RDA and BIBFRAME: A need of Science and Technology libraries under digital environment Dr. Sunil Goria Deputy Librarian, (Commonwealth Fellow, UK) G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263145, India [email protected]
Introduction • In the present digital age of information, Science and technology (S&T) digital resources (i.e. online journals, e-books, online databases etc) have been increased very fast all over the world. • According to STM report 2012, there were about 28,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed journals in mid 2012, collectively publishing about 1.8–1.9 million articles a year. • Nowadays most of S & T libraries are rich in digital information resources. • In libraries, catalogue is a set of organized data describing the information content for accessing information. • Research and developments have been done in library cataloguing since 1961- first cataloguing principles known as Paris Principles. • In 1967, AACR (Anglo American Cataloguing Rules), 1st edition was published. • In 1978, AACR2 was published with later revisions in 1988, 1998, and 2002.
• MARC was developed by the LC during the late 1960s as for creation and dissemination of computer-readable catalogue records. • In 1971, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) for bibliographic description of Monographic Publications was published. • In 1998, Functional Requirement for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) was published by IFLA. • US MARC was renamed as MARC-21 in the year 1999. • In 2004 Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) were presented at the 70th IFLA General Conference and Council. • RDA is developed during 2004-2009 and published in 2010. • In 2010, the three U.S. national libraries (the LC, the NAL and the NLM), academic, research, special, and public libraries tested RDA. • LC started to implement RDA from April 1st , 2013. • Other libraries have already begun to implement RDA. • In 2011, LC officially launched BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) initiative as a replacement of MARC-21.
RDA (Resource Description and Access) • RDA is the new cataloging standard intended to succeed AACR2. • It is developed by the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC). • The members of JSC are – – – – –
The Library of Congress (LC), The British Library, The American Library Association (ALA), The Canada Committee on Cataloguing, and the Australian Committee of Cataloguing.
• RDA has been developed for the new digital environment the world’s libraries currently work within. • It provides a comprehensive set of guidelines and instructions on resource description and access covering all types of content and media. • Overall purpose of RDA is providing “a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery” (0.0). • It helps users to find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want.
Need of RDA • There are significant differences between RDA and AACR2 • The structure of RDA is different from AACR2. • AACR2 was basically developed for bibliographic description of documents on card catalogues. • Miksa (2009) pointed out that the AACR2 is weak on access points. • AACR2 lacks the concepts of the FRBR and FRAD models. • RDA has been developed specifically with focus on users. • AACR2 is known as bibliographic standard while RDA is designed as a content standard for recording the content of bibliographic data. • RDA allows sharing data in digital world.
• The data created using RDA to describe a resource are designed to assist users performing the following tasks discussed in RDA toolkit: • Find—i.e., to find resources that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria • Identify—i.e., to confirm that the resource described corresponds to the resource sought, or to distinguish between two or more resources with similar characteristics • Select—i.e., to select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s needs • Obtain—i.e., to acquire or access the resource described • The structure of RDA is different from AACR2. Miksa (2009) has compared the chapters of RDA with AACR2, 2nd edition.
RDA and AACR2 RDA
AACR 2nd Ed., Rev.
Recording Attributes Introduction Section 1. Chapters 1-4 Recording attributes of manifestation and item Section 2. Chapters 5-7 Recording attributes of work and expression Section 3. Chapters 8-11 Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Section 4. Chapters 12-16 Recording attributes of concept, object, event and place Recording Relationships Section 5. Chapter 17 Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Section 6. Chapters 18-22 Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 7. Chapter 23 Recording relationships to concepts, objects, events, and places associated with a work
Part I. Description Introduction Chapter 1 General rules Chapters 2-12 Special Rules Chapter 13 Analytical descriptions Part II. Headings, Uniform Titles and References Chapter 20 Introduction Chapter 21 Choice of access points [main and added] Chapter 22 Headings for persons Chapter 23 Geographic names Chapter 24 Headings for corporate bodies Chapter 25 Uniform Titles Chapter 26 Reference Appendices A-E Index
Section 8. Chapters 24-28 Recording relationships between works, expressions manifestations, and items Section 9. Chapters 29-32 Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 10. Chapters 33-37 Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places Appendices A-M Glossary
FRBR family • The FRBR is a conceptual model of the bibliographic universe, describing the entities in that universe, their attributes, and relationships among the entities. • In FRBR family, the entities are divided in the following three groups and relationship among the entities are established . • Group 1 - includes intellectual and artistic endeavor that are named or described in bibliographic records: work, expression, manifestation, and item. FRBR focus on Group 1. • Group 2 - are the entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination or the custodianship of such products: person and corporate body. FRAD focus on Group 2. • Group 3 - are the entities that serve as the subjects of intellectual or artistic endeavor: concept, object event, place, and any of the Group 1 or Group 2 entities – you can have a work about another work or about a person, etc. FRSAD focus on Group 3. • They are conceptual models to explain the purpose of bibliographic and authority records and how they relate to the needs of users.
FRBR model: Group-1
• ‘book,’ may be physical thing held in library collections– FRBR calls this an item. • ‘book’ may be “publication” identified by an ISBN. The set of all items bearing the same characteristics, both physical form and content– FRBR calls this manifestation. • ‘book’ may be translated– we may have a specific text in mind in a specific language or a translation – FRBR calls this expression. The audio book version is a different expression. • ‘book’ may be as “who wrote that book?” – we mean a higher level of intellectual or artistic content that the ideas in a person’s head for a book – FRBR calls this work.
FRBR Entity Levels (Tillet, 2004) Work: Expression: Manifestation:
Copy 1 Autographed
Group 1 Entities’ Attributes (Tillet, 2004) • Manifestation
• Work – – – –
ID Title Date etc.
• Expression – – – – – –
ID Title Form Date Language etc.
– – – – – – – – –
ID Title Statement of responsibility Edition Imprint (place, publisher, date) Form/extent of carrier Terms of availability Mode of access etc.
• Item – – – –
ID Provenance Location etc.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ WORK EXPRESSION MANIFESTATION ITEM
100 1_ $aWinton, Tim,$d1960240 10 $aCloudstreet.$lGerman 245 13 $aDas Haus an der Cloudstreet :$bRoman / $cTim Winton ; aus dem australischen Englisch von Barbara Lehnerer 260 __ $aFrankfurt am Main :$bKruger,$c1998. 300 __ $a 493 p. ;$c22 cm. 700 1_ $aLehnerer, Barbara,$etranslator. 900 __ $aLibrary’s copy signed by the author. (bibliographic record for the German translation of Cloudstreet).
FRAD (Functional Requirement of Authority Data)Grpup-2
• Authority data represents the controlled access points and other information that are used to collocate works by a specific person, family, or corporate body, or the various editions of a title. • Entities of FRAD model are: – Person, – Families, and – Corporate bodies.
Attributes of FRAD entities – Person • Title of person, Gender • Place of birth, Place of death • Country, Place of residence • Affiliation, Address etc, – Family • Type of family, Dates of family • Places associated with family • Field of activity, History of family – Attributes of a corporate body • Place associated, Dates associated • Language of the corporate body • Address • Field of activity, History • Other information associated with the corporate body
Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR): Group-3 • Subject access to information has been a significant approach of users to satisfy their information needs. • Group 3 entities represent an additional set of entities that serve as the subjects of works: concept, object, event, and place. • The FRSAR Working Group introduced the two entities: – Thema (i.e. subject/topic/concept): any entity used as a subject of a work – Nomen (i.e. Name): any sign or sequence of signs (alphanumeric characters, symbols, sound, etc.) that a thema is known by, referred to, or addressed as.
• “Type” and “scope note” can be considered general attributes. • Example- “A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes” by Stephen W. Hawking. • The work has several themas: “cosmology”, “space and time”, “unification of physics”, “black holes”, “big bang”, “universe”, etc.
RDA Toolkit • RDA Toolkit is an integrated, browser-based, online product that allows users to interact with a collection of catalogingrelated documents and resources, including RDA. • RDA instructions that are searchable and browsable • Workflows and other procedural documentation that is created by subscribers and can be shared within an organization or with the entire community of subscribers. • Mappings of RDA to different schemas, including MARC 21. • Two views of RDA content—by table of contents and by element set • Full text of AACR2. • MARC Record Examples of RDA Cataloging
BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) www.bibframe.org • BIBFRAME has been developed as replacement of MARC-21 in the leadership of the LC . • It is the foundation for the future of bibliographic description that happens on, in, and as part of the web and the networked world we live in. • The BIBFRAME Initiative will bring new ways to: – Differentiate clearly between conceptual content and its physical manifestation(s) (e.g., works and instances) – Focus on unambiguously identifying information entities (e.g., authorities) – Leverage and expose relationships between and among entities
• RDA elements are part of the BIBFRAME vocabulary.
• The BIBFRAME Model consists of the following main classes (http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/model.html) : • Creative Work - a resource reflecting a conceptual essence of the cataloguing item. Subjectness -Topic, Person, Place and entities -Person, Organization, • Instance - a resource reflecting an individual, material embodiment of the Work. • Authority - a resource reflecting key authority concepts. Examples People, Places, Topics, Organizations, etc. • Annotation - a resource that decorates other BIBFRAME resources with additional information. Examples - Library Holdings information, cover art and reviews. • BIBFRAME the World Wide Web Consortium’s Resource Description Framework (RDF) model practice of identifying as Web resources all entities (resources), attributes, and relationships between entities (properties). • The BIBFRAME model and its components are still in development.
BIBFRAME Annotation • An Annotation asserts information about a resource; the resource is referred to as the Annotation Target. • In the BIBFRAME context, the Target is a BIBFRAME resource: Work, Instance, Authority, or Annotation • General Annotation Assertions: RDF triples with properties which are common to all BIBFRAME Annotations. bf:annotates. Expresses the Target. • bf:payloadSource. Expresses the source of the payload of the Annotation. Generally, a BIBFRAME Authority. (Payload The collective information in the objects of the class-specific assertions). • bf:annotationAssertedBy. Expresses the Annotator.
RDA and BIBFRAME for S & T Libraries • Digital resources have been increasing in S&T libraries all over the world. • The purpose of RDA is to support the production of catalogue data that can be managed by current and future database technologies. • One of the important aspects in RDA is that it can be used for the description of both traditional and nontraditional resources in libraries. • The web-based RDA Toolkit is very convenient to use and navigate for cataloguers and library professionals. • RDA provides a comprehensive set of guidelines and instructions on resource description and access covering all types of content. • It will facilitate the requirement of web-based online cataloguing tools. • It will be the backbone for the future semantic web OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).
• RDA allows users to add their own notes online. • RDA has developed keeping in mind present and future requirement of libraries after thorough study, practical testing and involvement of international experts and organizations. • Use of RDA has been started in the academic and national libraries of developed countries like US and UK. • BIBFRAME is in the developing stage. • RDA and BIBFRAME are foundation for Semantic web. • In conclusion, RDA and BIBFRAME will be the requirement of Science and Technology libraries in future in digital environment for sharing the data.
Cronin, Christopher (2011). This is Just the Beginning: Implementation of RDA & Thoughts on Next Steps for our Metadata Infrastructures. Library Administrators Conference of Northern Illinois (LACONI), 25 February 2011. Available online at http://www.laconi.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/RDA-UChicago-LACONI.pdf
International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR). (2008). Functional requirements for bibliographic records: Available online at http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr_2008.pdf
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International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) Study Group on the Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records (FRNAR). (2008). Functional Requirements for Authority Data. Available online at http://archive.ifla.org/VII/d4/wg-franar.htm International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) Working Group on the Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR) (2010). Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD) A Conceptual Model Available online at http://www.ifla.org (accessed on 6.6.2012)
Library of Congress (2012). Bibliographic Framework as a Web of Data: Linked Data Model and Supporting Services. http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/pdf/marcld-report-11-21-2012.pdf
Miksa, Shawne D. (2009) Resource Description and Access (RDA) and New Research Potentials. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No.5, pp.47-50.
Oliver, Chris. (2010). Introducing RDA: A Guide to the basics, Chicago, American Library Association, Available online at http://www.alastore.ala.org/detail.aspx?ID=2897
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http://bibframe.org http://www.loc.gov/bibframe http://www.rda-jsc.org/