File - Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum

January 14, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Architecture
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Public Buildings

The Nature of Sources and Evidence

Orders of Architecture Roman Architecture was influenced by Greek models and public buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum employed Greek columns of the orders:  Doric – Parts of the portico along the Pompeian Forum (The lower level)  Ionic – The colonnade around the Temple of Apollo – Parts of the portico along the Pompeian Forum (The upper level)  Corinthian – The Temple of Fortuna Augusta (Pompeii) – The Temple of Apollo (Pompeii)

The Basilica (Pompeii)  Functioned as the law courts and as a centre for business activities

 Built in the 1st Century BC  Pompeii’s basilica: • A two-storeyed central hall • Five large doors at one end that opened onto a portico which linked the hall with the Forum • A raised podium/tribunal accessible by wooden stairs for the magistrate (duumviri) to sit above the lawyers, witnesses, plaintiffs and defendants • Painted with brightly-coloured notices in large letters • Other rooms within the building acted as office and storage areas for archives • The body of the building was divided by 28 Ionic columns which were 11 metres high • The side walls were decorated in the first style  Would have also been used for large gatherings such as auctions

The Basilica of Pompeii

The Basilica of Pompeii

The Basilica (Herculaneum)  A colonnaded hall (37m x 60m)  A statue of the Emperor Vespasian  Paintings of scenes from the life of Hercules, the supposed founder of the town, flanked the statue of the Emperor Vespasian  Pillars and half columns decorated the side aisles  Contained many bronze and marble statues of emperors and the Balbus family  Two statues of the Proconsul Marcus Nonius Balbus and his son are found at the entrance of the basilica  Rebuilt by Proconsul Marcus Nonius Balbus after the 62AD earthquake

 It is disputed as to whether this building is a basilica or a shrine to the imperial cult

Porticoes of the Forum

 A two-storey portico linked the public buildings of the forum

 Numerous statues were housed within the porticoes honouring the emperor members of the imperial family and local dignitaries

Portico in the Forum

Leisure: Amphitheatre  Seated between 15000 – 20000 people  Sports hosted at the amphitheatre included: – Boxing – Gladiator combats – Wild beast shows  Barracks for gladiators  Began between 70-60BC by duumviri C. Quintus Valgus and Marcus Porcius  Seating took many years to complete and people originally sat on earth banks  Stalls set up near the amphitheatre Evidence regarding the Amphitheatre • Reliefs, inscriptions, mosaics and wall paintings denote the types of sports undertaken at the Amphitheatre (In particular inscriptions recording the completion of seating) • Weapons used by the gladiators were found in or near the barracks including – Helmets – Greaves (Shin Protectors) – Shoulder protects

Evidence: Game’s Advertisements  “At the dedication... of the games of Gnaeus Alleius Nigidius Maius... there will be a hunt, athletes, sprinklings, awnings” (CIL IV. 1177)

 “This beast-fighting will be on 28 August and Felix will fight bears” (ILS 5147)  “The gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings” (CIL IV. 1190)

The Riot in the Amphitheatre at Pompeii 59AD (Painting from the House of Actius Anicetus)

Passageway to the Amphitheatre (Pompeii)

Leisure: Theatres (Pompeii)  Two theatres at Pompeii  The large theatre – Seated 5000 people – Built during the 2nd Century BC – Cut into a hillside – Restored and enlarged by duumviri Marcus Holconius Rufus and Marcus Holconius Celer – Traditionally plays were performed including classic comic and tragic plays – Atellan Farces (native to Campania), mimes and pantomimes (which included musical accompaniment) were performed during the 1st Century AD – Mosaics and paintings show scenes from plays and actors backstage with costumes and masks – Curved auditorium space divided into three sections acknowledging hierarchical and social structure – the lower rows for the magistrates and important citizens, the next for average citizens while the seating at the top was for women as well as standing room for the poor – Free entertainment, but tokens required – Decorated with statues of the gods, emperors and local politicians  The small theatre (Odeon) – Seated 1500 people – A concert hall – Used for concerts, lectures and poetry/literary readings – Built by duumviri C. Q. Valgus and M. Porcius

The Large Theatre (Pompeii)

The Small Theatre ‘Odeon’ (Pompeii)

Leisure: Theatres (Herculaneum) The theatre at Herculaneum – Construction was financed by Duumvir Lucius Aeneas Mammianus Rufus (Known from inscriptions) – Still buried and is viewable through tunnels – It is approximated 2500-3000 could be seated – Built in the time of Augustus and redecorated by Claudius or Nero in the 1st Century AD – Was not cut into a hillside –Tiered stone seats (The first four rows were reserved for local dignitaries, visiting Roman officials and citizens) – Seats were free but tokens were required –23 rows of seats – Decorated with coloured marble and columns – Statues of Emperor Claudius and local identities including Lucius Mammius Maximus and patrician Marcus Calatorius – A bust of the playwright Terence was also discovered

Palaestra  Public gymnasium and exercise ground  Men and youths exercised and ran, practiced discus hurling, wrestling, javelin throwing, boxing and swimming  A small palaestra was incorporated into the men’s public baths  Both the palaestra at Pompeii and Herculaneum were large  Pompeii’s Small Palaestra built next to the theatre in the 2nd Century BC  Pompeii’s Larger Palaestra – Built next to the amphitheatre in the time of Augustus – 140m x 130m – Surrounded by a wall with columned porticoes on three sides – Housed a large swimming pool  Herculaneum’s Palaestra – 1st Century BC – Surrounded by a columned portico on three sides – Adjoined to a large meeting hall – Cross-shaped pool with a bronze statue in the shape of a serpent in the centre – Shops with apartments/inns lined the street front

The Palaestra (Pompeii)

The Palaestra (Pompeii)

The Palaestra (Herculaneum)

Many local politicians financed the construction, restoration or expanse of many buildings of necessity or entertainment

This was done as a way to gain favour from the public and therefore boost their prestige and position (POLITICAL PROPAGANDA)

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