Dreyfus Affair

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), Revolutionary War
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Alfred Dreyfus

The Bordereau

French 120 mm Gun

Maximilian von Schwartzkoppen Military Attache German Embassy • Bordereau found in his trash can by Madame Bastian - French Spy in German Embassy • Addressed to Colonel von Schwartzkoppen Gay – – Also Wrote to lover Italian Military Attache—Major Allesandro Panizzardi in coded language: – “the scoundrel of a D…” • Reference to Dreyfus or ..

– Offered “plans of Nice” – “Don’t exhaust yourself with too much buggery”

• Letter submitted to judges as part of “secret dossier” along with Bordereau

Madame Marie Caudron Bastian

Alphonse Bertillon Criminologist • Suspect had to be an artillary officer • Dreyfus made regular visits to family (from Alsace—now German) • Criminologist Bertillon testified that the LACK of resemblance between Dreyfus writing and Bordereau proof of “self-forgery”

Drumont – Publishes article on Dreyfus – October 31, 1894

Dreyfus Secret Court Martial Guilty of Treason December 22, 1894

Degradation Ceremony – January 5 1895

Affair Becomes a Media Affair

Dreyfus in Prison

Madame Bastion Continues to Collect Garbage • All intelligence to go to Major Henry until • Colonel Georges Picquart is chosen as new Chief of Intelligence • Picquart wants all espionage before Henry gets it • Reveals little except that espionage didn’t stop with Dreyfus’ arrest

Col. Picquart Shows “Le Petit Bleu” written by Esterhazy - 1896

• Adam Gopnik: – Esterhazy “had done everything short of wearing a nametag on his shirtfront reading ‘Spy.’” • Gambling Debts • Debauched son of an Illegitimate daughter of an illegitimate claimant to the Hungarian throne • Written to mistress that he hated the French Army • Notorious for being a drunk

– He was everything Zola would find in the most degenerate

Cover Up Begins • Word of Esterhazy-Panizzardi letter gets out • Lucie Dreyfus calls for reopening case • General de Boisdeffre transfers Picquart to Tunis in North Africa • Eventually, Piquart gets his story to Senator Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, who is convinced Dreyfus innocent

Colonel Henry and His “Faux Henry” 1896

The Plot Thickens • War Minister General Billot –forces Esterhazy to retire • Billot, Col. Henry, and Officer Paty de Clam (left) –warn Esterhazy of suspicions • Esterhazy meets Paty de Clam in disguise in a park-Paty de Clam says he will support him

Bernard Lazare Tells all to Zola – Nov. 1897 • Mathieu Dreyfus begins to publish case for Dreyfus innocence – gets bordereau published in Newspaper • Mr. de Castro, Esterhazy’s South American stock broker recognizes writing and contacts Mathieu Dreyfus

Mathieu Dreyfus and Scheurer-Kestner get Together

“The Affair” Blows Up • November 1897 – after conversation with Scheurer-Kestner- Mathiew Dreyfus writes letter to Minister of War • Army recalls Picquart but keeps him under surveillance • Le figaro begins to publish Esterhazy’s letters to his mistress

“The Affair” • December 4 – Chamber of Deputies reaffirms Dreyfus’s guilt • Jules Meline – Premier: “there is no Dreyfus Affair” • December 11 – Ravery Inquiry concludes there is not enough evidence to pursue Esterhazy

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