Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Communications
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Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs Teacher – Shahed Rahman

RULES !! 

CARE IN SENTENCE DESIGN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Using Short Sentences Limiting Sentence Content Economizing on Words Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design Giving the Sentences Unity Arranging Sentences for Clarity


Giving Paragraphs Unity Keeping Paragraphs Short Making Good Use of Topic Sentences Leaving out Unnecessary Details Giving the Paragraphs Movement

Adaptation Sentence should be adapted to readers  Use the simpler sentence structures for people who are less able to understand  Use the more complex structures when appropriate  You should aim a little below the level of your reader  Simplification is best for all reader 

Using Short Sentences Readers are busy > Writing efficient you saving their time   Short sentences communicate better because of mind limitations  Short means 16 - 18 words for middle level readers.  But the excessive use of short words in also bad. 

Limiting Sentence Content Limiting content is one way to make short sentences  Selecting thought units and making separate sentences  Don’t - when thoughts are closely related you want to deemphasize on the content  Avoid overdoing this suggestion. Remember too many short sentences give a choppy effect 

Economizing on Words Another way to shorten sentences is through word economy  Seek shorter ways of saying things  Some suggestions: 

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Cluttering Phrases Surplus Words Roundabout Constructions Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Idea

Cluttering Phrases Avoid cluttering phrases  Substitutes shorter expressions 

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Example At the present time >> Now In the mean time >> Meanwhile In the near future >> Soon On the basis of >> By

Surplus Words Eliminate Surplus Words  Eliminate words that add nothing to sentence meaning  We often use meaningless words as a matter of habit 

◦ Example – He ordered a desks that are of the executive type ----- He ordered executive –type desks ◦ There are four rules that should be observed ◦ Four Rules should be observed

Roundabout Constructions Avoid round about ways of saying things  You can say direct or the same ground in a roundabout way.  Direct always communicates better 

◦ Example – He criticized everyone he came in contact with >> he criticized everyone he met. ◦ The department budget can be observed to be decreasing each new year He stated that he believes we are responsible ◦ We must assemble together at 10:30 am in the morning >> We must assemble at 10:30 am

Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design

You should give every item its due emphasis ( Importance )  Short sentences emphasize contents  Long sentences de-emphasize contents  Determining emphasis is a matter of good judgment 

◦ Example – ◦ The company lost money last year. The loss occurred in spite of record sales. ( Equal Emphasis )

◦ Although the company enjoyed the record sales last year, it lost money. (Emphasis on the lost money) ◦ The company enjoyed record sales last year, although it lost money. ( Emphasis on the record sales )

Giving the Sentence Unity All parts of a sentence should concern one thought  Good sentence have unity  Three causes of unity error 

◦ Unrelated ideas ◦ Excessive details ◦ illogical Constructions

Unrelated Ideas Placing unrelated ideas in one sentence violates unity  Its not grammatically wrong  You can avoid this error by 

◦ Putting unrelated ideas in separate sentences ◦ Subordinating an ideas ◦ Adding word that shows relationship Mr Jordan is sales manager, and he has a degree in law

Mr Jordan is our sales manager. He has a law degree. ( Separate )

Mr Jordan, Our sales manager, has a law degree ( Subordinating )

Excessive Detail Excessive details is another cause of lack of unity  If the details important put it in a separate sentence  This mean again using short sentence 

illogical Constructions Illogical construction can rob a sentence of unity  Active and Passive voice in the same sentence can violate unity -First we cut prices, and then quality was reduced >>> First we cut prices and then we reduced quality 

Arranging Sentences for Clarity Clear writing requires that you follow the established rules of grammar  These rules are based on custom and logical relationships  Do a proof reading 


Give the paragraphs Unity ◦ The contents of a paragraph should concern one topic or idea (unity ) ◦ But unity can vary in breadth. ◦ Paragraphs unity concern a narrow topic Keeping Paragraphs short ◦ Generally paragraphs should be short ◦ Short paragraphs show organization better than long ones ◦ Most readers prefer to read short paragraphs ◦ About eight lines is a good average length ◦ But length can vary with need


Making Good Use of Topic Sentences ◦ Topic sentences can help make good paragraphs ◦ Not every paragraphs must have a topic ◦ Placement of the topic sentence depends on the writer’s plan

Leaving out Unnecessary Detail ◦ In writing paragraphs, leave out unnecessary information ◦ But deciding what to include is a matter of judgment


Giving the Paragraphs Movement ◦ Good writing has movement ◦ Movement is the writing quality that takes the reader towards the goal with a logical step – without side trips and backward shifts. ◦ The progress is steadily forward

Next Week Midterm Exam  Please go through with the first three chapters.  Make sure you read all the contents of the chapter 

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