Disaster Management System in Lao PDR - Asia
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Disaster Management System in Lao PDR By: Ms. BouaNgeun OUDOMCIT Department of Meteorology and Hydrology Vientiane Lao PDR
Abstract Even though, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a landlocked country, it is also a land linked with the other countries of the Southeast Asia effecting by the Tropical disturbances: Monsoons and Typhoons. Lao PDR has been incessantly damaged by natural disasters that floods and droughts are the Two mains hazards, but flood occurred more frequently not only since 1966 large flood, but also in the historic floods occurring in 1924, 1939 and so one…
1.1: General Background The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is located in the Central of southeast Asia. Sharing border with China to the North, Myanmar to the North West, Thailand to the West, Cambodia to the South and Vietnam to the East. From the geographic location, the width of some 40 km to 50 km in the Central province is vulnerable to Tropical depression and Typhoon originating in the Pacific Ocean or the South China Sea. Al though PhuLuang mountain range along the LaoVietnam border is the natural barrier to protect Storm surge phenomenon, however heavy rainfall associated with these Tropical disturbances frequently caused severe flooding problems in Central and Southern plains. Administratively the country is divided in to 16 Provinces and 1 Capital is the Vientiane, about 135 districts and more than 15.600 villages and 5.8 millien With total area of 236.800 square kilometers, 80% of with are mountainous, mainly in the Northern region, with a highest elevation of 2.820 meters and lowest elevation of 90 meters. The Mekong river is the main geographical feature in the West and in fact froms a natural border with Thailand in most areas. The Mekong River flows through nearly 1.900 kilometers of Lao territory. It is the main river in Lao PDR, with the main 13 tributary from Lao PDR ( for the lower Mekong basin ) . Total catchments area about 795.000 km2 distribution as be low: * China 164.565 km2 = 20.7 % * Myanmar 20.670 km2 = 2.6 % * Lao PDR 213.060 km2 = 26.8 % * Thailand 189.210 km2 = 23.8 % * Cambodia 151.050 km2 = 19.0 %
= 7.1 %
Organization Chart of DMH Director General Deputy Director General
Administration & Personnel DIV
Deputy Director General
Weather Forecast & Aeronautical Div.
Hydrological Div Planning & cooperation Div Meteo Network & Earthquake Div. Technical Management Div.
Climate & Agro– Meteorological Div.
Hydro – Meteorological Station of Provinces Hydro – Meteorological Station of Districts
II. Climate monitoring. Laos enjoys a tropical climate with two seasons it is rainy season, from the beginning of May to the end of October and dry seasons from November to April.
2.1: Rainfall monitoring Rainfall data distribution in Lao PDR ( Table 1 ) Province
Annual Total rainfall in (mm)
Rainy season MayOctober(SW)
Dry season NovemberApril(NE)
Phongsaly (1990-2008) Luangnamthat(1994-08) Bokeo (1996-2008) Oudomxay (1987-2008) Sayabuoly (1969-2008) Luangprabang(1951-08) Xiengkhuang (1982-08 ) Houaphane(1976-2008 ) Vientiane(1951-2008) Paksane (1996-2008) Thakhek (1987-2008) Savanakhet(1971-2008) Saravan (1989-2008) Pakse (1951-2008) Paksong (1983-2008) Sekong (1992-2008) Atapeu (1989-2008) Mean
1669.6 1736.6 1886.1 1603.2 1445.1 1367.1 1465.3 1724.1 1756.1 3563.7 2550.3 1543.1 2120.5 2081.1 3580.1 1626.4 2405.0 1865.8 mm
1494.0 1413.3 1642.1 1414.4 1346.9 1215.2 1321.2 1503.6 1632.1 3369.3 2439.7 1448.8 2001.4 1981.7 3139.4 1470.8 2284.7 1602.4 mm
89.5 81.4 87.1 88.2 93.2 88.8 90.2 87.2 92.9 94.5 95.6 93.9 94.4 95.2 87.7 90.4 95.0 90.9 %
276.7 323.3 290.8 258.4 211.1 226.2 235.4 282.2 199.9 265.4 218.9 142.9 154.1 140.6 440.8 194.6 158.0 236.4 mm
10.5 18.6 12.9 11.8 6.8 11.2 9.8 12.8 7.1 5.5 4.4 6.1 5.6 4.8 12.3 9.6 5.0 9.1 %
- From long time statistic total rainfall is about 1865.8 mm, in rainy season amount 90.9 % of total rainfall ( May – October ) and on the dry seasons amount 9.1 % of rainfall were concentrated from ( November – April ). - A short drought of about 2 weeks is experienced between June and July.
2.2: Temperature monitoring. Temperature is continuously increasing, the rain does not come properly, which results in a number of adverse impacts to the economic system, environment and the livelihoods of people of all ethnic groups. Thus, climate change poses as a great challenge for the Lao PDR to tackle and adapt to climate change conditions and minimize the emission of those greenhouse gases. - Mean Minimum temperature is 13.5C - 17.5C ( December – January ). - Mean maximum temperature is 35.5C - 39.5C ( March – April ). - Annual average temperature is 26.5C - 27.5C. - Absolute minimum temperature is - 03.3C at station Xiengkhuang on 25/12/1999. - Absolute maximum temperature recorded 44.4C at station Savannakhet on 7/4/1974
III. Disasters Management Framework: 3.1: Organization Chart of the NDMC
Organization Chart of the National Disaster Management Committee
3.2: Hazards. The main hazards in Lao PDR are flood and drought Both are dependent on the amount of rainfall. If there is less than 2.000 mm rainfall in the year, drought sensitive areas will be effected. More than 200 mm in 2 days certainly leads to floods along the Mekong plain. Cyclones are therefore not direct hazard, since their force is normally diminished once they have reached Laos from the South China sea, but they can produce flood as a consequence of heavy rainfall. Up to three cyclones hit the country annually, while flood, drought and land-slight occur irregularly. Another virulent hazard is deforestation. It is a direct hazard to the natural environment , but also significantly contributing to the worsening of the effects of ‘normal’ hydrological and meteorological phenomena, causing an increase of the surface runoff in quantity and velocity ( natural flood mitigation is lost ). In recent years natural disasters resulting from climate abnormalities have occurred more frequently especially droughts and floods. The natural disasters last 10 years are recorded droughts and floods from 1999-2008
Disaster Statistic 1998 – 2008 ( Table 1 ) No
Types of Damage
1 2 3 4
1999 2000 2001 2002
5 6 7
2003 2004 2005
Flood Flood Flash flood Large flood ,Flash flood and land- slight Drought Flood Flash flood and land- slight Flood and Strong Wind Flood and Drought Large flood
Damage Cost ( US$ ) 7.450.000 12.500.000 8.000.000 24.454.546 16.500.000 20.750.000 218.304.000 3.207.968 997.960 485.902.186
Place of Damage Central Central and Southern Central and Southern Northern, Central and Southern Northern and Central Southern Central and Southern Northern, Central and Southern Central Northern and Central hern
3.3: Flood in the year 2008. On 8 August TS KUMMURI ( 0809 ) Landfall over Southern of China, the spiral band of TS covered Northeastern part of Indochina as well as , Northern and Central of Lao PDR. As a resulted widespread monsoonal heavy rains on the 8th and 9th of the month over upstream of Mekong River are estimated more than 100-150 mm in 24 hours. Therefore the flood peak 2008 condition has been much very high alarm stage, particularly at Luangprabang, Vientiane Capital and Borikhamxay provinces. Flood during August 2008 along the Northern and Central of Mekong River in Lao PDR were higher damage was widespread. In Luangprabang , Vientiane Capital, Borikhamxay and Khammuane provinces, almost 664 villages and 32.610 households were affected. 03 peoples were killed and almost 28516.67 hectares of rice and other crops damaged, about 702 heads ( buffalos, cows, pigs and goats ), 995 heads of poultry lost. The direct economic losses in four provinces were 328.016.857.940 kips ( about 385.902.186 US$ ).
Assessed flood damage 2008 from Mekong River ( Table 2 ) Description
Provinces affected Districts affected Villages affected Houses affected People affected People killed Agriculture Hectares of Rice and other Crop damaged Hectares of Industry log damaged Kilogram of seed bed / nursery
Assessment methodology is based on data reporting from : Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office , Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry ; Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Water Resources and Environment Administration and the National Disaster Management Organization Luangprabang, Vientiane , Bolikhamxay and Khammuane 26 664 32. 610 95.158 persons in Bolikhamxy and Khammuane provinces 3 28.516,67 53,54 860
Livestock Cattle Poultry Fish ponds, aquaculture and Mekong fish net Infrastructure Schools
702 head ( buffalos, cows , pigs and goats ) lost 995 head lost
44 sites fish ponds 355,59 ha aquaculture and 71 sites of Mekong fish net damaged 63 sites affected
3 health center of Hinboun village affected and 50 sites of Medicine Cabinet damaged
Erosion along the Mekong river
18 sites destroyed 27 kilometres of length 40 places damaged 314,38 kilometres of length
Road damage Canal systems damaged
Drainage tube affected Water wells damage Underground water well damage Natural water spring damage Villagers toilette affected
48 sites 53 meters 929 sites 812 sites 1 site 4.954 sites
3.4: Mitigation: Lao Government despondently move 1.126 families from flooding area to safe place. On this flooding Prevention includes all Ministries, International Organization, and Vientiane people totally 58.333 people, 4.171 people are officer and other 54.162 people to protection dike 17 km along the Mekong River and low places by sandbags.
Dike Protection 13 Oct 2008
Move people to safety place 13 Oct 2008
Assist on flooding period 12 – 20 August 2008 ( Table 3 ) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total
Item Sandbags Drinking water Noodle Rice Fished can Medicines Gasoline Money
Unit 2.500.000 9.448 2.050 boxes 7 tons 1.525 packs
Cost US$ 1.000.000 75.584 10.250 70.000 7.625 104.819 588.236 34.940 1.891.454 (US$)
3.5: Dissemination the Flood forecast and Weather forecast. - To media radio - To news paper - To Television - To Ministry concerned - To Disaster Management Organization - To Meteorological stations in provincial
3.6: Forecast & Warning Dissemination.
Forecast & Warning Dissemination in Laos Department of Meteorology & Hydrology
WMO GTS Network
Prime Minister’s Office
Aviation. Intl. Airport Local Authorities
People in Disaster Risk Areas
Electricity Hydro– power
Mass Media TV Radio News
Provincial Hydro – Meteo Stations
Provincial TV Radio
NDMC ( NDMO) Line ministries concerned
Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Services
Village Disaster Prevention
Districts & villages Disaster Risk Areas
3.7: Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Natural Disaster prevention and mitigation is one of measures that contribute to the poverty alleviation strategy of the Lao PDR government.
Disaster Management Institutions: The National Disaster Management Community consisting of representative From 12 key ministries and Lao Red Cross: 1. Minister of MLSW Chairman 2. Vice-Minister of MAF Vice–Chairman 3. Chief of Cabinet of MFA Vice-Chairman 4. Chief of Cabinet of MOD Member 5. Chief of Cabinet of MOS Member 6. Chief of Cabinet of MOE Member 7. Director of Budget Dept. MOF Member 8. Director of Transport Dept. MPWT Member 9. Director of Energy and Mine Dept. Member 10. Director of Hygiene Dept. MOH Member 11. Director of Mass Media Dept. MIC Member 12. Director of Social Welfare Dept. MLSW Member 13. Chairman of Lao Red Cross Member
3.8: CONCLUSION. The disaster management in Lao PDR is the main objective will be have information from new technology with help on forecaster to make sure the weather and flood forecasting. Fore the more rainfall prediction is not enough sure to prevent the disaster management in the country. Due to climate change the year to year, DMH need to improver the new and high technology for the flood forecast and weather forecasting as rainfall and seasonal forecast in the country and region.
Khon Pha Pheng Mekong River Waterfall (End of Lao PDR )
Thank you very much fore your attention
And Khop Chai Lai Lai