Drama – Help with revision

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Performing Arts, Theatre
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G.C.S.E Performance Guide This guide has been split into three sections to help with your understanding

• This guide has been split into three sections Practitioners • Structures • Styles of Theatre • There are examples of each to help you understand in more detail the terminology included

G.C.S.E Preparation - Practitioners • Throughout the course it would be an idea to learn specific styles of theatre and practitioners • As a performer there are three main practitioners featured in this presentation, these are designed to help with style and technique especially for your final examination piece

Practitioners Bertolt Brecht Constantin Stanislavski Augusto Boal

Brecht • Brecht was a pioneer of political theatre and believed drama should educate • He founded the ‘Berliner Ensemble’ and created ‘Verfremdungseffekt’ (alienation technique) • Brecht broke down the illusion of the ‘Fourth Wall’ by distancing audiences from the action thus preventing their emotional involvement with the characters • He created ‘Epic Theatre’ with songs, explanatory placards, unnatural lighting, projection screens, spoken stage directions and the actors directly addressing the audience • Example-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-828KqtTkA

Stanislavski • Stanislavski was a pioneering actor and director who brought ‘Naturalism’ to the stage • He believed actors should research scripts and relate their character’s motivations by delving into their own emotions. • Co-founder of the Moscow Art Theatre, Stanislavski created the first acting training programme called ‘The System’. • As naturalistic acting grew in popularity ‘The System’ was adapted in the U.S into ‘The Method’ – hence ‘Method Acting’ • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9ofwr4y7H4

Boal • Boal was a pioneering theatrical director, writer and politician who founded the ‘Theatre of the Oppressed’ • He created various games and warm-up exercises for actors which influenced the development of ‘Community Theatre’ and ‘Theatre in Education’ (T.I.E) • Boal created ‘Forum Theatre’ in which members of the audience were allowed to stop the performance and suggest alternative actions • He developed ‘Invisible Theatre’ that took place outside the theatre. Actors would perform in public places such as shopping centres without the knowledge of the audience • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uRNtWGh3Qo

G.C.S.E Preparation -Structures • There are many structures to theatre and performance, here are examples of four that you may wish to incorporate throughout the course – again especially with your final devised unit of performance

Structure • • • •

Naturalistic Classical Surreal Episodic

Naturalistic Structure • This structure is usually associated with Stanislavski • It gives the illusion of real life presented on stage. There is unity of time and place (a recognisable situation and time-span). The action evolves through the situations and personalities of the characters. EastEnders is a good example of a naturalistic structure • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HydqLpwt PTY

Classical Structure • This structure is usually associated with the plays of Shakespeare • This follows the shape of three acts. Act one usually introduces the main protagonist and an incident that needs to be solved. The second act will deal with the character and plot development. The final act resolves the action. If the play ends badly it is a tragedy. If it ends well it is classed as a comedy. Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller follows a classical structure • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYFyfpELfg

Surreal structure This structure is associated with Artaud, Stephen Berkoff and Absurdist theatre. • The play is not set in a recognisable place or time. The task is to take the audience on a journey into the subconscious or dream-world • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNpnMl c0hR0

Episodic Structure This structure is associated with the plays of Brecht. Lots of relatively short scenes are linked together by the same character, place or theme. Scenes could be shuffled around and placed in a different order because there is no overall beginning, middle and end. Dr Kovak's Example and Stone Cold are examples of plays that use an episodic structure. Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlia11PnQG4

Styles • As with structures, there are also many styles to theatre and performance, included are some of the most popular

Styles • • • • •

Commedia Dell ‘arte Farce Kitchen sink drama Melodrama Naturalism

Commedia Dell ‘arte • Originated in Italy. Refers to improvised comedy. Usually about love or tricks to get money. Most plays contained roughly the same characters. For example, a plotting maid, an old father, a wily servant. Masks, stock gestures and catchphrases were prevalent in this genre. The comedy was farcical, and often physical with acrobatics • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSUdq9g1qY

Farce • A style of comedy. Involves improbable and ridiculous situations, disguise, mistaken identity, verbal humour and a fast paced plot which gradually increases; usually culminating in a fast chase scene at the end. People are, in essence, all idiots. Makes a good companion of satire. Examples include The Comedy of Errors by Shakespeare and Fawlty Towers, staring John Cleese • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcEws7il4EY

Kitchen Sink • Created in England. Set in rougher, poorer parts of England, usually the North. Includes common Northern accents. “Depicts the real and often trashy side of life.” Usually have a political or societal message. Examples are Coronation Street. • Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKgiZlM iK6Y

Melodrama Apparently so bad that most of the world were trying to make new versions of Theatre (See Naturalism and Epic Theatre).Involves the heavy use of music to denote usually one dimensional character types. For example, a hero would enter to the sound of trumpets, while the villain would enter to the sound of ominous chords. The emotions and plot / action are emphasized, rather than the characters, like in a drama. Contains “a limited number of stock characters: the hero, the villain, the heroine, an old man, an old woman, a comic man and a comic woman engaged in a sensational plot featuring themes of love and murder. Often the good but not very clever hero is duped by a scheming villain, who has eyes on the damsel in distress until fate intervenes at the end to ensure the triumph of good Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptDUGNkPvHY

Naturalism Popularised by Constantin Stanislavski .Involves the goal of creating an illusion of real life on stage. Involves deep, three dimensional and realistic characters. Detailed, non exotic settings. As realistic as possible, so no magic, spoken in prose etc. Plots that are realistic. Involves physical dangers as part of the play’s main conflict. Example https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cc1S0jRs4Ig

Experiment…… • Try now to experiment and mix and match practitioners works, with structure and style! • Enjoy………………..

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