Confederation

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Journalism
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CONFEDERATION And the Founding Fathers …well, some of them anyways… SOC 20

Lecture Source: www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/confederation

Founding Fathers: 





The Confederation of Canada was decided in three separate conferences The 36 delegates of these conferences are considered the original “Founding Fathers” of Canada There are others though, that also have a claim to the title of “founding father”

So with so many Candidates, who is the most influential Founding Father?...

Come to your genewine poppy! ~George Brown

Gracious! Me own child don’t know me! ~William McDougall

I’m the Father of Confederation ~Sir Francis Hincks Don’t it recognize its real daddy? ~Sir John A Macdonald

George Brown 









Was an emigrant from Scotland who founded the Globe newspaper He quickly entered politics and supported the reformers, who were campaigning for “Rep by Pop” In 1864, he proposed the “Great Coalition” to John A. Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier He played a major role in the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences He resigned from the coalition in 1865

George Brown 



Brown’s recognition of the importance of the French Canadian perspective has impacted Quebec to this day In a speech in 1865, he said:

“Whether we ask for parliamentary reform for Canada alone or in union with the Maritime provinces, the views of French Canadians must be consulted as well as ours. This scheme can be carried, and no scheme can be that has not the support of both sections of the province” (that is, united Canada)

Sir Francis Hincks 





An emigrant from Ireland and successful businessman in York Became a close friend of William Warren Baldwin and his son, Robert Baldwin He established The Examiner in York with the goal of promoting Responsible Government  

This paper later merged with George Brown’s The Globe Over time, these joint newspapers became known as The Globe and Mail!

Sir Francis Hincks 





He was a premier of the province of Canada from 1851-1854 He had a vision of a railroad linking British North America, which led to the Grand Trunk Railway He had a desire for responsible government, and a railroad to unite the vast territory of the North

William McDougall 







Practiced law in Toronto and later expanded into journalism He later dropped journalism and became solely involved in politics He wanted to see Canada expand to the West and his goal was to acquire the land owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company He attended all three conferences leading to Confederation

William McDougall 





He was named Minister of Public Works in Macdonald’s government of 1867 In 1869, he was named the first lieutenantgovernor of the Northwest Territories However, Metis led by Louis Riel prevented him from entering the territory (Red River Rebellion) 



From then on, he vehemently opposed Manitoba’s efforts to join Confederation Believed that power should not be granted to Manitoba until they had a large enough population

Sir John A. Macdonald 









An emigrant from Scotland, he studied law at 15 and opened his own office at 19 He helped form the 1854 coalition with the reformers and French Canadians In 1864, he accepted George Brown’s “Great Coalition” to bring about Constitutional Change He became the first Prime Minister due to his “nationbuilding efforts” His vision was of a united country in British North America. But one where Ontario & Quebec held power

Sir John A. Macdonald 

In his first term as Prime Minister he:  



Added Manitoba, PEI, and BC as provinces Acquired the North-West territory that would later become Alberta and Saskatchewan Began the Intercontinental Railway 



Goal: Unite Quebec City and Halifax

In his second term he:  

Built the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) Dealt with the Red River Rebellion of Louis Riel

The Creation of a Nation • • • •

Pressures for Confederation Charlottetown Conference Quebec Conference London Conference

Pressures for Confederation Internal  

 

Political Deadlock Desire for an inter-colony railroad to improve trade, military movement, and transportation Population expansion Desire for economic development: “economic nationalism”

External 



 

“Manifest Destiny” and possible invasion from the USA The American Civil War and its reactions The Fenian Raids Change to British colonial policy (Britain no longer wanted to maintain soldiers in its colonies)

Charlottetown Conference 1864 

The Maritime colonies (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI) were thinking about a Maritime union 





Then John A. Macdonald requested that the province of Canada join the talks

Official proceedings began September 1st Little or no public record of what was said. However, the main topics discussed were: Arguments in favour of a union  Possible financial arrangements  What a united government might look like 



It was decided that the Conference warranted additional discussion, to be held in Quebec

Charlottetown Conference 1864 Foundations for the new country:  Preservation of ties with Great Britain  A bicameral system of government  Lower Hhouse = rep by pop, based on elections  Upper House = representation based on regional rather than provincial equality  Responsible government at ALL levels of government  Appointment of a governor general by the British Crown

Quebec Conference 1864 The Quebec Conference was held where the Chateau Frontenac sits today

Quebec Conference 1864 





Attendees: Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI, Newfoundland However, John A. Macdonald was the dominant figure during these talks Resulted in the creation of the “Quebec Resolutions”  72

resolutions that would form the basis of the new nation  Detailed who would have authority and so on

The Quebec Conference

Quebec Resolutions 



1. The best interests and present and future prosperity of British North America will be promoted by a Federal Union under the Crown of Great Britain, provided such Union can be effected on principles just to the several provinces. 17. The basis of representation in the House of Commons shall be population, as determined by the official census every 10 years; and the number of members Upper Canada 82  Lower Canada 65  Nova Scotia 19 

Newfoundland 8 Prince Edward Island 5 New Brunswick 15

Quebec Resolutions 



46. Both the English and French languages may be employed in the General Parliament and its proceedings, and in the local legislature of Lower Canada, and also in the Federal courts and in the Courts of Lower Canada 68. The General Government shall secure, without delay, the completion of the Intercolonial Railway from Riviere-du-Loup, through New Brunswick, to Truro in Nova Scotia

London Conference 1866 





Held in December, the delegates reviewed the wording of the Quebec resolutions Following Christmas, these “London Resolutions” were drafted into proposed bills, and delegates met with British officials to finalize the text The name “Canada” was easily decided 



As well as “Ontario” and “Quebec” for its two parts

Ultimately, the new nation was designated a “dominion” 

“He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.” – Psalm 72

London Conference 

There were difficulties though:  An

anti-union delegation from Nova Scotia, led by Joseph Howe, wanted to overturn any union agreement  They were unsuccessful

The British North America Act 1867 

 

The resulting act of the three conferences received Royal Assent on March 29, 1867 Union was set to be held on July 1, 1867 There were four initial provinces 1867: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia  1870: Manitoba, North-West Territories  1871: British Columbia  1873: Prince Edward Island  1898: Yukon  1905: Alberta & Saskatchewan  1949: Newfoundland (Newfoundland & Labrador in 2001)  1999: Nunavut 

A Nation is Born

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