Decline of the Ottoman Empire

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History
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Decline of the Ottoman Empire The Sick Man of Europe Chapter 26

Essential Questions       

How did the military defeats of the 1700s signal the decay of the Ottoman Empire? What were some of the reasons for internal decay? How did Sultan’s attempt to reform? How did revolts and rebellions lead to further disintegration What was the significance of the Eastern question? What was the Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878? How did World War I lead to the empire’s fall?

Ottoman Empire in early 1700s

Military Defeats of the 1700s   

1683: defeat after the siege of Vienna shows Ottoman weakness Christian forces carve away at Ottoman lands Treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) strip Ottoman of Hungary and Transylvania Lose land in 1710s to Peter the Great Lose Crimea (Balkan Peninsula) to Catherine the Great in late 1700s

Signs of Internal Decay Poor rulers and weak corrupt government  Sultans want to modernize face opposition from influential old groups and clerics  Janissary army becomes outdated and refuse to change  Sultan Selim III assassinated by Janissaries in 1807 after attempting to modernize army and navy 

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General lack of interest in industrialization Minority groups such as Christians and Jews carry out trade with the west Competition with West  decline of local artisans

Attempts at Reform Sultans modernize and secularize government bureaucracy  Boost western ideas, science and technology  Sometimes meet resistance from the clergy 

Mahmud II (1808-1839) Built a small professional army  Tricks Janissaries into revolting  Crushes rebellion and disbands Janissary corps  Gets control over Ayan  Begins policy of westernization 

Mehmed III 1820s: assists Mahumd II  Creates professional army  Subdues Janissaries  Builds modern navy 

Tanzimat Reforms 1839-1876 1839-1876  Westernization of education  Introduces western communication systems  Western style laws and constitution  Some increased rights for women, some women enter public life 

Revolts and Rebellions 

Further weaken and cut away at the Ottoman Empire

Revolts and Rebellions 1820 Greek Revolution: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire  1867 Serbs gain independence  Dynasty begins to feel increasingly threatened by westernized bureaucrats, professionals and military officers 

Abdul Hamid (1878-1908) last sultan Attempts return to despotic absolutism, nullifies constitution and decreases civil rights  Continues to adopt western tech and military  Forced out with bloodless coup 

The Eastern Question How should Western European rulers deal with the Ottoman Empire?  No longer a threat  Held together volatile parts of Asia and Europe  Held important place geographically between Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean 

Worry that collapse will destroy Europe’s delicate Balance of Power  Western nations especially nervous about increasing Austrian and Russian power  Britain and France support Turks against Russia and Austria even as they take over parts of the empire 

Eastern Question in Cartoons

Attendant. "How do you feel after your bath, my Lord?" LORD B. "Pretty comfortable, thank you!—(Aside. Lost some weight, I fancy.) —You made it so confoundedly HOT for me!!!" < The Turkish bath / John Tenniel. In: Punch (7 Oct 1876) Gladstone tried to influence Government policy on the Eastern Question by appealing directly to the public, both on the platform and through the press, on behalf of the Bulgarian victims of Turkish persecution.

Eastern Question in Cartoons The Status Quo Turkey: Will you still Befriend me? Britannia: Befriend You?Not with your hands That colour! 

The Crimean War 1854-1856  Britain and France support Ottmans in war against Russian expansion into Black sea  Costly war with over 250,000 casualties  Defeat Russia’s forces but shows weakness of Ottoman Empire 

British Attitude of the Crimean War 

How Jack Made the Turk Usefula at Balaclaya (1856, John Leech in Punch)

As is that weren’t bad enough… Construction of Suez Canal in 1869 increases geographic importance of Egypt  Unification of Italy in 1860s adds another power into the Mediterranean  Montenegro, Romania, and Bulgaria struggle for greater autonomy 

Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878 Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia rise up  Turks suppress rebellion ruthlessly  Russia attacks in 1877, and defeats in 1878  Congress of Berlin of 1878 presided over by Bismarck gives Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia independence 

The Rise of the Young Turks 

Ottoman Society for Union and Progress a.k.a. Young Turks formed in Paris 1889 Goal: restore the constitution of 1876  Successful in 1908 

Problems 1908-1914 Division between military leaders  fighting  Young Turks struggle to keep empire together  Increasing Arab nationalism  more loss of land 

Balkan Wars & World War I  

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1911-1912Italy attacks Ottoman and takes control of remaining land in North Africa First Balkan War of 1912: Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria defeat Ottoman forces During WWI join the Central powers and are defeated in 1918 Empire collapses, remaining middle eastern possessions rebel and are taken over by Britain and France Modern State of Turkey formed in 1920s

Ottoman Empire during WWI

Change Over Time 

Discuss in detail the internal and external forces that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire between 1689 and 1918 

Be sure to include (see rubric!)  A strong thesis statement  Historical evidence of change  Analysis of both internal and external causes of decline

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