CS23 - Dr. Grace Rebollos` Presentation

January 12, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, Government
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DISCUSSION FLOW • Assumptions / Premises • The “peace process”: expanding our frontiers of meaning (the Tracks) • Why be involved in the peace process? Why teach peace?… “in loco parentis” • Education for transformation: (the ABC of violence; notions of peace) • Toward the enabling and ennobling classroom: Educating for democratic competence • Drawing from inherent capacities for peacefulness • Positioning ourselves toward the peace process

1. We are children of our time 2. Our thinking tendencies … • Homogenizing our cultures • Poverty in a vacuum • People as statistics • Distrust and blame • Forget faith and spirit 3. Our peace educ. efforts not new

Lederach, 1995

• Frameworks: all-encompassing, sufficiently common and “sharable”, • Skills- and process-based education

• Studies of ourselves and our cultures reduced to the level of technique





TRACK I DIPLOMACY • Official governmental diplomacy

• “A technique of state action whereby communications from one government go directly to the decision-making apparatus of another". • Conducted by official representatives of a state or state-like authority and involves interaction with other state or state-like authorities: heads of state, state department or ministry of foreign affairs officials, and other governmental departments and ministries

Track I I Diplomacy

Track 1½ Diplomacy

Track III Diplomacy

Track I I Diplomacy • citizen diplomacy • multi-track diplomacy • supplemental diplomacy • pre-negotiation • consultation • interactive conflict resolution • back-channel diplomacy • facilitated joint brainstorming • coexistence work


•Religious institutions •Academics •Former government officials •Non-governmental organizations, •Humanitarian organizations •Think tanks, among others.

TRACK 1½ DIPLOMACY • Involves unofficial actors (former government officials, or religious or social organizations such as the Church or the Quakers) who intervene in unofficial interactions between official government representatives to promote a peaceful resolution of conflict. •Direct mediation or conciliation by unofficial third parties •"Consultation" and facilitation of interactive problemsolving by unofficial facilitators. •Facilitation of problem solving or confidence-building by official third-party actors among private citizens in influential sectors.

TRACK III DIPLOMACY •Unofficial third parties work with people from all walks of life and sectors of their society to find ways to promote peace in settings of violent conflict. •Aimed at building or rebuilding broken relationships across the lines of division among ordinary citizens in communities, in a range of sectors. •The premise of track three diplomacy: “Peace can and must be built from the bottom up as well as from the top down.”

Why be involved in the peace process?

Culture as a contact point, a field of contest in which all ideas, behaviors, values and power structures are legitimized / discarded, “foregrounded” / “backgrounded”/ pushed to the margins, within the culture that successfully draws the people’s allegiance or confuses them. - Atty. Michael Mastura

The ABC Triangle of Violence

BEHAVIOR: Hatred for the enemy, direct physical violence, killing, torture, intimidation, insults, etc.

ATTITUDES: Feelings/ Values Sources: Hatred, fear, mistrust, racism, bigotry, sexism, intolerance

The ABC Triangle of Violence

CONTEXT + System + Struc Structural/ institutional violence, discrimination (e.g. in education, employment, health care, etc.), globalization of economy, denial of rights and liberties, segregation (e.g., apartheid)

ACTION •Control the behavior •Violence reduction to promote negative peace

ACTION •Work to change attitude and context •Violence reduction to promote positive peace

PEACE NEGATIVE PEACE Absence of direct/ physical violence (both macro and micro)

POSITIVE PEACE Presence of conditions of wellbeing and just relationships: social, economic, political, ecological

STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE Direct Violence e.g., war, torture, abuse of children and women


e.g., poverty, hunger

SOCIO-CULTURAL VIOLENCE e.g., racism, sexism, religious intolerance

ECOLOGICAL VIOLENCE e.g., pollution, overconsumption

• not just about the imposition of "solutions," but about the creation of


the creation of SPACES

(political, economic, social spaces) in which indigenous actors can identify, develop, and use all that are necessary to build a peaceful, prosperous and just society

Schema of Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes/ Values KNOWLEDGE • Holistic Concept of Peace • Conflict & Violence -causes • Some Peaceful Alternatives • Disarmament • Nonviolent Conflict Resolution • Human Rights • Gender Fairness • Human Solidarity • Democratization • Dev’t Based on Justice • Sustainable Development

ATTITUDES / VALUES • Self –respect • Respect for Others • Respect for Life / Nonviolence • Compassion •Global Concern • Ecological Concern • Cooperation • Openness & Tolerance • Social Responsibility • Positive Vision SKILLS • Reflection • Critical Thinking & Analysis • Decision Making • Imagination • Communication • Conflict Resolution • Group Building

•Diversity as a learning resource;

•Diversity as a place for compassion and appreciation; •Diversity as a point of enrichment and celebration

•Dissent as an opportunity for the exercise of reason •Dissent as a venue for the search for truth. •Dissent as a self-corrective mirror

Capabilities for Peacefulness Spiritual Roots

Scientific Roots

Public policies

Social Institutions

Spiritual Institutions

Political Institutions

Economic Institutions

Educational Institutions

Security Institutions

Research Institutions

Communications media

Cultural Resources

Training Institutions

Social Institutions •E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s : T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f basing an entire university upon the multifaith spirit of non-violence in service to human needs. (Barefoot College in India, Deemed University combining disci-plinary studies with community applications ( pol sci & village d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p h y s i c s & r a d i o r e p a i r, biology & well-cleaning, Shanti Sena (peace corps), •Tr a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s : I n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e non-violence training for social change, conflict zone intervention, social defense, etc., including Aikido (Peace Brigades, Intl., Tr a n s c e n d , N o n v i o l e n c e I n t l . )

• Research Institutions:

Institutions that carry out research on nonviolent struggles for democracy, security, and justice; researches to support nonviolent social change; promotion of worldwide sharing of discoveries in research, education, and action •P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s : Institutions

dedicated to solving problems on nonviolence principles (ex., Amnesty International (vs. human rights violations & abolition of death penalty, Greenpeace International (defense of the environment & abolition of nuclear weapons), Medicins sans Frontieres (humanitarian medical care for victims of violence),.

Books and media that educate for nonviolent social change, or that evoke non-violent thinking on various social issues • Communications Media:

•C u l t u r a l R e s o u r c e s : Creations of art and

intellect that uplift the human spirit and inspire advances toward realization of a nonviolent society; synergizing creativity for peaceful social transformation in the audio-visual, performing, and literary arts

ALTERNATIVES FOR PEACE •Academic departments •University peace corps •Universities •Political parties •Public service depts •Common security institutions •Civil society institutions •Spiritual councils •Problem-solving consortia •Training institutions •Leadership study and revitalization centers

•Centers for creativity in the arts •Research and policy analysis institutes •Media of communication •Memorials •Zones of peace •Economic enterprise •Centers for non-violence


Our Roles in the Progression of Conflict




3. Negotiation 1. Education

4. Advocacy and

Education for Sustainable Peace

2. Confrontation



Educator, Researcher, Advocate

Conciliator, Convenor, Decoupler Unifier, Enskiller, Trainer, Envisioner Mediator, Guarantor, Facilitator, Moderator Peacekeeper, Observer, Monitor, Enforcer Reconciler, Enhancer, Rehabilitator, Developer

Some Suggested Entry Points • • • • • • •

Changing Attitudes about the "Other" Opening Channels of Communication Improving Quality of Communication Relationship and Trust Building Changing Perceptions of the Conflict Exploring New Options for Negotiation Changing Conflict Dynamic: Strengthening Voices of Moderation • Developing Social Networks: An Infrastructure for Peace

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