1.Effects of the Industrial Revolution -Industrial Revolution began in Britain around 1750: more machines, unskilled labor, large factories, and national trade • Major industry = textiles (products made of cotton) -Took almost a century for revolution to get to the US • Too focused on farming, lacked raw goods and capital • British had a monopoly over textile industry -New wave of immigration in the 1840s gave America enough available workers for the factories
Industrialization in Britain was the result of a series of technological changes in the textile trade. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers dispersed work into many individual households, a process known as the putting-out system. The Industrial Revolution created factories filled with machines that could produce products more quickly. America entered the Industrial Revolution a century late, primarily because most early Americans were descendants of land-starved peasants who were thrilled with the idea of owning and working their own land.
Britain enacted laws preventing the export of its valuable machines and the emigration of its skilled workers, in order to keep the market cornered. At age 21, Samuel Slater, a British mechanic, came to America to collect a bounty for the sell of the British designs. He dressed as a farm laborer, and slipped out of England without notice. Slater had committed the designs to memory and thus built the first American spinning machine.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution -Samuel Slater is known as the “Father of the Factory System” in America • British mechanic who memorized plan for British machines ; secretly brought them to the US -Developed the first machine capable of spinning thread in 1791
-Created the Rhode Island Mill System in 1804 • Water-powered equipment, young children and women work in factories, men working on machines
-Also developed company towns for workers to live in that were owned and managed by Slater
2.Northern Society: Industry Leads the Way -Manufacturing in the US mainly in New England due to plentiful streams and rivers needed to power mills -First modern factory was the Lowell Mills formed by Francis Lowell when he created the first power loom in the US • All steps of manufacturing in one mill (from cotton to cloth) -Hired young New England farm women to work in mills • Opportunity for cultural/economic growth for women -Worked long hours under strict conditions and lived in well-regulated company towns
The Boston investors who financed the Lowell mills wanted to keep the mills free of the dirt, poverty, and social disorder that made English factory towns notorious. The Lowell towns boasted six neat factory buildings grouped around a central clock tower, the area pleasantly landscaped with flowers, shrubs and trees. The company agent lived in a Georgian style mansion, the overseers in trim houses, the mechanics and their families in row houses, and the New England farm women – the workers- in boardinghouses.
Northern Society: Industry Leads the Way -Eli Whitney perfected the concept of interchangeable parts • Machines make each part the same -Goods could be mass-produced and did not need much skilled labor • Workers to just run the machine -Northern manufacturers wanted to ensure that Americans bought their goods, so advocated protective tariffs
• Made the cost of imports higher than that of goods made in US -Angered southerners who depended on imports to survive
Effects of a Protective Tariff BRITAIN
THE UNITED STATES
British-made hat costs $2.50 to produce
American-made hat costs $3.00 to produce
$ 1.00 Profit
+ 30% Tariff of $1.05
+ NO TARIFF!!
= Total Cost to American Customer
= Total Cost to American Customer
All things being equal, which hat would be sold first, British or American? Why would southerners object to the tariffs? Why would northerners support them?
3.Northern Society: A New Workforce -Majority of northern workforce made up of immigrants • Immigration surges in the 1840s
-Two main groups of immigrants in the 1840s were Irish and German • Irish came to US because of potato famine; Germans came due to political persecution
-Irish had little money and stayed in port cities working in factories • Irish would eventually gain political power in those major cities - Germans were able to move west and farm new lands
In Ireland in 1845 a terrible rot attacked the potato crop. Famine ensued, with starved people found dead by the roadsides with the grass they were trying to eat still in their mouths. All told over 2 million people perished and another 2 million fled to the US. Families pooled their money and sent their strongest sons to America to earn wages to pay the fares of those who were still in Ireland.
How would you define a “push factor” and a “pull factor”? What do you think were the two largest push factors for Irish and German immigrants in the mid-1800s?
What trend do you notice in Irish and German immigration from 1831-1860? What can you reason may have occurred between 1840 and 1850?
”This is a good place and a good country for if one place does not suit a man he can go to another and can very easy please himself. But there is one thing that’s ruining this place… The immigrant has not money enough to take them to the interior of the country, which obliges them to remain here in New York and the like places, which causes the less demand for labor and also the great reduction in wages. For this reason I would advise no one to come to America that would not have some money after landing here that would enable them to go west in case they would get no work to do here. But any man or woman without a family are fools that would not venture and come to this plentiful country where no man or woman ever hungered or ever will …, but I can assure you there are dangers upon dangers, but my friends, have courage and come all together courageously and bid adieu to that lovely place, the land of our birth.” Letter by Margaret McCarthy written in New York to her family in Ireland in 1850
Northern Society: A New Workforce -Immigrants faced persecution from Nativists (native born Americans who resented immigrants)
-Irish faced greatest discrimination • Mostly due to Roman Catholic beliefs and lower wages - Nativists formed a political party known as the Know Nothings to work to limit immigrant power • AKA – the “American Party”
The Nativists promoted fictional literature that bashed the lifestyle of immigrants. In one book, the author pretended to be an escaped nun and made up shocking sins that took place in the convent, such as the secret burial of babies. This particular book sold over 300,000 copies.
Northern Society: A New Workforce
-Immigrants also treated poorly in factories • Low wages, long hours, harsh conditions, use of child labor -Most immigrants lived in overcrowded and unsanitary homes known as tenements In 1820, half of the nation’s industrial workers were children under the age of 10. Many of these children were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted and brutally whipped in special “whipping rooms.” In Samuel Slater’s mill of 1791, the first people to tend the machines were seven boys and two girls, all under 12 years old. Children were paid only a fraction of what an adult would get, and sometimes orphans would be paid nothing at all.
-Labor Unions began to form and use strikes to improve conditions • Most strikes were unsuccessful -Became known as “wage slaves” or “slaves without a master”
• When North criticized slavery, South condemned practices of northern factory owners
4.Southern Society: Focus on Farming -Economy of South relied on export of cash crops -1793 Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin to separate the cotton seed from the cotton fibers -Cotton becomes King in South -Slavery increases • Planting more cotton more slaves to pick cotton -Over-farm the land (no nutrients) -Few immigrants come South (no work) - South only focuses on farming
• Little To No manufacturing; depends on North and Europe for most goods dislikes tariffs
During a visit to the South in 1793, an acquaintance of Whitney’s suggested that he try to build a machine that would pick the seeds out of cotton. In only ten days, Whitney built a simple cotton engine. The machine pulled the cotton through a rotating cylinder with openings that were too small for the seeds to pass through. Unknowingly, Whitney had changed the future of the South and its slave population for decades to come.
Southern Society: Focus on Farming -Cotton economy helps to develop a distinct class system in the South -Planter Elite = less than 1% of southern population
• Owned large farms with more than 20 slaves • Had most political power and wealth -Yeomen Farmers = Majority of southerners; mainly subsistence farmers -Poor Landless Whites • Disgraced in southern society -Enslaved People
• Only 25% of southerners own slaves
5.Southern Society: An Enslaved Workforce -Most slaves in the South lived on plantations -Slaves on plantations worked using the gang system (Work morning to night in fields with an overseer) -Slaves on small yeomen farms used the task system (Work on assigned jobs and then have time to do as they choose) -Urban slaves worked with craftsmen to earn money for masters, while house servants tended the homes and children -Slaves tried to maintain elements of their African culture through leisure activities and religious practices - Southerners saw slavery as a necessary evil • Morally wrong but vital to the economy of the South
6.Attempt at Economic Unity - The American System was created by Henry Clay and adopted in 1816 • Purpose: unite regions of America to make us less dependent on Britain
-3 Parts: NORTH Produce the manufactured goods; buy grain, meat and cotton
SOUTH Produce the meat and cotton; buy manufactured goods
WEST Produce grain and meat; buy manufactured goods and cotton
1) Form a National Bank to finance large federal projects 2) Create a Tariff to protect northern manufacturers 3) Build a System of Internal Improvements (roads, bridges, canals) to connect the nation • Created the National Road to connect Maryland to Illinois -Created the Erie Canal to connect the Great Lakes to the Hudson River • Made NY commercial hub of US and inspired building of other canals
North Primary Occupation Primary Residence Class System Laborers Opinions on Tariffs Opinions on Slavery Inventions That Helped
How did both sections of the nation benefit from slavery?
How does the American System benefit both sections of the nation?