Early American Leaders PPT - Lancaster Central School District
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MONDAY As you enter class please pick up an index card On your index card please include the following contact information - Name - Home phone number - Name of parents or those you live with - Interests, strengths, hobbies - One interesting fact about yourself - Favorite/Least favorite food
THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES
ADMIT SLIP • What purpose do you think political parties serve? • Can you name any political parties that exist today?
PRECEDENT PRESIDENT • On February 4, 1789, George Washington was elected as the first President of the United States by the electoral college. • George Washington is known for his many precedents that he set during his presidential administration. • Among these are the two-term presidential term, and the formation of the President’s Cabinet. • The President’s Cabinet is another name for the President’s close advisors that he meets with to discuss important issues. • The Constitution did not set up the formation of the Cabinet, Washington did this himself (Unwritten Constitution).
WASHINGTON’S CABINET Washington began dividing the work of the Executive Branch into departments, this was soon called the President’s Cabinet; • Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
• Secretary of War- Henry Knox • Attorney General- Edmund Randolph •
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton disagreed on many issues facing the nation.
This biggest issue they disagreed on was how powerful the federal government should be.
It was this issue that caused the formation of the first political parties.
POLITICAL PARTIES EMERGE • No one was more hostile towards political factions than George Washington • Washington watched as his two closest advisors, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, grew far apart • Despite Washington’s efforts, two political parties emerged. • The Federalists were led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Democratic Republicans were led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. • Main Idea: The Democratic Republicans and the Federalists disagreed on many issues, but the most important issue they disagreed on was how powerful the federal government should be.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS VS. FEDERALISTS Republicans
• Led by Thomas Jefferson
• Led by Alexander Hamilton
• Believed that common people should have political power
• Believed wealthy and educated should lead
• Favored strong state governments
• Favored strong central (federal) government
• Emphasized agriculture
• Emphasized manufacturing, shipping, and trading
• Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution • Pro-French • Opposed National Bank • Opposed Protective Tariff
• Favored loose interpretation of Constitution
• Pro- British • Favored National Bank • Favored Protective Tariff
http://www.history.com/topics/louisiana-purchase http://www.history.com/topics/louisiana-purchase/videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mvt2TIZo-Bk
EXIT SLIP • What were the names of the first two political parties in the United States?
• Who were the leaders of these political parties? • What was the major issue that these two political parties fought over?
IF I WAS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN DURING THE 1790’S I WOULD SUPPORT…….
• If you were a citizen of the United States, what political party would you support? Write a paragraph from the perspective of an American citizen living in 1793. Be sure to support your decision with facts based on the beliefs of the political party chosen!
TROUBLES AT HOME FACED BY WASHINGTON •
As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the United States won the land north and west of the Ohio River to the Mississippi River
Although the British lost the Revolutionary War, they still were living in this region.
They were also supplying Native Americans with guns and ammunition to limit the settlement of Americans in the region
Native Americans often attacked American settlers who were attempting to move onto their lands
President Washington sent many small forces to the Northwest Territories but was unsuccessful in stopping the Native Americans
Anthony Wayne was then sent to lead American forces to end the conflict with the Native Americans
At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, American forces were successful in stopping the Native Americans stronghold of the Northwest Territory
PROBLEMS ABROAD FACED BY WASHINGTON •
President Washington not only faced problems at home, but also in foreign nations.
The French Revolution began in 1789, and many Americans supported the French.
From an American perspective, the French were seen as following the lead of the US by fighting a monarchy
By 1793, France and Great Britain were at war
George Washington however, wanted the United States to remain neutral
The United States wanted to trade with both nations, however both France and Great Britain feared that such trade would benefit the other
Both countries began to stop American cargo ships containing goods to be traded.
The British made matters worse by the impressment of American sailors and forcing them to serve in the British navy.
SO WHAT DID WASHINGTON TRY TO DO? • Washington wanted to remain friendly with Great Britain because they were a major trading partner of the US. • Washington sent John Jay to London to repair relations with Great Britain
• A treaty was signed in 1975, known as Jay Treaty • As a result of Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay debts long owed to British merchants. • In return, Britain agreed to pay for the ships that it had seized, and remove its troops from the Northwest Territory and stop aiding the Native Americans • The British however, refused to stop the impressment of American sailors, and refused the United States to trade with France
WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS • Before leaving office, President Washington published a famous letter known as his “Farewell Address”
• In his letter, he warned about the dangers of political divisions (political parties), which he feared could tear the nation apart • Most importantly, Washington emphasized the belief that the United States must not get entangled in the affairs in Europe- No alliances
WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS
“Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation…..Why…..entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils [traps] of European ambition?... It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” - George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
ADMIT SLIP THURSDAY • What does the word impressment mean? • What two issues did George Washington warn against in his Farewell Address?
TROUBLES WITH FRANCE •
France was very upset with the United States because they chose to stay neutral during their conflict with Great Britain
Because of the Jay Treaty, France also believed that the United States was favoring Great Britain
The XYZ Affair- President Adams sent three diplomats to France in an attempt to fix the relations between the two countries. • France demanded a bribe of $250,000 from the American diplomats just to set up a meeting • The XYZ Affair caused an outbreak of war fever in the United States • President Adams avoided a full-scale war with France, however an undeclared naval war was fought between the United States and France from 1798-1780
THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS •
Federalists were in power and controlled Congress (Adams was new president)
Immigrants at this time were supporters of the Democratic Republicans
Federalists, being Pro-British, passed a law which severely limited the rights of immigrants
The Alien Act increased the length of time from 5 to 14 years that a person had to live in the United States before they could become a citizen
The President gained the right to deport any immigrant that the believed was dangerous
Another law was passed by Federalists called the Sedition Act, which targeted the Democratic Republicans.
This law made it a crime for anyone to write or say anything insulting or false about the President, Congress, or the government.
What constitutional amendment is this violating ?
STATES’ RIGHTS •
The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts, saying that they were in direct violation of the First Amendment.
Republicans James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote a resolution attacking these unjust laws.
Madison wrote his in the state of Virginia, and Jefferson wrote his in the state of Kentucky
Together, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions stated that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
The Alien and Sedition Act did not last very long after this.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions stated that the states could nullify, or ignore a law passed by Congress.
This is also known as states’ rights, which said if individual states felt a law passed by the federal government was unjust, the states could choose not to follow i t
ADMIT SLIP- FRIDAY •
Take your notes out from yesterday, we still have to finish states’ rights
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? • Who did they target? • Why were they targeted?
THOMAS JEFFERSON • Jefferson was a rich landowner from Virginia. • Previously, Jefferson was known for being an author of the Declaration of Independence and serving as Secretary of State in George Washington’s cabinet. • Jefferson was the leader of the Democratic-Republican political party. • Jefferson believed in strong state government, strict interpretation of the Constitution, and was opposed to the National Bank.
• Thomas Jefferson defeated Aaron Burr in the election of 1800 to become the nation’s third President • The House of Representatives had to ultimately decide the election because the original election ended in a tie. • Alexander Hamilton was able to swing Congress’ vote in favor of Jefferson, due to Hamilton’s hatred of Aaron Burr.
END OF FEDERALIST POWER •
Although the Federalist Party was defeated in the election of 1800, they were responsible for putting the Constitution into effect and helping the country recover from debt.
The Federalists also improved trade with foreign nations, and kept the United States out of war with France and Great Britain.
Jefferson was officially sworn in as President in 1801, and strongly urged during his inaugural address that all political parties to join together for the good of the country.
Major Events During Presidency of Jefferson
• The Alien and Sedition Acts were ended. People who were imprisoned under these acts were released, and charges against them were removed from the records. • The time a person needed to live in America before becoming a citizen was lowered to 5 years. • The remaining federal debt was lowered • America bought the Louisiana Territory
WHAT WAS THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE • The Louisiana Territory was previously owned by Spain, but later was returned back to the French. • This troubled Thomas Jefferson because Spain allowed the US to use the Port of New Orleans for trading purposes, however the French would not allow this same agreement. • Since Napoleon would not allow the US to use the Port of New Orleans, eastern trade would be negatively affected.
• The US foreign diplomat to France, Robert Livingston, was attempting to negotiate a deal to buy Florida and the Port of New Orleans. • Napoleon countered, and offered the sell the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
• America would acquire 828,000 square miles for roughly four cents an acre. • However, there was one problem…….
STRICT INTERPRETER OF THE CONSTITUTION • Thomas Jefferson was a strict interpreter of the Constitution, meaning that he followed the constitution word for word. • Nowhere in the Constitution does it state that the President has the power to buy land. • So, Jefferson justified the land acquisition of the Louisiana Territory as a treaty, therefore he could go ahead with the purchase (delegated power). • Jefferson now changed his interpretation of the constitution from strict to loose. Why Was the Louisiana Purchase So important? • Doubled the size of the United States
• Complete control of the Mississippi River • Access to the Port of New Orleans