Energy in the past [Compatibility Mode]

May 3, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Energy in the past [Compatibility Mode]...


Energies used in the past

Briefly about energy The word “energy” derives from the Greek word “action” We can call “energy” everything what is estimated as the mechanical work, it means energy is the parameter of “workability” One kind of energy can transform to other kind of energy but energy itself doesn’t come from nowhere and does not disappear. The main source of energy – the Sun. Almost every kind of energy derives from it, except nuclear power.

The main dates of Lithuanian energetic history 8 thousand years B.C. – people used thermal energy to heat the houses and prepare food 4 thousand years B.C. – thermal energy is used for making pots 1 thousand years B.C. – thermal energy was began to use for brass products I-IV century – thermal energy was began to use for melting iron I–IV century – the energy of cattle is began to use

X-XI century – The circle for producing pots is implemented, the millstones using human power were began to use XIII–XIV century – The water and wind mills were began to XIII– build XV XV– –XVI century – The use of water mills spread (making armor, making paper, milling the grains) 1824 – In Strėvininkų castle (Trakų region) region) the first mechanical engine was used for agricultural devise based on water energy obtained from water wheel.

Wind mill – aerodynamical device, which uses wind power for making the mechanical work. The first wind mills were invented in VII century in Persia. In Lithuania they were usually used for milling the grains and pumping water.

From old historical times the wind mills are the integral part of our Lithuanian landscapes.

Wind mill in Šeduva

There stands a wind mill near the road… The entire world can be defined through the symbol of the mill. It revolves around it’s axis like the Earth. The mills usually have 4 wings – like four sides of the world directions, four seasons of the year.

In Lithuania the first wind mills were began to build in XIV century near the Baltic sea. In XIX century the wind mills spread all over Lithuania. The wind mills were build in flatlands were there are tendencies of smooth winds without swirls.

In uneven environments the place for building wind mills was searched on the hills – constructers wanted the trees houses and forests not to block the mill. The construction of the mill was simple – the movement of the wings was transferred to millstones or other mechanisms. After WWII most of the wind mills stopped working and cheap electricity was began to use instead.

Wind mills usually were wooden, although there were mills from stone, bricks an clay. The kinds of wind mills in Lithuania were “hat mills” and “stem mills”. Both constructed in such a way that they could be anytime turned towards the direction of the wind.

Vencavų “hat mill”

Vabalninko “stem mill”

In Lithuania in the second half of XIX century there were 200 wind mills and in the first half of XX century – nearly 1000. Today the wind mills are not functional. In nowadays we have information about 76 wind mills remaining in Lithuania.

Water mills

The water mills derive from millstones. They were already used in Greece in V century B.C. The first wind mills in Lithuania are mentioned in 1256. Water mills were built near the river dams. These constructions are very specific. It can be one or two floor buildings with production and living spaces. Till XX century there was water wheel used in water mills, later on it was changed with the more rational water turbines.

The construction of water mills developed the competencies of various craftsmen, multiplied the amount of people who understood the principles of mechanics. People say that there were some water mills built in Siberia by exiled Lithuanians.

There were the factories of chopping grains and paper, cutting wood, smitheries working on the basis of water mills.. Today we usually have only the ruins of it mills it.. But some wise men reconstructed these historical construction, for example, Babrungenu mill became a museum of national arts, Verkiu mill became a romantic restaurant restaurant..

Verkių mill mill

In the beginning of XX century there were almost 2000 mills known. Mostly in Western and Eastern Lithuania. Today we have only one sixth part of them remaining.

Interesting fact… Not everybody knows that there was a mill in Vilnius near Russian embassy in Žvėrynas. Žvėrynas. It stood on the Šaltupio river and belonged to Radvil Radvilų ų casttle. casttle. The construction remained until today.

In XVI or XVII century in Žvėrynas there were two ponds

digg out and 2 water mills built. Only one of them remained till today and the system of the ponds was expanded. After the war there was temporary electrical water mill made instead. In 2003 the building was reconstructed.

Gaveikėnų water mill

Horse power For thousand years the horse power was used to simplify the lives of humanity. The horse can take up to 10 times heavier weight than a human. That is why it is natural that the power of a horse was compared to the power of machines. The initiator of steam machine James Watt in XVIII century defined the measurement of the power – it denotes what weight and at what speed can a horse drag. This measurement is called horse power. 1 horse power – it is a power needed for 75 kg weight to be carried vertically up at a speed of 1 second per meter.

It is natural, that a horse has taken a great place in the materialistic and spiritual culture of nation and became an important hero in verbal culture of the nation – in the songs, fairy tales, riddles…

The energy of solid fuel Wood and peat

Our ancestors were wise enough to use the resources of surroundings without damaging nature. They used the power of cattle, later – wind and water mills, other self made constructions. Even when the steam engines occurred the main fuel remained the wood and the peat. Till 1935 local fuel dominated in the fuel balance in Lithuania: the wood composed 66 percent, peat – 5 percent, coal – 24 percent and oil products – 5 percent. The main consumers of the energetic resources were households (69 percent), industry (23 percent) and transportation (8 percent).

After WWII decade after the local resources dominated in Lithuanian energetic balance. Till the end of 6th decade peat was main fuel for electric plants. But in 19621962-1965 the needs for imported fuel (natural gas and oil) rose immensely.

The wood – the pieces of trees used as fuel for fire, heaters or similar devices for getting the heat, sometimes – for the light. Small pieces of trees (slivers, scobs scobs)) are not thought of as wood. Wood is the form of solid fuel.

Preparing of wood The trees for wood are usually cut in winter, when wood is dryer (and it is more convenient to get to the forest, when ground is solid). The trees are cut into timbers and timbers later on are cut into pieces for usage. Wood cut into pieces is dried: openly in the air; under the roof; in special constructions. Wood can be obtained from the dry (dead) trees, old wooden buildings – but in latter case the wood is not always of a good quality.

The heat of wood The most heat is received from wood of these trees: oaks, birches, ashes. The usage of the wood Heating of the buildings – they are burnt in fireplaces; Preparing food; Technological heating – in special heaters wood heats the water, dries materials, etc.; For fun during various feasts.

Different use of wood Sometimes wood is used as a fuel for engines: During wars when there was a lack of fuel cars and agriculture machines sometimes used steam generators, which were heated with the help of the wood. Sometimes steam trains also used wood for steam engines when they lacked coal.

The largest part of households energy was given to the preparation of food and hot water. For a long time the wood was the most popular kind of energy in households (38 percent; 2009)

The peat – Peat is organic material composed of partially decayed vegetation, wood remains and humus. This material is found in great amounts in Russian, Scandinavia, Canada and other countries, which lay at high latitude. Peat is forming in swamps. Peat covers about 3 percent of earth surface. In Lithuania peat covers 6,4 percent, in Estonia – 22 percent, in Finland – 33 percent of the area. The peat is used as a fuel, in agriculture – for fertilization of soil.

The process of peat formation is very slow. A layer of peat grows at a rate of about only a millimeter per year. Fuel peat includes milled peat and sod peat, as well as its briquettes, granules and other types of products. When burning fuel peat, the amount of energy received depends on calorific value, moisture, type and degree of decomposition of peat, as well as on boilers’ useful action rates and adjustment of their operation modes.

From old times, peat was used for fuel in Lithuania, alongside with firewood. During the last interwar years of independent Lithuania, 230 thousand tons of peat were extracted and a major part of it was burned. After the World War II, peat mining increased considerably, i.e. over 2 million tons of peat was extracted every year, whereas in 1975 the number reached even 3.2 million tons. Until 1970, about 1.5 million tons of peat was burned every year, yet in subsequent years, when usage of coal, gas, oil fuel and other inexpensive oil products imported from abroad had been increasing, less peat was used for fuel. In 1975, about 280 thousand tons of peat was still burned in thermoelectric power stations and building materials industry companies, yet after ten years only about 50 thousand tons (i.e. 2-3 % of the total amount of the peat extracted) was used for this purpose. Peat was started to be used in large collective farms for litter (up to 85% of the total amount of the peat extracted), as well as for planting, composts, etc.

After restoring the independence of Lithuania and when restructuring economy, peat industry, like many other mining trades, experienced a decline. The large farms which had been using the biggest amounts of peat were liquidated; after the costs of peat transportation increased, its demand decreased either. In 1995-1997 the amount of peat extracted was only slightly bigger than that during the interwar period in Lithuania, i.e. 250 – 280 thousand tons.

The first electrical power plants in Lithunia In 1892 17th of April – in Rietavas the first electrical power plant began its work In 1897 – The first power plant in Vilnius started it’s work In 1903 14th of February – The first public Vilnius’ power plant started it’s work. 1904 – In Kairiškiai Kairiškiai the first Lithuanian water power plant started it’s work.

Conclusions The main kinds of energy used in the past are wind energy, water energy, solid fuel, cattle energy (horses, cows) In XIXth century the first power plants began working The energetics of Lithuania in the past is colorful and rich

For those who listened attentively… The sparrow with for beaks nicely turns round on the hill. What is it?

Thank you for your attention

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.