Fascist in Italy and Germany

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, World Wars And The Great Depression (1910-1945), Adolf Hitler
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Fascist in Italy and Germany 18.4

Fascist in Italy 

Benito Mussolini, a former socialist, organized the Fascist Party.  Fascism

was a doctrine that relied on dictatorship and a totalitarian regime. 

Fascism was the opposite of communism. 

Communism promised a society without social classes in which property is shared. Fascism promised to preserve social classes and private property.

Italy and Black Shirts 

Fascists were called Black Shirts for the color of their uniforms.  They

conducted violent campaigns against opponents, breaking up strikes and intimidating voters.  Appointed Mussolini as premier. Once in office Mussolini destroyed democracy, suspended basic liberties, and became dictator.  Uniformed and secret police spied on everyone. 

Corporatist State 

He made Italy a corporatist state.  Major

economic activities, such as agriculture, transportation,manufacturing, and commerce, were organized into corporations.  They preserved social classes, private property, and limited profits.

German Change 

Delegates drafted a constitution in the city of Weimar (VY·mar).  The

government became known as the Weimar Republic.  Germans despised the Weimar Republic for signing the Treaty of Versailles  Germany faced the same economic, political, and social problems as other European countries.

Nazi Party 

The new National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi Party  extremely

nationalistic and anticommunist.  By 1921 Adolf Hitler was head of the party.  He called the Germans the “master race.”  outlined his plan for racial purity through elimination of Jews and other “impure” races.  Hitler promised to restore Germany’s power and its lost lands.

Taking Over 

In 1933 the president of the republic appointed Hitler as chancellor.  Someone

set fire to the Reichstag.  Hitler blamed the communists 

he made himself dictator. 

took the title der Führer (FYOOR·ur)

He made Germany a police state, banning opposition parties and newspapers. He gave the Gestapo, a secret police force, wide-ranging powers.

Jewish Question 

Jews suffered persecution.  forced

them to live in separate neighborhoods called ghettos.  Jews had to wear the Star of David,  sent them to concentration camps.

Third Reich 

Hitler reminded Germans of their nation’s former glory. called his rule the Third Reich, or “Third Empire.”

 He 

He violated the Treaty of Versailles. Germany began secretly rebuilding its military.  Neither France nor England reacted. 

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