Diplomacy & The Great War
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1914-1918: World War I By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Objective 8.01 Examine the reasons why the United States remained neutral at the beginning of World War I, but later became involved.
Objective 8.01 Micro Concepts Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Trade Isolationism Mobilization Key Terms and People Archduke Franz Ferdinand U-Boat (submarine) warfare Serbia Allies
Central Powers Kaiser Wilhelm II Contraband
Election of 1916 Woodrow Wilson “Make the world safe for democracy” Idealism Zimmermann Telegram Selective Service Act Isolationists Jeanette Rankin
Causes of the War
Causes of the War A - Alliances N - Nationalism
I - Imperialism M - Militarism A - Anarchy L – Leadership
Tangled European Politics
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente:
1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente… Allied Powers Triple Alliance… Central Powers
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers:
Britain Germany Austria-Hungary France
Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers:
Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger]
George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It]
Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr]
Franz Josef [A-H]
Europe in 1914
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1870
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914
The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
Assassination in Sarajevo
The Assassin Gavrilo Princip
Who’s To Blame?
Von Schlieffen Plan
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
Soldiers Mobilized 14 12
10 8 6 4 2 0 France
Women and the War Effort
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies “Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
Posters: Wartime Propaganda
Financing the War
Think of Your Children!
The Western Front: Stalemate & Attrition
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916
German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916
60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
The War of the Industrial Revolution New Technology
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
“Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I
Eddie Rickenbacher, US
Francesco Barraco, It.
Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg.
Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr.
Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”]
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
The Eastern Front
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
Russian & Bolshevik Revolutions
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
“A Separate Peace”
America Joins the Allies
Election of 1916
“Peace without victory”
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Sussex Pledge •Tries to dampen U.S. war cries •Germany pledges not to sink merchant vessels with out warning and without saving the lives of those aboard. •For 9 months Germany will honor this pledge.
The Zimmerman Telegram
The U.S. Declares War!
“Make the world safe for democracy”
The Yanks Are Coming!
Selective Service Act (1917)
Americans in the Trenches
“Art” of World War I
“A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
“Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
“Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
The Armistice is Signed!
The Somme American Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties (dead, wounded & missing) 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0
Russia Germany Austria-Hungary France Great Britain Italy Turkey US
Social Disruption Total war • Everyone is involved, everyone is a target Women in factories •Suffrage movements Armenian genocide •Foreshadowing of the Holocaust
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
Cilicia and Northern Syria
Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey
Trapizond District Total