January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), War Of 1812
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Jefferson Alters the Nation's Course

Election of 1800  

Adams and Jefferson battle for Presidency Jefferson beats Adams, but ties with Aaron Burr 

H.o.R. Called to casts vote for President; deadlocked at 35; Hamilton supports Jefferson; Jefferson wins

Exposes issue with electoral process; 12th amendment created 

Electors cast 2 votes on their ballot, one for President and one for VP

Hamilton vs. Burr Duel

Jefferson's Presidency 

Jefferson replaces Fed. With D-R 

Reduces armed forces

Reduces power of National Bank 

Eliminates Internal tax

Favors free-trade over gov't control (tariffs)

Southern Politics dominates as Northern power diminishes

Midnight Judges 

John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice by Adams

Adams pushes Judiciary Acts of 1801 before he leaves presidency 

Appoints 16 Federalists judges (Midnight Judges)

Jefferson argues undelivered papers invalidate judges

Marbury v. Madison (1803) 

Madison was ordered to deliver William Marbury his papers to become a judge 

Judiciary Act of 1789 required Madison to deliver papers 

Madison refuses, so Madison sues

Marshall rules it unconstitutional

Judicial Review is established; Supreme Court can declare Congress rulings as unconstitutional and void

Westward Migration 

 

1800-1810: Ohio population grows from 45k to 231k

Use Cumberland Gap to reach OH, KY, TN In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of Wilderness Road

Louisiana Purchase 

LA returned to France from Spain; Jefferson fears strong French presence

Jefferson buys LA Territory from Napoleon 

Doubts he has constitutional authority

LA Purchase doubles US size

Lewis and Clark 

Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery 

Explore new territory and passage to Pacific

Gather info about people and plants

Native American women, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter and guide

Barbary Pirates 

From 1801-1805, Jefferson declared war against the Barbary Pirates in the Mediterranean 

Pirates were seizing USA ships and crewmen

USA had a deal with pirates to stop seizures, but they still continued

Jefferson sends in Navy and Marines to put down Barbary Pirates 

Extension of Jefferson Executive powers

British Grievances 

British blockade French ports to prevent ships from entering

British and French begin to seize American ships and cargo 

Britain continues to impress Americans, drafting them to British Navy

Chesapeake Incident: 3 Americans killed, 18 wounded by British when American captain refuses to let British on board frigate, the Chesapeake

Embargo Act of 1807 

Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, ban on exporting to foreign countries Supposed to hurt European countries and make them honor neutrality, but it actually hurts USA Non-Intercourse Act of 1809: USA lifts embargo, except for Britain and France

Tecumseh's Confederacy 

William Henry Harrison negotiates 3 mil. Acres of land from NA for USA

Tecumseh refused; creates confederacy with help from his brother, Prophet 

Urged NA to return to old ways and abolish white “civilization”

After victory at Battle of Tippecanoe, US realizes Britain supplied NA with weapons; War hawks, young US Congressmen (Calhoun and Clay), demand war

Madison's Presidency 

In 1808, James Madison defeats Charles C. Pinckney for Presidency

Declares war on Britain in Spring 1812 

Argues Britain is strangling trade and cripple econ. (seize ships, impressment, provide NA with weapons)

War Brings Mixed Results 

War in Canada 

US unprepared; British win at Montreal & Detroit

Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Eerie; USA wins Battle in Canada

Tecumseh dies at Battle of Thames (1813)

War at Sea 

US Navy only had 16 war ships, 3 frigates (warships); frigates won many victories

War Brings Mixed Results (cont...) 

British Burn the White House 

1814, Britain raids towns on Atlantic Coast

British burn White House in retaliation to US burning down governor's mansion in Canada

Battle of New Orleans 

Andrew Jackson fights NA, gains fame

Defeats NA at Battle of Horseshoe Bend 

Destroys NA military power

Treaty of Ghent 

Peace agreement signed on Christmas 1814

Declares armistice, stop to fighting

1815: commercial treaty opens trade btwn US and British 1817: Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes 1818: Northern Boundary of LA set on 49th Parallel Agree to share Oregon Territories

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