Down Syndrome

January 16, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Pediatrics
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Down Syndrome Mike Dowling and Adam Bourret

What is Down Syndrome? It is the most recognizable genetic condition associated with intellectual disabilities  Is one of three chromosomal abnormalities, the most common one is called trisomy 21 

Trisomy 21 Is the presence of an extra number 21 chromosome  Resulting in 47 chromosomes instead of 46 (23 from each parent)  Can be diagnosed prenatal  Down Syndrome Video 

Facts 1 in 700 children are born with DS  5,000 born in the US each year  Fathers are genetically responsible for 25% of all cases  Women over the age of 35 present the highest risk (1 in 290) 

 age

40: 1 in 150 births  At 45: the risk is 1 in 20 births

Characteristics 

short stature  poor muscle tone  small nose with flat bridge  eyes slanted up ward and outward  exaggerated folds of skin around eyes  mild to moderate obesity  under developed respiratory and cardio vascular systems

Characteristics  y.hill/cougars.jpg

short legs and arms in relation to torso  short neck  small low-set ears  small head and flat face  broad hands and feet  stubby fingers and toes  poor balance  perceptual difficulties  poor vision and audition

Motor Performance Delays or deficits  Slowness of movement 

Have a smaller overall brain volume  Significant

reductions in both cerebrum and cerebellum.

Down Syndrome Risk Factors  Age more rapidly  Median Age at death: 

 Caucasian:

50 years  African American: 25 years  Other Races: 11 years

Teaching Strategies 

Most Individuals with DS do not progress beyond the intellectual capabilities of a 6-8 year old  Don’t

assume child in incapable though

Rate of response may also be slower  More repetition is necessary  Short attention span  Distractibility 

Effective Strategies 

Effective For Students With DS  Routine  Repetition  Scaffolding  Use

of peer partners  Know individual student needs  Reproductive teaching methods  Attention


Task Analysis Helpful in modifying a task for individual needs  Break tasks into smaller steps  Analyze the sequence  Train each step  Ex: Breaking down the steps of how to throw a ball and teaching them in sequence 

Pacing Students with DS generally have a slower rate of response  Pacing involves both the rate of speaking & moving  Wait Time  Use demonstrations and visuals  Example: After asking a question wait a minimum of 5 seconds for the response 

Reinforcement Simple yet effective  Low task persistence  More interested in people than objects  Motivated by the praise and encouragement of significant others 

Adventure Education Promotes positive social skills between students with DS and peers  Promotes high levels of enthusiasm & participation  *Modification Task* 

Behavior Management Plan  Routine, rules & consequences  Make learning exciting  Positive reinforcement  Should promote independence & self management 

QuickTime™ and a DV/DVCPRO - NTSC decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Sources 

Fox, S., Farrell. P., & Davis. P. (2004). Factors Associated with the Effective Inclusion of Primary-aged Pupils with Down’s Syndrome. British Journal of Special Education, 31, 184-191

Grenier, M., Rogers, R., & Iarrusso, K. (2008). Including Students with Down Syndrome in Adventure Programming. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 79, 30-36

Klein, M. D., Cook, R. E., & Richardson-Gibbs, A. M. (2001). Strategies for Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Settings. USA: Delmar.

Nadel, L. & Rosenthal, D. (1995). Down Syndrome: Living and Learning in the Community. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Pueschel, S. (2001). A Parent’s Guide to Down Syndrome: Toward a Brighter Future. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.

Weeks, D. & Chua, R & Elliot, D. (2000). Perceptual-Motor Behavior in Down Syndrome. Library of Congress Cataloging-inPublication Data.

Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport (4th ed.). USA: Human Kinetics.

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