agriculture is not the sexy thing consistently with the US and South Africa. I recently spoke with a gentleman from South Africa. His name was Koch. He came here as an immigrant worker on a visa. Currently, he said that he is here for custom cotton harvest and hauling of cottonseed from northern Texas gins to Oklahoma City. He said the work and pay are very good here in the United States and wishes he could spend more time here learning our culture. After cotton harvest is over in January, he plans on returning back to South Africa to help with their expected cotton and corn harvest starting sometime in February or March. One comment he made to me was that we needed to go visit the aquarium in Cape Town. He said there are some very neat things to see in there. He also told me to watch out for baboons as they are a real nuisance. Apparently, baboons will ransack your house. For purposes of exchanging money, the South African currency is called the Rand. It is worth around ten times the US Dollar and can also be seen as ZAR at currency booths in the airports. 84

The best way to exchange money is either to do it before you leave the country at a local bank or at the airport. Although the transaction fees are expensive, with a large group it is very convenient. The Rand much like the USD is worth 100 cents but coins come in denominations of 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, R1, R2 and R5. Notes or bills come in denominations of R10, R20, R50, R100, and R200. Money can be withdrawn from ATM of which I have read there are many countrywide. All major credit cards are accepted in South Africa including, MasterCard, Visa, and American Express. In case there are any cash worries the main South African banks are Absa Bank, First National Bank, Nedbank, Standard Bank, and Capitec. For those who would like to experience a night life with a drink I read that these are amounts that people are supposed to tip: R75-R100 for a bottle of wine; R30-R60 for a cocktail and R15-R25 for a beer at local restaurants. For all other food, I read that you should plan on tipping at least 10% on a restaurant meal or a take-out meal. Citations: Wessel, David. "From South Africa to Iran, Economic Sanctions Evolve." Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal, 11 Dec 2013. Web. 13 Dec 2013. United States. US Commercial Service. 2013 Country Commercial Guide South Africa. 2013. Print. . United States. Department of Commerce. . United States. Office of the United States Trade Representative. South Africa. Print. . South Africa. Revenue Service. South African Trade Statistics for December 2012. Pretoria: SARS, 2013. Print. .

South Africa Research Topics Rusty Roush This section examines various topics loosely relating to economics that will be practical for us as we embark on our trip to South Africa. These topics include a quick comparison of South Africa to our home state of Oklahoma, information about exchanging U.S. currency or checks for South African Currency, making purchases with a credit cards, value added tax, and information on spending money needs. South Africa and Oklahoma Comparisons Below in figure 1 is a chart comparing Oklahoma to South Africa. Keep in mind, South Africa is over 6 1/2 times the size of Oklahoma (see figure 2 below for a visual representation) and has over 13 times the population. Interestingly, a higher percentage of the land in Oklahoma is used for agriculture while a higher percentage of the population in South Africa is involved in Agriculture to earn a living. South Africa produces much more corn and soybeans than the state of Oklahoma, but Oklahoma produces much more wheat and slightly more canola. South Africa 85

produces fifteen times the amount of red meat of that produced in Oklahoma. As you can see, South Africa's GDP outpaces that of Oklahoma by almost 2 1/2 times, but by calculating per capita GDP Oklahoma you see that Oklahoma's GDP on an individual basis is over 5 1/2 times that of South Africa. (USDA-NASS, World DataBank) Land Size Comparison

Oklahoma

South Africa Comparison Chart Land Size (sq. km) % Land Used for Agriculture % Employment in Agriculture Population Life Expectancy 2012 GDP - US $ 2012 GDP Growth Wheat Production-bu. Soybean Production - bu. Corn Production - bu. Canola Production - lb. Red Meat Production - lb.

Land Size Comparison

South Africa

2012 South Africa Oklahoma 1,213,090.00 181,195.00 79.40% 98.00% 5.000% 0.130% 51,189,307 3,814,820 55 76 $ 384,312,674,446 $ 160,953,000,000 3.00% 3.13% 68,270,352 154,800,000 26,088,240 3,900,000 430,056,032 32,450,000 118,000,000 161,000,000 16,392,000,000 1,154,400,000

(USDA-NASS, World DataBank) Exchanging American Currency or Travelers' Checks for South African Currency The currency exchange rate as of 12/12/2013 is .0962 dollars for 1 Rand or 10.3959 Rand for 1 dollar. This is as inexpensive as the Rand has been since 2009. It reached a high of around .15 in 2011 and has been steadily decreasing ever since. Although there are other factors that impact the price of goods and services, the fact that the Rand has been decreasing in value makes for a more favorable exchange, and will allow for greater purchasing power while on our trip to South Africa. Please see figure 3 below for historical prices for the South African Rand. Exchange Rate Chart

(SouthAfrica.info) South Africa's unit of currency is called the Rand, which is divided into 100 cents. Bills come in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Rand; and coins come in 5, 10, 20, 50 cents as well as 86

1, 2 and 5 Rand. There are two 5 Rand coins in circulation, both of which are legal currency. All transactions are rounded down to the nearest 5 cents. (SouthAfrica.info) According to southafrica.info banks are typically open from 8:30am or 9am to 3:30pm on Mondays to Fridays, and 8:30am to 11am on Saturdays. Many banks in larger towns, and especially those in shopping areas, have extended these hours, and some are open on Sundays. Branches at airports adjust their hours to accommodate international flights. Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) are also prevalent at most branches. ATMs are linked to all major international networks, and it is possible to draw currency from them. They accept Cirrus or Maestro cards as well as all major credit and debit cards. You will not be charged any fees over and above those levied by your own bank. To exchange checks for cash at foreign exchange dealers, you must present a valid passport. Thomas Cook and American Express travelers' checks can be cashed at all banks, bureau de change and at some hotels. According to the foreign travel advice from gov.uk, South Africa has a very high level of crime and crime has increased with the influx of visitors and tourists due to the events resulting from the recent death of former South African president Nelson Mandela. As always you should use caution and be aware of your surrounding when exchanging money or using the ATM. Also, remember that all money transactions that involve foreign exchange must be done by authorized dealers. In terms of exchange control regulations, it is illegal to buy or sell foreign currency to anyone except an authorized dealer. Authorized dealers include the four major credit card companies American Express South Africa, Diners Club South Africa, MasterCard South Africa and Visa South Africa as well as South Africa's four major banks Absa Bank, First National Bank, Nedbank and Standard Bank. For a list of all Department of Finance-authorized foreign exchange dealers in South Africa as well as websites, please see the following Figure 4.

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Authorized Exchange Dealers and websites (SouthAfrica.info)

Institution Website American Express South Africa http://www.americanexpress.co.za/Default.aspx Diners Club South Africa http://www.dinersclub.co.za/ MasterCard South Africa http://www.mastercard.com/za/consumer/index.html Visa South Africa http://www.visacemea.com/?country=za&ep=v_gg_new Absa Bank http://www.absa.co.za/Absacoza/ First National Bank https://www.fnb.co.za/ Nedbank http://www.nedbank.co.za/ Standard Bank http://www.standardbank.co.za/portal/site/standardbank Bank of Baroda (SA branch) http://www.bankofbaroda.com/africa.asp Bank of China (Johannesburg branch) http://www.bank-of-china.com/en/index.html Bank of Taiwan (SA branch) http://www.bot.com.tw/english/Pages/default.aspx Bidvest Bank/Rennies Foreign Exchangehttp://www.bidvestbank.co.za/rennies-foreign-exchange.aspx Calyon Corporate Bank: Crédit Agricole (SA http://www.ca-cib.com/ branch) China Construction Bank Johannesburg http://www.ccbjhb.com/ Citibank, South Africa http://www.citibank.com/southafrica/ Deutsche Bank AG (Johannesburg branch) http://www.db.com/southafrica/ Habib Overseas Bank http://www.habiboverseas.co.za/?id=1 HBZ Bank South Africa http://www.hbzbank.co.za./ HSBC (Johannesburg branch) http://www.hsbc.co.za/ Investec South Africa http://www.investec.com/SouthAfrica/ JPMorgan Chase (Johannesburg branch)http://www.jpmorgan.com/pages/jpmorgan/emea/local/za Mercantile Bank http://www.mercantile.co.za/ Sasfin Bank http://www.sasfin.com/ Société Générale http://www.sgcib.com/country_focus.rha?c=country_focus%7Bunid=3CAB12A South African Bank of Athens http://www.bankofathens.co.za/ Standard Chartered Bank South Africa (Johannesburg http://ww2.standardchartered.co.za/ branch) Standard Chartered Bank South Africa (Johannesburg http://ww2.standardchartered.co.za/ branch) State Bank of India South Africa http://www.statebank.co.za/

Credit Card Purchases Most major credit cards can be used in South Africa. MasterCard and Visa are the most widely accepted. Remember to call your bank or Credit Card Company prior to leaving. Notify them of your travels so that once you start using your card in South Africa they will not think the transactions are suspicious and deactivate your card. Also talk to them about charges for using the card abroad. See what fees will apply and inquire about the possibility of avoiding any fees. I called customer service for my MasterCard and was told that no transaction fees would be added to the purchases that I make while in South Africa. (SouthAfrica.info) Taxes All South Africans pay Value Added Tax (VAT) as it included in the price of most goods and services. It is currently set at 14%. Visitors are not exempt from paying it, but if you are a foreign passport holder you can claim it back on the items you are taking out the country if their value is more than 250 Rand. Be sure to request a tax invoice when buying goods. If you do not have a tax invoice, you will not receive a refund. A request for a refund can be made at the VAT refund office in the airport upon departure from South Africa. Your refund will be given as either a Rand check or a Visa cash card also in Rand. (SouthAfrica.info) 88

Spending Money Needed To gage how much spending money to bring on our trip to South Africa you must first examine several factors. First of all the exchange rate is somewhat favorable so most purchases will be less expensive than in the United States. Secondly, you must examine the types and frequency of purchases you will be making in South Africa. For this take a look at the itinerary for our trip. Of course all hotel expenses will be taken care of by OALP. The itinerary states that some meals will also be included in our package, however, according to my count we will be responsible for 11 meals. Entrance fees such as Kruger National Park will be taken care of by OALP. You will need to bring money for tips for bus drivers, tour guides, bell hops, and housekeeping. The recommended tip for couch tour guides and bus drivers is usually 10 Rand per person on a day tour and 15 Rand per person per day on overland and local coach tours. The money is split between the tourist guide and the driver. For private tours, 50 Rand per person per half-day tour and 80 Rand per person per day for a full-day tour is the norm. At hotels it is customary to leave 50 Rand per person per day for housekeeping. If a porter assists with your bags, it's normal to tip the porter 15 Rand per movement, assuming about two normal-size bags per person. (South Africa: Tipping & Etiquette) Also, any transportation and entertainment outside of the scheduled events are expenses you are likely to incur at some point during or trip so plan accordingly. Lastly, think about money for any souvenirs you plan to buy and other potential shopping you may do while on our journey. Below in Figure 5 is a list of typical expenditures and their median amounts in both Rand and U.S. Dollar.

Examples of the Cost of Common Purchases (Cost of Living) Meals Rand Meal, Inexpensive Restaurant Meal for 2, Mid-range Restaurant, Three-course Combo Meal at McDonalds or Similar Domestic Beer (0.5 liter draught) Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) Cappuccino (regular) Coke/Pepsi (0.33 liter bottle) Water (0.33 liter bottle) Transportation One-way Ticket (Local Transport) Monthly Pass (Regular Price) Taxi Start (Normal Tariff) Taxi 1km (Normal Tariff) Taxi 1hour Waiting (Normal Tariff) Gasoline (1 liter) Clothing and Shoes 1 Pair of Jeans (Levis 501 Or Similar) 1 Summer Dress in a Chain Store (Zara, H&M, ...) 1 Pair of Nike Shoes 1 Pair of Men Leather Shoes

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78 350 40 16 18 16 9 8

Dollar $ 7.65 $ 34.31 $ 3.92 $ 1.57 $ 1.76 $ 1.57 $ 0.88 $ 0.78

13.25 400 20 10 55 12.27

$ $ $ $ $ $

1.30 39.22 1.96 0.98 5.39 1.20

600 350 800 700

$ $ $ $

58.82 34.31 78.43 68.63

Works Cited: USDA-NASS, Oklahoma Field Office, comp. "Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics 2013."Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics 2013 (2013): 1-75. Print "SouthAfrica.info." Banks and Foreign Exchange in SA. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. . "World DataBank." The World Bank DataBank. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. . "USDA ERS - State Fact Sheets." USDA ERS - State Fact Sheets. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. . "GOV.UK." South Africa Travel Advice. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. . "Cost of Living." Cost of Living. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. . "South Africa: Tipping & Etiquette." - TripAdvisor. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. .

South African Economics Justin Whitmore South Africa’s has the largest economy in Africa with a nominal GDP of 375.9 billion. South Africa has the highest per capita GDP in Sub-Saharan of $11,750. Despite this they still deal with wide spread poverty and unemployment. South Africa has a diverse economy some of its main sectors are mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. There are many positives to South Africa’s economy including large reserves of natural resources including diamonds discovered in 1867 and gold and many other minerals which account for a majority of South Africa’s exports. The agricultural sector in South Africa is also strong accounting for about 10 percent of employment. While South Africa does not have an overly strong manufacturing industry due to relatively high labor cost it is still an important part of the economy with about 13 percent of employment. Tourism is also a very important part of the economy guest come to South Africa for the culture, game reserves and excellent local wines. Despite all these positive indications just like much of Africa, South Africa still has deep economic problems including poverty, unemployment, economic inequity and crime. These issues must be address before South Africa will be able to bring their economy and population into the 21st century. South Africa’s unemployment rate is over 25 percent with a real unemployment rate of 35 percent when accounting for people who have stopped looking for a job. A large portion of their population lives on less than $1.25 a day. Along with poverty and unemployment many South African see crime as a major hindrance to economic growth slowing private investment. Violent crime including murder, rape, and hijackings are a major problem. Fraud is also a major contributor to the affect that crime has had on the economy. The police and government officials have tried to improve the problem but corruption and general ineffectiveness have hampered efforts to improve the situation.

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Mining South Africa has long depended on the mining industry as a driver for economic growth since the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and the discovery of gold a few years later marking the beginning of a large and diverse mining industry. South Africa mining industry accounts for only 18 percent of GDP but accounts for more than 60 percent of exports and employees almost 600,000 people. South Africa’s mining industry accounts for 77 percent of the world’s platinum production and the world’s third largest coal exporter. South Africa also produces large quantities of kyanite (used in ceramic products) and other materials, chromium, palladium (mostly used in catalytic converters), vermiculite (used for parts in aluminum smelting because its ability to standup to high temps), vanadium (mostly used as a steel additive), zirconium (mainly used in the production of opacifier’s), manganese (mainly used in stainless steel production), rutile (used in coloring paints and pigments), ilmenite (used in coloring paints and pigments), gold, and fluorspar (used as a flux for smelting). Agriculture Agriculture is a major part of the South African economy accounting for about 10 percent of employment and 2.6 percent of GDP. However, agriculture accounts for less of South Africa’s economy than other Africa nations. This is substantial considering that only 13 percent of South Africa’s land area is considered arable. The main constraint on the agricultural industry in South Africa is a lack of water. South Africa has a very diverse agricultural industry ranging from high intensive crop production in areas with abundant rain fall and sheep herding in arid regions. Corn is the number one crop but South Africa produces many other agricultural commodities including poultry, beef cattle, wheat, milk, fruit, vegetables, and sugar cane. With this wide variety of agricultural production South Africa is not self-sufficient in the production of most staple crops. However, South Africa exports many crops, such as pineapple, and is able to export more crops then it needs to import. One aspect of agriculture that is sometimes overlooked, but South Africa is uniquely suited for, is game farming. South Africa has a wider variety of game species than many countries. Another growing agricultural industry in South Africa is aquaculture. Some of the species grown are mussels, trout, tilapia, catfish, oysters, and waterblommetjies (which is a flowering watering plant). South Africa also leads the world in ostrich products with 65% of world sales including leather, meat and feathers. Farmers in South Africa take advantage of a large number of agricultural cooperatives to help improve competiveness. Manufacturing South Africa manufacturing industry is a major contributor to the South African economy providing 13 percent of the jobs and 15 percent of GDP. The manufacturing industry has an advantage in the fact that labor costs are low but not as low as other comparable markets. The cost for transportation and general living also negatively impacts South Africa’s ability to compete in the global manufacturing industry. One of South Africa’s most important manufacturing sectors is the automotive assembly. The automotive industry accounts for about 10 percent of South Africa’s manufacturing exports. South Africa’s automotive manufacturing assembles vehicles and parts for local markets and other important markets in Africa. Despite their distance from major markets they are able to produce quality products that are price 91

competitive with other assembly centers. South Africa is working to grow their automotive vehicle and part assemble sector. They already have production plants for BMW, Ford, Volkswagen, Daimler-Chrysler and Toyota along with many vehicle parts manufactures. The South African automotive industry produces about half a million vehicles annually and employees over 30,000 people. South Africa other major manufacturing industry are agriprocessing, chemical manufacturing, ICT and electronics, metals, textiles clothing, and footwear. Tourism South Africa’s tourism sector consists of several key areas of adventure and exploration, culture and heritage, safari and nature, entertainment and lifestyle, and relaxation. South Africa has over 860,000 visitors monthly of which 210,000 are from outside Africa. Tourism is a major contributor to the South African economy supporting 10 percent of jobs and adding $102 billion to the economy. In South Africa, the tourist industry is targeted as one of the key industry to help to drive the economy for the next two decades. In the past, the majority of businesses catering to tourism were owned by the white minority. In recent years, the government has started to support programs that support and promote the growth of black owned tourism enterprises. Their main efforts have been aimed at growing these businesses on the small scale. Exchanging Money The exchange rate to Rands, the South African currency, is about 10 rand or zar to the dollar. It is very easy to exchange money. Exchanges can be done at the airport and in most of the larger cities in South Africa. However, the best way to make the exchange is to do it at your local bank to receive the best rate of exchange. Money should only be exchange with reputable vendors. Exchanging money on the street in most cases is illegal and not worth the risk of getting robbed. It is also a good idea to contact you credit card company to inform them that you will be traveling to South Africa. This will insure that they do not stop payment making your card unusable in an effort to stop fraud. Visa and Master Card are the most accepted cards; however, credit cards should not be solely relied upon because they may not be excepted everywhere. There will also be opportunities to use ATMs in the large cities for a fee that will vary depending on the bank. Traveler checks in US Dollars are accepted in Africa and can be replaced if stolen but to cash them you have to find a bank that is willing to take them. Cash should always be carried and US Dollars may be accepted in some places. However, some places that take US dollars they will only accept ones printed after 2003 because they are harder to counterfeit. Money belts are the safest way to carry money but also a bag or wallet is useful for carrying money you will spend that day and are easily given up if robbed. Sources: Economic overview http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa#Economy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_South_Africa http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors/agricultural-sector.htm#.UrjehjOx7I http://www.southafrica.net/country/us/en/ http://www.arc.agric.za/Pages/Home.aspx 92

http://goafrica.about.com/od/africatraveltips/a/money.htm Non Internet GeoJouranl. Transforming the South African tourism industry

South African Economic Karen Eifert Jones South Africa is a developing country with many economic problems and unique business operations. I will first discuss a few of the unique characteristics. Then, I selected two areas to discuss in detail in this paper: land redistribution and obstacles to development. These are two areas that I feel we must be aware of to fully understand the businesses that we will visit on our tour. WORKFORCE AND CULTURE There are a few key pieces of information we should grasp before looking at the two specific areas. The current government, known as the African National Congress (ANC), is generally understood to represent the Black majority. Agricultural activities range from intensive crop production, fruit production and mixed farming to cattle-ranching and sheep-farming. Only about 12 percent of the surface area of the country can be used for crop production. In 2012 the population was 51 million and GDP was $384.3 billion with a growth in GDP of 2.5 percent. GDP is still recovering from the crash in 2009. Inflation was 5.4 percent in 2012 compared to one percent in the US. The African culture is very hospitable (I am told if they invite you come for a visit, they really mean for you to visit) but there are differences from our culture. To successfully conduct business, one must understand these so I thought we should look at a few of them. There can be a number of ethnic and racial divisions in the South African workplace. There are not just white South Africans but rather English or Afrikaans. There are not just black South Africans, but Zulu or Xhosa. They have 21 recognized languages. People from different groups do not automatically work well together. We must keep this in mind as we visit people from these different groups so as not to offend. Business meetings might flow differently than we are accustomed to. Final decisions are usually made by one person but the decision making process often incorporates everyone and will typically take longer than ours would. In conducting business, we might push for decisions but pressing for an answer can be insulting and counterproductive. Deadlines are remarkably fluid in South Africa, often seen as more of a guideline than a set time. (I think I may have this South African trait!) LAND REDISTRIBUTION One of the most controversial issues within the country, especially with farmers, is that of land redistribution. The apartheid system began about 100 years ago. Apartheid by definition is a “segregated political system.” It was in place from 1948 through 1994. With the passage of the Native Land Act in June 1913, atrocities against South Africa’s native population were legalized. 93

In the land reserved for blacks, various tribal groups were forcibly settled in a segregated area. Many times they were used as labor with little or no pay. It was similar to the share cropping experience of Black Americans just after slaves were freed. President Jacob Zuma spoke on the 100th anniversary of the Native Land Act on June 19, 2013. He said, “a great wrong was done that needs to be followed up with a great right. The pain of being driven off of one’s land is worse than anything one can imagine.” This is a view broadly shared by Blacks in South Africa. Many White South African farm laborers have passed through our area in the past few years. There is also a significant population of former South African farmers in the panhandle area. Sadly, they say the same thing about the land redistribution program that is going on now. The original change of land ownership had begun in 1913, just six years after Oklahoma was granted statehood. How would we feel if the government came to us now and said, “a great wrong was done when the land was taken from the Native Americans and it needs to be followed up with a great right, so you must give up your farmland and homes.”? An attempt to undo something wrong that was done so long ago, doesn’t always feel right to everyone. The process of redistribution has seemed to be settling large groups of relatively poor and inexperienced people on large commercial farms and expecting them to manage those farms effectively. This has clearly failed. There is a feeling that less emphasis should be placed on production for the market and more on meeting household food needs. However, this will have a significant negative overall impact on the economy of the country and its ability to feed the masses. It would be like taking 160 acres of my productive farmland and converting it into large gardens to feed four families. They might find themselves better off but the state and country would have less ability to feed everyone or have commodities for trade. The South African constitution allows for expropriating property even in cases where the owners of that property are unwilling to part with the property if the expropriation is aimed at redistribution and to address the effects of widespread colonial and apartheid-era land dispossession. (According to Pierre de Vos, Professor of Law, University of Cape Town) This succession of property rights should frighten us and it is something we should guard against in our own country. The South African ruling government feels that “inherited inequalities in access to resources, especially land, is a continuing injustice.” This reminds me of something Franklin Delano Roosevelt or Barrack Obama might have said. There are many misconceptions floating around about what has or has not been done since 1994. For example, 25 percent of all land is owned by the government so only 75 percent is privately owned. When figures about land ownership are referenced, the publicly owned land is sometimes calculated as Black owned and sometimes as White owned. Also, restitution has been paid out in cash to claimants who chose to accept cash rather than having land returned to them. This is often not taken into consideration when the stagnant progress is reviewed. Rarely does anyone take time to look at the relative value and/or productivity of the land that was distributed. It is crucial to the economic stability of the country that the farmland remains as productive as possible, regardless of who owns or operates it. In the past 15 years, the number of farmers has 94

dropped by half and conversely the farm size has increased. This indicates farmers have found it necessary to expand their operations considerably in order to benefit from economies of scale that allow them to remain productive. At the same time, markets in urban areas have been expanding. In 2010, 62 percent of South Africans lived in urban areas. The government aims to transfer 30 percent of the 82 million hectares. OBSTACLES TO DEVELOPMENT South Africa has long been characterized as an economy that has built a comparative advantage in resource based products. While South Africa has significant cost advantages in many products, they are generally also characterized by large scale economies which mean high levels of concentration and market power. This is especially true given their transportation costs and lack of regional competition. This is not a bad thing, although it is often characterized that way. The ANC government is viewed as rather ineffective when it comes to true change. They can identify the problem and often even the solution but are ineffective at implementing that solution. As growing leaders, I think we should shudder at this reality. In any business or government, that is the beginning of the wreck. It is like knowing we need to apply the brakes when a train is crossing the tracks but being unable to do so. CONCLUSION To get the most from our visit, we must understand the cultural differences and how they impact the workforce. Because agriculture is disproportionately land based, we must understand land redistribution in order to see the potential impact. And finally, we must see the obstacles to development. As I researched this paper I found that we will be visiting an incredibly interesting country with a corrupt and crime laden government. Sources: Personal Interview – Nick Vos, Native of Menses, South Africa Now US Citizen farming in SW Kansas Personal Interview – Mathew Johnson, Seaboard Farms Frequent South African Travel and Business Rebranding the Democratic Alliance, Mail and Guardian, Series 2, April 23, 2013, 2013/2014 Budget Speech, President Jacob Zum

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Transportation, Communications and Infrastructure Jamie Doyal Steve Alspach Casey Sharber

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South Africa Transportation, Communications, and Infrastructure Steve Alspach, Jamie Doyal, Casey Sharber Transport Infrastructure of South Africa This report will focus on the infrastructure in place throughout South Africa that is used to transport the diverse agricultural commodities produced in the country. It will focus on 4 primary modes of transport 1) Rail, 2) Roads, 3) Shipping and 4) Air transport. South Africa, with its’ land mass of 471,443 square miles, is approximately the size of the states of Texas, California and Pennsylvania combined. This report will compare and contrast the amounts and types of transport facilities between South Africa and those 3 states. South Africa is populated by approximately 51.2 million people (approx. 110/sq. mi.) while the states of Texas, California and Pennsylvania have approximately 77 million people (approx.. 160/sq. mi.). The United States is the 2nd largest export country in the world based on dollar value while South Africa ranks between 35th and 40th in the world. The Rail System The first rail line in South Africa was completed in 1860 so the rail industry there lagged behind the industry in the United States by about 30 years. There are approximately 12,000 miles of track in the South African rail system. Tracks stretch over nearly the entire country but the highest concentration of lines are around the Johannesburg and Pretoria area found in the northeastern part of the country. The transport system is government owned and is operated by a government owned corporation called Transnet. The rail system is operated by a division of Transnet called Transnet Freight Rail. Freight shipping on the rail system is somewhat limited by the fact that the majority of the rail lines are constructed of narrow gauge track. Narrow gauge track is 14.5 inches narrower than standard gauge which reduces its’ usefulness for hauling freight. The current capacity for rail freight is approximately 200 million tons per year. This accounts for approximately 12 percent of the freight moved in South Africa. In 2012, South African President Zuma announced a major capital investment plan designed to increase the freight rail capacity to 350 million tons per year. The plan is designed to reduce the cost of doing business within the country and to create jobs. Commuter traffic is a very large portion of the rail system in South Africa. Approximately 2.2 million people per day travel by rail within its’ borders. There is only one high speed train, the Gautrain, servicing Johannesburg, Pretoria and Tambo International Airport. Approximately 40,000 people use this service daily.

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By contrast, the states of Texas, California and Pennsylvania have approximately 20,000 miles of track and in 2011 transported a combined volume of 727 million tons of freight. In the United States approximately 40 percent of all freight is moved by rail, according to the Federal Railroad Administration. Commuter rail traffic in these three states numbers about 240,000 passengers per day, roughly 10 percent of the daily traffic in South Africa. The Road System South Africa has the most extensive road network of any country on the African continent with approximately 464,000 miles of maintained roads. The most highly developed roads are called ‘national roads’ and are similar to the interstate highway system found in the US. There are roughly 10,000 miles of national roads in South Africa and they are maintained by the South African National Roads Agency (Sanral). According to Transport World Africa a whopping 88 percent of all freight in South Africa is moved by truck making the road network there a very important resource.

By contrast, the states of Texas, California and Pennsylvania have approximately 2,718,000 miles of maintained roads and approximately 7,600 miles of interstate highways. In the US, trucking accounts for approximately 60 percent of all freight movement and for approximately 12 percent of all exports being moved out of the country. Seaports Eight major commercial seaports are located in South Africa. Richards Bay and Durban in KwaZulu-Natal; East London, Port Elizabeth and the Port of Ngqura in the Eastern Cape; and Mossel Bay, Cape Town and Saldanha in the Western Cape are operated by Transnet National Ports Authority (NPA) and handle approximately 96% of all exports leaving from the country.

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Texas and California boast several large seaports while the United States is one of the largest importer/exporter countries in the world. The state of Texas alone has the ports of Beaumont, Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Freeport, Galveston, Houston, Orange, Port Arthur and Texas City. The port of Houston is the 2nd busiest port in the US and is 12th busiest in the world. California has 11 public ports. Los Angeles, Long Beach and Oakland are considered megaports and handle over one quarter of all container cargo in the US. California also has 8 smaller ports located along its’ coastline. To contrast the percentage of export cargo leaving the United States via shipping ports is approximately 73 percent. The United States is roughly 8 times the size of South Africa in landmass but exports about 15 times the amount of cargo than South Africa, in terms of value. Airports South Africa boasts seven international airports and several smaller domestic airports. OR Tambo International Airport (Johannesburg), Cape Town International Airport and King Shaka International Airport underwent 20 billion rand upgrade before the 2010 World Cup. All airports are managed by the Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA). According to ACSA, the airports they manage handle more than 200,000 aircraft landings and approximately 18.6 million passengers total annually. OR Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg is by far the busiest airport in South Africa handling more than twice the number of flights and passengers than any other airport in the country. Approximately 4 percent of South African exports are flown out of the country. Much of the air freight is fresh produce that is sent to China.

Texas has 13 international and 12 smaller regional airports. California has 9 international and 20 smaller regional airports. Pennsylvania has 5 international and 10 smaller regional airports. These 3 states combined have nearly 4 times the number of international airports as South Africa. 99

Federal Aviation Administration numbers of the 100 busiest airports in the US show that California has 11 of the busiest airports that handle approximately 85 million passengers annually. Texas hosts 7 of the busiest airports in the US and handles approximately 66 million passengers annually. Pennsylvania has 2 of the busiest airports handling approximately 18 million passengers annually. Combined, these 3 states carry approximately 169 million passengers annually or roughly 9 times as many passengers as South African airports. The first three nights of our trip we will be staying at the Garden Court Nelson Mandela Boulevard which is only a 15 minute drive from the Cape Town airport. The first thing most people what to do when they arrive somewhere is send notification home to let loved ones know they have made it safely to their destination. Communications One of the main obstacles when traveling abroad is being able to communicate with family and friends at home without racking up huge phone bills. There are several options, which include calling, emailing, and texting. Another obstacle is using electricity without ruining your appliances. Converters/adapters will be needed in South Africa. There are five cellphone providers in South Africa. The only one most of us may have heard of would be Virgin Mobile. 3G is available in larger urban areas. According to www.southafrica.info/travel, “you will be able to use your phone in South Africa if as long as your phone is a triband or fourband phone, is unlocked, and takes a SIM card. Make necessary arrangements with your service provider before leaving your home country. You will need to activate international roaming.” It appears that most of the 3G and 4G phones are tri-band or quad-band. “Just because you buy the right type of phone for the network and country where you plan to use it, doesn’t mean it will work. Mobile phone networks in many countries have made it more complicated. They’ve decided they only want you to use the phone that you bought from them on THEIR network. So, they sell phones that are “locked” to their network and cannot be used on anyone else’s network, unless you can “unlock” it” www.calibryze.com. AT&T will not unlock your phone if your phone is not paid for or you are under contract with them. To use your phone overseas, you will need to either have it unlocked and purchase a prepaid SIM card in the country being visited or contact your wireless carrier to turn on international roaming. With an international package, you can call, text, or email from your phone. These packages can be pricey. AT&T has the following international plans:

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I wasn’t able to find similar plans for Verizon or US Cellular. Another option is to rent a cell phone from the airport. According to www.southafrica.info/travel, “Telkom has placed public telephones at major tourist sites across South Africa. Coin-operated phones are blue, while card phones are green, and both are user-friendly and compatible with hearing-aid devices.” On previous international trips, I have purchased a calling card prior to leaving and used it at public phones. Our country code is 1. To make an international call, dial 001 followed by the area code and phone number. As stated by Danielle Whaley, OALP Class XV, “the best way to communicate (internationally) is through Viber”. This is a free app that can be used to call or text for free. She said texting is best with this app. Although it can be used for calling, the calls are often dropped and there is a delay over the phone. We used Viber while she was in Brazil and it worked great. We were able 101

to text as quickly as if she were at home. We were even able to send pictures through Viber; although, Danielle said it was quicker to email pictures than to send them through Viber. Viber is compatible with most smart phones. If you keep your phone on airplane mode, you will not receive calls or texts, but Viber will work anywhere we have WiFi. FaceTime and other free apps that are available will also work with WiFi. All of our hotels offer a limited amount of free WiFi. There are also several internet cafés in South Africa’s bigger cities. Electrical Electricaloutlet.org has information on outlet types and voltages around the world. The Type M plug has three circular pins and has been adopted as the standard plug in of South Africa, although some hotel rooms contain various type plugs for their international travelers. Types C and G plugs may still be found in some areas.

Type M

Type C

Type G

Voltage is 220/230 in South America as compared to 120V in the US. A voltage converter can be used along with the plug adapter to make electricity safe for appliances. According to www.adaptelec.com, “Generally speaking, most modern “digital-age” appliances (especially ones that run on batteries) are being built to be compatible with all worldwide voltages, from 100 volts in Japan to 240 volts in the United Kingdom. This usually includes things like laptops, PDAs, cell phones, digital cameras, digital camcorders, many portable video game devices, digital music players, etc. More and more personal grooming items like hair dryers and curling irons, shavers (especially cordless ones) and such are being built to be compatible with multiple voltages as well, but most of them aren’t.” Check chargers and cords on appliances to see if can be used without a voltage converter. I checked my phone charger and it does have the voltage printed between the prongs. It is can be used with higher voltages. Language While the most commonly spoken language in Cape Town is Afrikaans, English is most commonly understood. However, English is only one of South Africa’s 11 official languages, therefore a strong dialect has developed, and English-speaking visitors might have a hard time recognizing some of the words. Here are some local phrases:

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ENGLISH Cape Town Good morning Goodbye Thank you Yes No How much? Expensive Hot Cold Friend Good/OK Excuse me How are you?

AFRIKAANS Kaapstad Goeie more Totsiens Dankie Ja Nee Hoeveel? Duur Warm Koud Vriend Lekker Skuus Hoe gaan dit?

isiXHOSA eKapa Molo/Molweni (pl.) Hambe kahle Enkosi Ewe Hayi Yimalini le? iDhulu Shushu Banda Umhlobo Kulungile Uxolo Uphilile?

SOUTH AFRICAN SLANG Capetonians, as the people are called, have an amusing array of colloquial terms also. Braai - What you would know as a barbecue, and probably one of the first things you will be invited to do on arriving in Cape Town. We even celebrate national Braai Day on 24 September every year! Cooldrink or colddrink - This is the common term for a soda. Ask for a soda in South Africa and you will receive a club soda. Eish - (‘Aysh’) Zulu expression of surprise, bewilderment or shock. Howzit - A traditional South African greeting that translates roughly as “How are you?” or “How are things?” Just now - If a South African tells you they will do something “just now” they mean they will do it in the near future but not immediately and possibly not ever. Jawelnofine - Pronounced ‘yar well no fine’) Made up of four words “yes”, “well”, “no” and “fine”, this saying can express surprise and a sense that things aren’t really fine but there’s not much you can do about it. For example, having been caught speeding, your reaction on seeing the size of your traffic fine might be: “Jawellnofine.” Lekker - (Pronounced ‘lekk-irr’ with a rolling ‘r’) Afrikaans word meaning nice. Also cool, good, great. Probably the most famous of South African words, so make sure you learn this one. Pavement - South Africans walk on pavements and drive cars on the road. The pavement is the sidewalk. 103

Robot - South Africans tend to refer to traffic lights as robots. Sci-fi fans are out of luck – R2D2 and C3PO are not hanging about on every street corner. Rooibos - Pronounced ‘roy-borrs’) A popular South African tea made from the Cyclopia genistoides bush. Rooibos is Afrikaans word meaning ‘red bush’. Come and try a Red Cappuccino made from Rooibos at the Cape Town Tourism City Centre Visitor Information Centre. Sources: “AT&T International Roaming and World Packages – from AT&T.” Web. 21 November 2013. http://www.att.com/att/global/affordable-world-packages/#calling “Electrical Plug/Outlet and Voltage Information for South Africa (Republiek van Suid-Afrika).” Web. 21 November 2013. http://www.adaptelec.com/index.php?main_page=document_general_info&products_id=309 “Electrical Receptacles, Electrical Outlets, Electrical Plugs, Adapter Plus.” Web. 21 November 2013. http://electricaloutlet.org/ “GSM Coverage in Various Countries.” Web. 5 December 2013. http://www.calibryze.com/gsm_countries.html “Type M Electrical Outlet and Electrical Receptacle.” Web. 21 November 2013. http://electricaloutlet.org/type-m “Phoning to, from, and in South Africa.” Web. 21 November 2013. http://www.southafrica.info/travel/advice/telecoms.htm Whaley, Danielle. Personal interview. 13 November 2013

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