File - SQ3R ruins lives

May 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution, 1700-1900 The Beginnings of Industrialization  Industrial Revolution is the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700’s  Spread from England to Continental Europe and North America A The Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain  What were some of the advances in technology during this time? 1 The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way  Wealthy landowners bought up the land of village farmers  They built enclosures within the large fields and experimented with different seeding and harvesting methods to increase crop yields  The enclosure had two results: new agricultural methods were tried and large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to cities  Jethro Tull thought that scattering seeds was wasteful and invented the seed drill in about 1701  It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths so more seeds took root and boosted crop yields 2 Rotating Crops  Crop rotation improved upon older methods like the medieval three-field system  Robert Bakewell increased sheep meat output by allowing only his best sheep to breed  As food supplies increased and living conditions improved, England’s population grew  Larger population increased demand for food and goods like cloth  When farmers lost their land to bigger farms many became factory workers 3 Why The Industrial Revolution Began in England  It had a large population and lots of natural resources  Industrialization, the process of developing machine production of goods, needed the natural resources  Some natural resources were: water power and coal, iron ore, rivers and harbors  Britain also had an expanding economy to support industrialization  Businesspeople invested in the manufacture of new inventions  Britain also had a highly developed bank system and people were encouraged to invest in new machinery and expand operations because of availability of bank loans  Growing overseas trade, economic prosperity, and progress led to increased demand of goods  British military successes created a positive attitude  Parliament passed laws to encourage and protect business ventures  Britain had factor of production, the resources needed to produce goods and services that the Industrial Revolution required: land, labor and wealth B Inventions Spur Industrialization  How did Eli Whitney improve the textile industry?  The textile industry was the first to be changed  Cloth merchants raised profits by speeding up the process the spinners and weavers made cloth 1 Changes in the Textile Industry

John Kay made a flying shuttle in 1733 that double the work a weaver could do in a day  A cash prize attracted contestants to produce a better spinner machine  In 1764 James Hargreaves invented the spinning wheel ‘jenny’  Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769 which used waterpower from rapid streams to drive the spinning wheels  Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to make the spinning mule which had stronger, finer and more consistent thread than previous machines  In 1787 Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom to speed up weaving  The water frame, spinning mule and power loom were big and expensive  Wealthy textile merchants set up large buildings to put the machines in called factories  They were built near rivers and streams for waterpower  1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to remove seeds from the cotton C Improvements in Transportation  What were steam engines used for?  The steam engine came from a search for cheap convenient power  1705 coal miners were using steam power pumps to remove water from deep mine shafts  It used a lot of fuel making it expensive to run 1 Watt’s Steam Engine  In 1765 James Watt found a way to make the steam engine work faster and more efficiently while burning less fuel  In 1774 he joined with businessman Matthew Boulton  Boulton was a entrepreneur, a person who organizes, manages and takes on risks of a business  He paid Watt and encouraged him to build better engines 2 Water Transportation  American inventor Robert Fulton bought a steam engine from Boulton and Watt  He built the steamboat Clermont, which made its first successful trip in 1807  It took passengers up and down the Hudson River  Canals were built in England which lowered cost of transporting finished goods and raw materials 3 Road Transportation  John McAdam, a Scottish engineer, made macadam roads  They were roads with a layer of large stones for drainage then a smoothed layer of crushed rock  Private investors formed companies that built roads and then operated them for profit  Made turnpikes were travelers had to stop and pay a toll D The Railway Age Begins  What were major effects of the railroads?  1820 the railroad locomotive was invented 1 Steam-Driven Locomotive  1804 Richard Trevithick won a bet of one thousand dollars by hauling ten tons of iron over nearly ten miles of track in a steam driven locomotive  Other British engineers improved upon his design  George Stephenson built 20 engines for mine operators in northern England

In 1821 he began working on the first railroad line to run 27 miles from Yorkshire coal fields to the port of Stockton on the North Sea  It opened in 1825 using 4 locomotives that Stephenson had designed and built 2 The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad  Entrepreneurs of Northern England wanted a railroad line to connect the port of Liverpool to the city on Manchester  In 1829 trials were held to see what locomotive was best to use on the new line  The Rocket by Stephenson and his son won  It could haul a 13 ton load at more than 24 miles per hour  1824 the railway opened 3 Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain  Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products  The railroad boom created hundreds of thousands new jobs for railroad workers and miners  Railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries by transporting their products to far away cities  Railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs and likewise II Industrialization  It led to a better quality of life for most people  Brought jobs but also caused air and water pollution, unhealthy working conditions and child labor  Led to rising class tensions A Industrialization Changes Life  Why were many industrial centers near rivers?  Industrialization accelerated rapidly in Britian  By the 1800’s people could make more money in factories than farms 1 Industrial Cities Rise  More people began living in cities in the 1800’s  Caused by the growth of the factory system, where manufacturing of goods was at a central location  This period was urbanization: city building and the movement of people to cities  Most of Europe’s urban areas at least doubled in population and some quadrupled  Factories developed in cluster because they were built near sources of energy, water and coal  London was England’s most important city  In 1800’s its population got very big  Birmingham and Sheffield were iron-smelting centers  Leeds and Manchester were textile manufacturing centers  The port of Liverpool and Manchester were the centers of Britain’s cotton industry 2 Living Conditions  England’s cities grew rapidly and had no sanitary codes, development plans or building codes  They lacked enough housing, education and police protection for the new people  The unpaved streets had no drains and garbage collected in them  Workers lived in dark dirty shelters  Sickness was widespread and cholera was common in Great Britain’s slums  Well-to-do merchants and factory owners often built luxurious homes in the suburbs 3 Working Conditions

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The average worker spent 14 hours at job 6 days a week Factories were often dark and dirty and many workers were injured Most dangerous conditions were in coal mines Many women and children were employed in coal mines because they were the cheapest source of labor B Class Tensions Grow  What were the classes and who was in them?  Industrial Revolution created lots of money  Most went to factory owners, shippers and merchants, who were part of the middle class 1 The Middle Class  Skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople and wealthy farmers  Late 1800’s the rich entrepreneurs became considered the social equals of the lords of the countryside  Gradually a upper middle class emerged with government employees, doctors, lawyers and managers of factories, mines and shops  Lower middle class was factory overseers and toolmakers, mechanical drafters and printers 2 The Working Class  Machines began to put laborers out of work  Some smashed the machines  The Luddites were named after Ned Ludd who was a mythical English laborer that destroyed weaving machinery around 1779  Luddites attacked whole factories in northern England beginning 1811  Many workers rioted because of poor living and working conditions C Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution  How did the Industrial Revolution affect today?  The Industrial Revolution created jobs for workers, contributed to wealth of the nation, fostered technological progress and invention, increased the production of goods and raised the standard of living and provided the hope of improvement in people’s lives  Created healthier diets, better housing, cheaper mass-produced clothing and expanded education  The middle and upper classes benefited immediately but it took longer for the workers  They eventually won higher wages, shorter hours and better working conditions after they joined together to form labor unions 1 Long-Term Effects  Most people today can afford goods that would have been luxuries 50 or 60 years ago  Living and working conditions are much improved  Profits from industrialization produced tax revenues allowing local, state and federal government to invest in urban improvements and raise the standard of living in cities D The Mills of Manchester  What did the first Factory Act do?  Manchester had access to water power, labor from countryside and a outlet to the sea at Liverpool  Its rapid growth made it unhealthy place for the poor people who lived and worked there but money came from its factories

The money went to the mill owners and new middle class first then eventually to the working class  Manchester’s business owners took pride in mastering each detail of the manufacturing process and worked many hours  They got high profits  Workers labored under terrible conditions for the mill owners  Children as young as six joined their parents in the factories  They worked 6 days a week from 6 am to 7 or 8 pm with only a half hour for lunch and a hour for dinner  The supervisors beat them to keep them awake  1819 the first Factory Act passed restricting working age and hours  But for years after it passed many children still worked  Coal polluted the air and textile dyes and other wastes polluted Manchester’s Irwell River III Industrialization Spreads  Great Britain’s geography, financial systems, political stability and natural resources sparked industrialization  British merchants built the world first factories  The Industrial Revolution eventually spread to the United States and to the continental Europe A Industrial Development in the United States  Why was America good for industrialization?  The Unites States had resources similar to Britain’s  It had fast flowing rivers, coal and iron, and farm worker and immigrant laborers  In the War of 1812 Britain blockaded the United States forcing it to use its own resources because it had cut off trading 1 Industrialization in the United States  Industrialization began in the textile industry  Britain had forbid engineers, mechanics and toolmakers from leaving the country to protect industrialization secrets  British mill worker Samuel Slater emigrated to the U.S in 1789  He built a spinning wheel from memory and a partial design  Moses Brown opened the first factory in the U.S for Samuel’s machines in Pawtucket, Rhode Island  It only mass-produced one part of finish cloth, thread  Francis Cabot Lowell and four other inventors made a weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1813 that mechanized every step of cloth manufacturing  The factory made enough money so they could open a larger factory in another Massachusetts town  He died and the town was named after him  Lowell was a booming manufacturing center and model for other towns by the late 1820’s  Thousands of young girls came to factory towns to work as mill girls, where they could make higher wages and have some independence  They worked more than 12 hours a day, 6 days a week 2 Later Expansion of U.S Industry  The Northeast had much industrial growth in the early 1800’s but the U.S stayed mostly agricultural until the Civil War ended in 1865  In the end of 1800’s U.S had technological boom

Factors: wealth of natural resources like iron, coal and oil; a burst of inventions like the electric telephone and the light bulb; and a growing urban population that consumed new manufactured goods  Chicago and Minneapolis grew quickly due to their location along the new railroad lines  A limited number of large powerful companies controlled more than two thirds of the nations railroad tracks by the end of the 1800’s 3 The Rise of Corporations  To raise money for railroads, entrepreneurs sold shares of stock, certain rights of ownership  People who bought stock became part owners of the corporation, a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts  Large corporations like the Standard Oil Company and the Carnegie Steel Company came  They wanted to control every part of their own industries to make big profit  Workers earned low wages for many hours while stockholders and corporate leaders made high profits B Continental Europe Industrializes  How did industrialization spread?  The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars stopped trade, interrupted communication and caused inflation in some parts of the country 1 Beginnings in Belgium  It had iron ore and coal and waterways for transportation along with skilled workers  William Cockerill, a Lancashire carpenter, illegally went to Belgium in 1799 with secret plans for building spinning machinery  His son John eventually built in eastern Belgium that produced mechanical equipment like steam engines and railway locomotives 2 Germany Industrializes  In early 1800’s Germany was politically divided  Economic isolation and scattered resources slowed countrywide industrialization  It appeared in some places like the Ruhr Valley of west central Germany  About 1835 Germany began to copy British model and imported British equipment and engineers  German manufacturers sent their children to England to learn industrial management  Germany built railroads to link its manufacturing cities like Frankfurt with Ruhr Valley  Germany’s economic strength spurred its ability to develop as a military power 3 Expansion Elsewhere in Europe  Bohemia developed a spinning industry  Spain’s Catalonia processed much cotton  Northern Italy mechanized textile production and specialized in silk spinning  In France industrial growth happened after 1830  It was slow because their agricultural economy was still strong so they avoided the social and economic problems caused by industrialization  After 1850 a national market for new French products was created when the government began railroad construction  In some nations social structure or geography delayed industrialization  In Austria-Hungary and Spain transportation was a obstacle

 Spain lacked good roads and waterways, Austria-Hungary had many mountains C The Impact of Industrialization  What were some negative effects of Industrialization?  Industrial Revolution shifted the world balance of power by increasing competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less-developed nations 1 Rise of Global Inequality  Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries  Industrialized nations needed a steady supply of raw materials form less-developed countries  Britain led exploitation of overseas countries for resources and markets and soon other European countries, the Unites States, Russia and Japan followed 2 Transformation of Society  Industrialization gave Europe much economic power but Asia and Africa economies were still based on agriculture and small workshops  Industrialization revolutionized every part of society  Population, health and wealth eventually rose in all industrialized countries  The creation of middle class created great opportunities for education and democratic participation which led to a movement for social reform IV Reforming the Industrial World  Industrialization opened a wide gap between the rich and poor  Business leaders thought that governments should stay out of business and economic affairs while reformers thought that governments should play an active role to improve conditions for poor  Workers demanded more rights and protection and formed workers unions to increase their influence A The Philosophers of Industrialization  Who supported Capitalism?  Laissez faire (French for ‘let do’) is the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference  It favors a free market unregulated by the government 1 Laissez-faire Economics  It came from the French economic philosophers of the Enlightenment who criticized the idea that nations grow wealthy by placing heavy taxes on foreign goods  They thought that government regultations interfered with the production of wealth  Freed trade, the flow of commerce in the world market without government regulation, would create prospering economy  Adam Smith was a professor at university of Glasgow who believed in free economy in 1776 book The Wealth of Nations  The thought that economic liberty garunteed economic progress so governments should not interfere  Smith’s three natural laws of economics: law of self-interest, people work for their own good; law of competition, competition forces people to make a better product; and law of supply-and-demand, enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy 2 The Economists of Capitalism  Smiths ideas were supported by British economists Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo who believed that natural laws governed economic life

Their ideas were the foundation of laissez-faire capitalism which is a economic system were the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit  In 1789 Thomas Malthus wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population in which he argued that population tended to increase more rapidly than food supply  Wealthy stockbroker David Ricardo wrote Principles of Political Economy and Taxation in 1817  He thought that a permanent underclass would always be poor and that wages would be forced down as population increased  In a market system when there is many workers and much resources than labor and resources are cheap and vice versa  Laissez-faire thinkers opposed governments efforts to help poor workers and thought that creating minimum wage laws and better working environments would upset the free market system, lower profits and undermine the production of wealth in society B The Rise of Socialism  How were socialist thinkers different than laissez-faire thinkers?  Other people believed that the government and rich people should intervene to help improve people’s lives 1 Utilitarianism  Jeremy Bentham introduced utilitarianism in the late 1700’s  He thought that people should judge ideas, institutions and actions on the basis of their utility (usefulness) and people should be able to follow their own advantage without the state interfering  He argued that the government should try and promote the greatest good for the most people and a government policy was only useful if it accomplished this goal  In the 1800’s John Stuart Mill led the utilitarian movement  He questioned unregulated capitalism and believed that it was wrong that workers should lead deprived lives  He wanted to help ordinary people with policies that could lead to a more equal division of profits and favored a cooperative system of agriculture and womens rights  Utilitarians wanted reforms in the legal and prison systems and in education 2 Utopian Ideas  British factory owner Robert Owen improved working conditions for his employees and built houses near his cotton mill that he rented for low costs  He prohibited children under ten from working in the mills and provided free schooling  He went to the U.S in 1824 and founded a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana, 1825  He wanted it to be a utopia  It only lasted three years but it inspired the development of other communities 3 Socialism  French reformers Charles Fourier, Saint-Simon and more wanted to offset the ill effects of industrialization with a new economic system called socialism  In socialism the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all  It grew out of a optimistic view of human nature, belief in progress and a concern for social justice  Socialist thought that the government should plan the economy not rely on freemarket capitalism

They thought that government control of factories, mines, railroads and other things would end poverty and promote equality  Public ownership would help workers that were at the mercy of their employers  Some wanted change through extension of the right to vote C Marxism: Radical Socialism  How did The Communist Manifesto affect other parts of the world?  In 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto which showed their ideas of radical socialism, Marxism 1 The Communist Manifesto  They argued that the human societies have always been divided into classes  They believed that the Industrial Revolution helped the wealthy and impoverished the poor  They predicted that the working people would join together and revolt 2 The Future According to Marx  Marx believed that the capitalist system would eventually destroy itself and end up in a final phase of complete socialism or communism  Communism is where all land, mines, railroads and businesses would all be owned by the people and all goods and services shared equally  The Communist Manifesto led to revolts in Europe during 1848 and 1849 but were put down by Europe’s leaders  In the 1900’s Marxism inspired revolutionaries like Russia’s Lenin, China’s Mao Zedong, and Cuba’s Fidel Castro  Marx and Engels thought that economic forces alone dominated society  Religion, nationalism, ethnic loyalties and democratic reforms also influence history  Because of government reforms the gap between rich and poor didn’t widen they way they predicted D Labor Unions and Reform Laws  What were some reform laws passed?  Workers joined together in labor associations called unions to press for reforms 1 Unionization  A unions spoke for all the workers in a particular trade and engaged in collective bargaining, negotiations between workers and their employees  If factory owners refused their demands then union members could strike  Skilled workers led the way in forming unions because they were harder to replace than less skilled workers  The British government thought that unions were a threat to social order and stability and outlawed unions in the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800  Workers formed unions anyway and in 1824 the Combination Acts were repealed  By 1875 British trade unions won the right to strike and picket peacefully  In 1886 several unions in the U.S joined together to form the American Federation of Labor (AFL)  A series of successful strikes won AFL members higher wages and shorter hours 2 Reform Laws  Reforms and unions forced political leaders to look into the abuses caused by industrialization  In the U.S and Britain new laws reformed some of the worst cases of these abuses  Parliament began investigating child labor and working conditions in factories and mines in 1820’s and 1830’s


The Factory Act of 1833 was passed which made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old, children 9 to 12 could not work more than 8 hours a day, from 13 to 17 could not work more than 12 hours  In 1842 the Mines Act prevented women and children from working underground  The Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited the workday to ten hours for women and children in factories  In 1904 progressive reforms formed the National Child Labor Committee in the U.S and union workers joined them  They pressured national and state politicians to ban child labor and set maximum working hours  The U.S Supreme Court objected to a federal child labor law in 1919 saying tha it interfered with the states right to regulate labor but individual states were allowed to limit working hours of women and later men The Reform Movement Spreads  What other things did the reform movement apply to?  In the beginning the reform movement was a response to the negatives effects of industrialization 1 The Abolition of Slavery  William Wilberforce was a member of Parliament who led the fight for abolition  He continued to fight slavery after his retirement in 1825  Parliament passed a bill to end the slave trade in the British West Indies in 1807  Britain eventually abolished slavery in its empire in 1833  Some anti slavery activist were morally against slavery, others viewed slave labor as an economic threat  A new class of industrialists develop who supported cheap labor rather than slave labor and gained power against Parliament  The movement to end slavery in the U.S grew in the early 1800’s  When the Union won the Civil War in 1865 slavery finally ended  Slavery in Puerto Rico ended in 1875, Spain abolished slavery in its Cuban colony in 1886 and in 1888 Brazil’s enslaved population won freedom 2 The Fight for Women’s Rights  Factory work earned more than work done at home but men workers usually made three times as much as women  In mid 1800’s women formed unions in the trades where they dominated  In Britain some women served as safety inspectors in factories where other women worked  In U.S college educated women ran settlement houses which served the poor residents of slum neighborhoods  The movement for women’s rights began as early as 1848 in the U.S  In 1888 the International Council for Women was formed and delegates and observers from 27 countries attended the 1899 meeting 3 Reforms Spread to Many Areas of Life  U.S reformer Horace Mann of Massachusetts favored free public education for all children  By 1850’s many states were starting public school systems  In Western Europe public schooling became available in the late 1800’s  Those who wanted to reform prisons stress the goal of providing ways to lives useful lives upon release  Industrialized democracies faced new challenges at both home and abroad

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