Decolonization - wilsonworldhistory1213

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History
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Decolonization Ch 34

India Section 1

Congress Party • • • • •

Who: Hindus & Muslims What: India’s national political party Where: India When: 1940s Why: India had 350mill Hindus & 150 mill Muslims; most of Congress party were Hindu, but some Muslim; advocated for independence against GB & fought for Indian interests

Mohandas Gandhi • Who: leader of the Congress party • What: launched the 1st nonviolent campaign for independence • Where: India • When: 1920s • Why: his ideas inspired Indians of all ethnic, religious backgrounds to achieve independence; he puts the thoughts of independence in Indians’ heads; a Hindu who doesn’t like his peacefulness b.n Hindus & Muslims extremist assassinated him in 1948

1. What were the major concerns of the Muslim league? • They thought that the mainly Hindu Congress party looked out primarily for Hindu interests, not Muslim interests • Wanted to ensure a safe & secure region for Muslims

Muslim League • Who: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Indian Muslims • What: an organization founded to help protect Muslim interests; rival group to the Congress party • When: 1906 • Where: India • Why: they felt the Congress party only looked out for the Hindus; they stated they would never accept independence if it meant rule by the Hindu-dominated Congress party

2. What problems had to be resolved in the months prior to independence? • Division of India- who should be in power? How should we divide the land? Where would ppl go and how would the gov’t be run?

Partition • Who: British officials, Muslims & Hindus • What: the term given to the division of India into 2 separate Hindu and Muslim nations • Where: India & Pakistan • When: 1946 • Why: British officials were convinced that partition was the only way to ensure a safe region; the NW & Eastern regions of India where most Muslims lived = Pakistan

3. What were the terms of the cease fire? • 1/3 of Kashmir under Pakistan control & the rest under Indian control

4. How did Nehru contribute to India’s modernization? • He led new independent nations in neutral alliances • He industrialized • Pushed for social reform • Expanded human & women’s rights

Jawaharlal Nehru • Who: Prime Minister • What: the independent nation of India’s first Prime Minister • Where: India When: 1947-1964 • Why: he was one of Gandhi’s devoted followers; he led other newly independent nations of the world in following an alliance of countries that were neutral in the Cold War; he pushed for industrialization & sponsored social reforms; he tried to elevate the lower castes; his death left the Congress party w. no strong leader= divisions in India

5. What events led to the creation of Bangladesh? • • • • •

E. Pakistan was hit by huge tidal wave W. Pakistan didn’t transfer aid quickly enough Demonstrations broke outCivil war in Pakistan 2 separate nations

6. What major problem did Indira Gandhi face? • Disarming the Tamil rebels • Challenges from Sikh extremists that wanted to be an independent state

Indira Gandhi • • • • •

Who: Nehru’s daughter, Prime minister What: took control of India after her father died Where: India When:1966-1984 Why: she faced many threats from Sikh extremists & other political factions throughout India; sent Indian troops to overrun Golden Temple= killed 500 sikhs & destroyed sacred property = assassinated by Sikhs in 1984

7. What was the cause of turmoil in Sri Lanka? • Group of militant Tamils fought for their own country of Tamil

Benizir Bhutto • Who: Bhutto’s daughter; Prime minister • What: took over Pakistan after her father was executed • Where: Pakistan • When: 1970s- 1996 • Why: she was removed from office by a military coup = the military rules Pakistan = continues to struggle w. challenges from Muslim militants & ongoing disputes w. India

Southeast Asia Section 2

Bell Act • Who: Americans & Filipinos • What: established free trade b.n US & the Philippines • Where: Philippines • When: 1960s • Why: this est. & had to be passed b4 the US would pay the $620million in war damages it promised to the Philippines; Filipinos were worried that this would allow US to exploit their resources- but they passed it anyway

a. Why did the Filipinos object to this act? • Filipinos were worried that this would allow US to exploit their resources

b. Why did they agree to sign it? • To have free trade w. the US & get the $$ the US promised them

Why did the US demand a long lease on it’s military and naval bases in the Philippines?

• To maintain military presence in Asia w. the start of the Cold War • To get valuable resources

Ferdinand Marcos • Who: President of the Philippines • What: President who imposed an authoritarian regime & stole billions of $$ from Philippines • Where: Philippines • When: 1965-1986 • Why: stoles millions of $$ from public treasury; limited to 8 years of presidential office but imposed a law to keep power; an election brought Corazon Aquino who challenged him- he refused to acknowledge her victory = the public overthrew him =he fled to Hawaii & died

3. Why does the Philippines restrict the Pres. To a single term? • To prevent the abuse of power that occurred under Marcos’ rule

Corazon Aquino • Who: Benigno Aquino’s widow, opponent to Marcos • What: challenged Marcos to presidency of Philippines & won • Where: Philippines • When: 1986 • Why: she won the presidency decisively- Marcos refused to acknowledge it- he made a law to stay in power = ppl were mad = kicked him out & made her president; promised a more open & democratic form of gov’t; ratified a new constitution; ended the lease on US bases thru negotiation

4 A. What role did General Ne Win play in Burmese history? • Set up a military gov’t w. a goal to make a socialist state

4B. What role did National League for Democracy play in Burmese history? • They won 80% of the seats in the 1990 election- but the military gov’t denies it • = the military gov’t stayed in charge in Burma

Aung San Suu Kyi • Who: daughter of Aung San, leader of National League for Democracy • What: was active in Nat’l League for Democracy • When: 1988-2003 • Where: Burma, Southeast Asia • Why: for her pro-Democracy activities she was put on house arrest 2 separate times = left many Burmese residents doubting whether their country will ever accept democracy; military gov’t remained

5A. What’s the current political status of Singapore? • Independent city-state

5B. What’s the current political status of Malaya? Sarawak & Sabah? • United into a federation of what’s called “Malaysia”

Sukarno • Who: Indonesian President • What: led the effort to establishing an independent Indonesia • Where: Indonesia • When: 1949 • Why: he proclaimed Indonesia’s independence from Netherlands & named himself president; a guerilla army backed him up; the Dutch attempted to regain control but after losing support of the US the Dutch gave Indonesia it’s independence

Suharto • Who: General Suharto • What: sought power for himself, began a bloodbath in which 500,000 to 1 mill Indonesians were killed • Where: Indonesia • When: 1965-1998 • Why: named President in 1967; turned Indonesia into a police state; heavily criticized; little tolerance for religious freedoms; bribery & corruptioncommonplace; economy improved for awhile BUT gov’t repression & economic crisis = forced him to step down= then they moved towards Democracy

6. What factors finally forced Suharto to step down? • Growing unrest over both Gov’t repression & a crippling Economic crisis

Africa Sec 3

Negritude Movement • Who: Africans & W. Indians • What: a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, & values • Where: Africa • When: 1950-1960s • Why: the Africans pushed for independence in the decades b4 WWII; French speaking Africans & W. Indians began to express their growing sense of black consciousness & pride in traditional African; when WWII broke out African soldiers fought w. Europeans = after the war, they were unwilling to accept colonial domination

1. Ghana • Tactics used by Nkrumah: organized strikes & boycotts • Nkrumah’s reforms: new roads, schools, & expanded health facilities; Industrialization • Problems: spending too much time on African efforts & the expense of his programs undermined the economy

Kwame Nkrumah • Who: Ghana’s first Prime minister & president for life • What: leader of Ghana’s nonviolent movement for freedom • Where: Ghana, West Africa • When: 1947-1966 • Why: He worked to liberate Ghana from the British; he organized strokes & boycotts = ultimately, they got independence; he became leader of Ghana; pushed for new roads, schools, health facilities, industrialized & gave welfare = his programs were too $$ = crippled Ghana’s economy= the army & police took control & kicked him out of power

2. Kenya • Tactics used by Mau Mau: Guerilla warfare • Kenyatta’s reforms: unite countries of various ethnic & language groups • Problems: killed hundreds & left 1000s homeless; corruption & ethnic conflicts

Jomo Kenyatta • Who: African revolutionary; Kenyan Nationalist & president • What: promoted his beliefs & was put in jail • Where: Kenya, Africa • When: 1891-1978 • Why: got independence for Kenya; became president; united many ethnic groups; after he died- no one was as successful at governing the country

3. Zaire • How independence was gained: Belgium gave it to them & then Mobutu seized power • Mobutu’s rule: maintained control through force; 1 party rule; gifts to supporters; overthrown • Problems: overthrown by a rebel leader; constant civil wars; promise of Democracy never fulfilled

4. Algeria • How was independence gained: Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) sent ½ mill soldiers to fight against French colonists • Ben Bella’s programs: attempted to make a socialist state • Problems: overthrown by his army commander; unemployment; dissatisfaction w. the govt

Ahmed Ben Bella • Who: leader of FLN & president of Algeria • What: became first president of newly independent Algeria • Where: Algeria, Africa • When: 1962-1965 • Why: He attempted to make Algeria a socialist state; overthrown in 1965 by his military commander

5. Angola • How independence was gained: fighting & an independence movement against Portugal • Causes of Civil war: Communist- Leaning MPLA declared itself the new nation’s rightful govt = rebel groups fought for power = civil war • Other problems: various rebel groups fought for power; abandoned case-fire agreements = continued war

Middle East Section 4

1. Britain issues the Balfour declaration • Causes: Sir Arthur Balfour promoted the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine • Effects: hostility between Palestinians & Jews continued to grow

2. Independent Israel is created • Causes: The UN voted for a partition of Palestine into a Palestinian state & a Jewish state • Effects: the new nation of Israel got a hostile greeting from it’s neighbors- the day after it proclaimed itself a state- six Islamic states ( Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, & Syria) invaded Israel = Arab-Israeli war

3. The 1956 Arab-Israeli war breaks out • Causes: Israel became an independent nation & 6 Islamic states invaded; Israel claimed lands that Arabs felt should have exclusively been Arab • Effects: 1956 Suez crisis occurred which led to Israel & Europe withdrawing from Egypt; the expansion of Israeli boundaries

4. 1967 6 day war began • Causes: Arabs were about to attack w. Soviet help; Israelis were convinced the Arabs were about to attack so they struck airfields in surrounding Islamic countries • Effects: Israel defeated Arabs & Arabs lost 15000 ppl

Anwar Sadat • Who: Egyptian president • What: planned a joint Arab attack on Yom Kippur (Jewish holiday) • Where: Egypt • When: 1973 • Why: the Israelis were caught by surprise; Arab forces inflicted heavy casualties and recaptured some of their territory lost in 1967; both sides agreed to a truce several weeks after fighting; 1977-he stunned the world by extending a hand to Israel- the first Arab country to do so =historic opportunity for peace; signed the Camp David Accords= ended 30 years of hostility

Golda Meir • Who: Israel’s prime minister • What: launched a counter attack against Egypt (Arabs, Anwar Sadat) in the Yom Kippur War • Where: Israel • When: 1967 • Why: he regained territory they had lost to Egpyt; agreed to a truce w. Anwar Sadat

5. The 1973 Yom Kippur war begins • Causes: conflicts b.n Arabs & Jewish Israel • Effects: Israel regained territory it had lost previously; Egypt & Israel signed a truce

PLO • • • • •

Who: Palestinians What: Palestine Liberation Organization Where: Palestine When: 1964 Why: this organization pushed for the formation of a Palestinian state; made up of different groups- guerilla fighters, laborers, teachers, etc. ; guerillas took over the organization and said the only way to get what they wanted was through armed struggle

Yasir Arafat • Who: chairman of PLO • What: his group carried out numerous attacks against Israel in order to form their own Palestinian state • Where: Israel & Palestine • When: 1960s, 1970s • Why: his attacks on Israel & Arabs gave Palestine it’s own state

6. Sadat & Begin sign the Camp David Accords • Causes: Arabs wanted permission to nuke Israel; Israel wanted Egypt to recognize them as their own independent state • Effects: ended 30 years of hostilities b.n Egypt & Israel and became the first signed agreement b.n Israel & an Arab country

Camp David Accords • • • • •

Who: Jimmy Carter, Sadat, & Begin What: a signed agreement Where: Camp David, USA When: 1978-1979 Why: ended 30 years of hostilities b.n Egypt & Israel and became the first signed agreement b.n Israel & an Arab country

Intifada • Who: Palestinians • What: Palestinians began to express their frustration in a widespread campaign of civil disobedience or uprising (called Intifada) • Where: Gaza Strip, occupied by Israel • When: 1987- 1990s • Why: they took the form of boycotts, demonstrations, & attacks on Israeli soldiers; cont’d thru the 1990sw little progress; this affected world opinion which put pressure on Israel to negotiate peace w. Palestinians

Oslo Peace Accords • Who: Palestinians • What: document called the Declaration of Principles from secret talks held in Norway about Israeli-Palestinian peace • When: 1993 • Where: about Israel, held in Norway • Why: Israel agreed to grant Palestinians self-rule in Gaza strip and the West Bank; the Prime Minister of Israel was assassinated afterwards by an extremist that was against Palestinians =there was still difficulties

7. Rabin & Arafat issue Declaration of Principles • Causes: Palestine territories occupied by Israel were a bitterly divided issue • Effects: Israel agreed to grant Palestinians selfrule on Gaza Strip; Israeli Prime minister was assassinated

Central Asia Struggles Sec 5

Transcaucasian Republics • Who: Central Asians • What: 3 nations that lie in the Caucusus Mountains b.n the Black & Caspian Seas • Where: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia • When: 1991-present • Why: they have a lot of oil & natural gas fluids that the Soviets want which led to a solid economy; with the fall of the Soviet Union & Communism = these nations separated from the USSR & formed their own republic = they had a difficult time standing on their own w.o SU help = dependent on the SU even after independence

Central Asian Republics • Who: Central Asians • What: 5 nations that are east of the Caspian Sea & extended into Pamir Mountains • Where: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikstan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan • When: 1991-present • Why: with the fall of the Soviet Union & Communism = these nations separated from the USSR & formed their own republic = they had a difficult time standing on their own w.o SU help = dependent on the SU even after independence; they’ve struggled economically & are now some of the poorest countries in the world; prob stems from reliance on SU

1. Since gaining independence, why have the nations of Central Asia struggled economically? • Because of their heavy reliance on the Soviet Union for economic help • Dependence on one crop hurt development of a balanced economy • Soviet Union converted a lot of farmland to grow all cotton

2. Why have many regional wars been fought in Central Asia? • It’s a mixing pot of different religions and ethnicities that don’t like each other • Soviet Union prevented hostilities from breaking out = When SU was no longer in charge = hostilities broke out into wars

3. During the 1800s, why did GB want to gain control over Afghanistan? • To protect the northern borders of it’s Indian empire • Why did Russia want control over this region? – They wanted access to the Indian Ocean for a warm-water port so they could trade all year long

4. Why did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan in 1979? • To conquer the country and add it to their Soviet/Communist Empire • There was a rebellion & Soviet Union needed to step in

Mujahideen • Who: Afghan holy warriors • What: a group of Afghans in opposition to the Soviet control of Afghanistan • Where: Afghanistan • When: 1979-1980 • Why: these rebels fought fiercely against the Soviet government; they felt that Communist policies conflicted w. the teachings of Islam; the Soviet government w. its superior military was not able to put down the rebellion b..c the Afghans used guerilla tactics & the US provided $$$ = the SU withdrew troops = the Mujahideen won

Taliban • Who: Afghan rebel group • What: conservative Islamic Afghan rebel group that wanted control of Afghanistan • Where: Afghanistan • When: 1998-now • Why: leaders restricted women’s lives by forbidding them to go to school or jobs; they banned everything from tv, movies, and modern music; breaking these rules= beatings or death; this group played a role in world terrorism- 9/11 = US eventually kicked them outta power in the war; they fought other Afghan groups for control of Afghanistan & won- controlled 90% of the country

Osama Bin Laden • Who: terrorist leader of the Al-Qaeda • What: responsible for numerous attacks on the West including 9/11 World Trade Centers & Pentagon • Where: Afghanistan • When: 1957-2011 • Why: after the 9/11 attacks, the Taliban refused to give him up to the USA = US bombed Al-Qaeda airfields & training camps = US drove the Taliban from power = US captured Bin Laden in 2011 & executed him

5. How did rule by the Taliban affect Afghanistan? • Brought order to the war torn nation • Followed an extreme interpretation of Islamic law & applied it to every aspect of Afghan society – Restrictive of women banned media – Punished ppl severely – Supported terrorism – #6 I will give in class tomorrow.. Before your test

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