culture hearth

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Biology, Ecology
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Culture Hearths


Culture Hearth: - heartland - source area for basic ideas, materials and technology - innovation center - place of origin of a major culture * “civilization incubator”

Locations of Ancient Culture Hearths


Human Cultural Hearths – Most cultural hearths established from 5,000BC to 1,000 BC – Primary cultural hearths u u u

Fertile Crescent (Tigris, Euphrates and Nile Rivers) Indus Valley (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa) North China (Yellow River and North China plain)

– Secondary cultural hearths u u

Bantu civilization in Africa Mesoamerican civilization (Mayans and Aztecs)

-- Spread of culture: the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th century moved cultural hearths to Europe and North America, with modern shifts in the 21st century continuing to occur.

Culture Hearths ---Put Dates on your sheet

Primary Culture Hearths of the World: Fertile Crescent (8000 BCE) Indus River Valley (7000 BCE) North China (5000 BCE) Secondary Culture Hearths of the World: West Africa (2000 BCE) Mesoamerica & S. America (8000-3000 BCE)

The fertile Crescent and the Nile River valley.

Primary Culture Hearth 1. Fertile Crescent: -otherwise known as Mesopotamia -Important Contributions: Developed complex legal system—divorce, crime; Creation of writing; innovations in mathematics and astronomy; architectural developments (ziggurats—pyramid-shaped temples)

Indus River Valley – on left side

Primary Culture Hearth 2. Indus River Valley: - early agricultural sites - Harappan city - dependent upon rich floodplains of Indus - Important Contributions: - drainage system; develop cotton textiles & dyes by 2000; important trade contacts w/ Fertile Crescent

North China -- on right side

Primary Culture Hearth 3. North China: Huang Ho (Yellow River): - rich soils but floods -Important Contributions: domestication of millet, rice and soybeans; first Chinese Writing system; emergence of centralizing hereditary monarchies: - Shang dynasty: major influence of IndoEuropeans: bronze, chariots - Zhou dynasty: classical Chinese civilization

Locate West Africa Culture Hearths

Secondary Culture Hearth 1. Bantu Civilization--West Africa: - Important Contributions: - early Sudanic agricultural influence - Bantu: spread thru out Africa - agricultural surpluses & iron, gold, salt - diffusion: - W. African yams & grains - 90 million Bantu-speakers today

The Maya cultural hearth in southern Mexico and Central America.

Secondary Culture Hearth 2. Mesoamerica & South America: - migrations to W. hemisphere - early agriculture in Mesoamerica - Inca’s known for thousands of miles of roads - Olmec rulers compel building of large ritual centers, drainage projects, & artistic objects - Aztec calendar, religious systems

Culture Hearths

Keys to why some hearths were successful:

- geographical integrity - ecological sustainability - agricultural surpluses - internal order

Culture Hearths

Keys to why some hearths dissappeared: - increased contacts with hostile neighbors - ecological degradation & exhaustion - over-attractive agricultural hearths - internal disorder

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