Engaging Political Islam: An Option for Europe`s Centre

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies, Islam
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Engaging Political Islam: An Option for Europe‘s Centre Right? Roland Freudenstein Centre for European Studies Brussels EDS Summer University 2010




Why engage? • • • •

National security/terrorism Urban peace/de-radicalisation International security Teaming up against leftist secularism?

Questions • • • •

Political Islam? Moderate Islam? Euro-Islam? Muslim Democrats – like Christian Democrats? • Engagement – Cooperate – Dialogue – Debate

What‘s in a term? (I) • • • • •

Qur‘an – hadith (statements of the Prophet) Sharia: Islamic law; halal - haram Ulema (clergy) – imam (cleric) Fatwah (ruling) Qufr/Infidel (non-believer) – dhimmi (monotheistic non-believer under Muslim rule) • Hijab – chador – niqab - burqa

Muslim Brotherhood • • • • •

End of the Caliphate (WW I) Founded 1928 by Hassan al-Banna - Sunni Shaped by Sayeed Qutb since late 1940s Egypt: al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun Morocco: Party for Justice and Development (PJD) • Jordan: Islamic Action Front (IAF) • Palestine: Hamas

Sayeed Qutb (1906-1966)

Muslim Brotherhood • True Islam is lost in jahiliyyah • Restore Islam by making qur‘an and sharia system of governance • Re-establish the Caliphate • Against Arab nationalism (Ba‘athism) • Against corrupt Arab elites (takfiri) • Against the West, colonialism, decadence etc. • Recently: Non-violence except Palestine, Syria

What‘s in a term? (II) • • • • • •

Jihad: Struggle – holy war Taqiyyah: self-protective dissimulation Ijtihad: Reasoning Islamophobia Respect Resistance

Resistance and popular culture

Resistance and popular culture

Walid Phares

Irshad Manji

Icon: Tariq Ramadan

Quote: Tariq Ramadan (On massacres of Christians in Nigeria): „We need to consider the situation objectively and bring a critical view as much to the causes – global homogenisation and a sometimes savage Westernisation – as to the consequences – ethnic and religious tensions.“

Icon: Mustafa Çeric

Quote: Mustafa Çeric

„Religious tolerance is clearly commanded in our Holy Book: God does not forbid you to deal kindly and justly with those who have not declared war on your religion or driven you out of your homes (60:8)“

Icon: Abu Laban

Quotes: Abu Laban • „If we discovered Islam was a threat to the West, I would be the first to fight it.“ (2005) • But: orchestrating anti-cartoon protests in DK and Middle East (2005) • „They accept the chador and Islamic lifestyles. We, therefore, must pretend that we accept their religion and individual freedom. But this is impossible. Islam can accept no one who does not adore Allah.“ (1995)

Christopher Caldwell

Islamists in Europe: New European Brothers (NEB) • Most Muslim orgs in EU are not Islamist • But: governments often talk to participationist Islamists • Union d‘organisations islamiques en France (UOIF) • Muslim Association of Britain (MAB) • Islamische Gesellschaft Deutschlands (IGD) • Milli Görüş

Goals of the NEBs • Preservation/creation of strong Islamic identity among EU Muslims • Participation in mainstream society • Leader and official representative of Muslims • Create, implant and expand ultra-orthodox Muslim bloc = against integration as we understand it

Implications of a Centre Right overture • NEB positions directly clash with core European values • Mainstream Muslims would hardly understand this • Embarassment among non-Muslim public (like multi-culturalist Left)

Lorenzo Vidino

The Brotherhood in Europe (forthcoming)

Other important authors • • • • • •

Alistair Crooke: Resistance Tamim Ansari: Destiny Disrupted Timothy Garton Ash: Facts are Subversive Ian Buruma: Murder in Amsterdam Gilles Kepel: The War for Muslim Minds Paul Berman: Who‘s Afraid of Tariq Ramadan? (article) • Necla Kelek: Die fremde Braut • Nick Cohen: What‘s Left? • Ayaan Hirsi Ali: Infidel

Conclusions • Muslim Democrats: cooperation • Traditional Islamic parties: dialogue • Islamists: debate

Time to respond • Countering the narrative of the End of the West • Learn, learn and learn! • Acknowledge immigration as a fact • Avoid relativism • Recognise friends (Muslim liberal democrats) • Define enemies (Islamists) • Choose the appropriate tools


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