From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Coming of WWII

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Coming of World War II

Germany Faces Economic Collapse

Town Shelter – Kathe Kollwitz

A Troubled Germany • Germany in economic despair • Germany printed more money – led to inflation – loaf of bread cost 4 million marks • Economic unrest led to political instability • Weimar Republic – unable to deal with problems

U.S. Response • Isolationism – many wanted to cut the US off from Europe’s affairs • Insistence on war debt repayment – wanted France and Britain to be repaid, so they could, in turn, pay the US

The Rise of Adolph Hitler

Hitler standing in an open car

Hitler Takes Power • • • •

Served in WWI – extreme nationalist Felt Germany sold out by Weimar Republic Joined Nazi party in 1921 Led an uprising – put in prison – wrote “Mein Kampf,” - made his hatred of Jews known • After prison - expanded Nazi party - made promises to peasants, workers, and middle class

Hitler, con’t. • By 1932, largest party in Reichstag, German legislature • Became chancellor – 1932 • Increased power; called for elections to strengthen Nazi power in Reichstag • SS burned part of Reichstag building under his secret order – used the event to suspend constitutional rights

Hitler, con’t. • 1934 – president dies – Hitler combines president and chancellor offices – names himself Fuhrer • Within a year, Germany was fascist • Began movements against Jews • Kristallnacht – anti-Jewish rampage • Hitler’s appeal grew, even with the atrocities

U.S. Response • FDR became president in 1933 • Thought domestic problems more important than international • Military spending a low priority • US government thought disarmament, arms control, and treaties could keep peace • Kellogg-Briand Pact: signed by 62 countries, it outlawed war – no provisions for enforcement

Fascism in Italy

Mussolini addresses Fascist followers

Turmoil in Italy • Country in turmoil – used by Mussolini to gain power • Used reminders of ancient Rome’s glory to appeal to Italians • 1922 – marched on Rome – government folded – Mussolini named PM • Went after land – took city of Fiume, Albania, then Ethiopia

US Response • Continued isolationism – 90% of Americans considered themselves isolationist in 1935 • Neutrality Acts – forbade sale of arms to aggressive nations, traveling on ships of countries at war, forbade loans to countries at war • “Moral Embargo”

The Rise of Militarism in Japan

Aboard a Japanese aircraft carrier

Militarism in Japan • Japanese unhappy with instability, being known as a “second-rate” power • Military leaders rose to power – censored anti-military establishment • Attacked Manchuria to expand Japanese territory • 1936 - Signed agreement with Italy and Germany, forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

US Response • Stimson Doctrine – US told Japan they weren’t pleased with the invasion of Manchuria, but they took no action • 1937 – FDR’s “Quarantine Speech” – use embargoes to stop fascism • Americans felt this could lead to US involvement – FDR caved into the pressure and took no action

Violation and Appeasement

Chamberlain shakes hands with a Nazi leader as Hitler looks on

Hitler & the Treaty of Versailles • 1936 – violated Treaty by rearming Germany and taking the Rhineland • 1938 – moved into Austria • Britain and France took no action • France favored military action; Neville Chamberlain (PM of Britain) believed in appeasement • Hitler wanted Sudetenland; W region of Czechoslovakia

Hitler & the Treaty of Versailles, con’t. • Tried to get Germans living there to revolt; they refused • Decided to invade • Chamberlain wanted to solve the crisis – talked Czechs into allowing selfgovernment for Germans in Sudetenland • Hitler saw he could get his way – demanded that all of Czechoslovakia surrender

Hitler & the Treaty of Versailles, con’t. • Hitler’s aggression caused change of opinion in Europe • Sept. 28, 1938 – Chamberlain and Hitler met to resolve problems – Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union not allowed to attend • Great Britain decided to give Sudetenland to Hitler; Hitler promised to stop expanding Germany • Chamberlain declared that the Munich Agreement guaranteed “peace in our time.”

US Response • Roosevelt sent a telegram, urging Chamberlain to keep peace • FDR sent a letter to Hitler, asking him for a conference with European leaders; told him the US wished to stay neutral • When Munich Agreement signed, FDR sent Chamberlain a telegram: “Good man.”

Invasion of Czechoslovakia

German tanks make their way across the border of Czechoslovakia

Hitler Invades Czechoslovakia • • • •

After Munich, Hitler felt invincible March 1939 – took the rest of Czechoslovakia Started making demands in Poland Chamberlain realized he’d been lied to – promised aid to Poland if attacked; France also joined agreement • Stalin – opposed to German advance; felt France and GB had betrayed him • August 1939 – signed Nazi-Soviet Pact; pledged not to attack each other • Pact made Hitler feel invincible; felt France and GB too weak to stop him

US Response • FDR sent letters to Italy, Poland, and Germany, urging leaders to keep peace • Messages ignored • FDR prepared declarations of neutrality; prepared for war to begin

World War II Begins

German troops march across the Polish border

World War II Begins • • • •

Hitler invaded Poland – Sept. 1, 1939 GB and France declared war Invasion of Poland took three weeks War continued slowly for the next six months

US Response • FDR wanted Neutrality Acts lifted so the US could give aid to France and GB • Opposed by the America First Committee – spokesman was Charles Lindbergh – felt the US was protected by the Atlantic, not prepared to fight, needed to stay out of European affairs • “Cash and Carry” – US gave aid to GB and France, but they had to buy the supplies and ship them themselves • Americans alarmed – 80% wanted US to stay out

US Support of Britain

Supplies being prepared for transport to Britain

Britain’s Isolation • Hitler gained power and territory • 1940 – Hitler controlled Eastern Europe, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France • Battle of Britain – only power capable of beating Germany • Atlantic Charter – meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt

US Response • Lend-Lease Act – transfer of equipment to nations who were vital to the US • Germany attacked America destroyers – Kearny and Reuben James sunk by German subs • FDR wanted merchant ships to be allowed to be armed – isolationism so strong, measure failed, even after death of sailors

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

Japanese Aggression • Japan expanded control in Indochina – threatened US supplies in the region • Oct. 1941 - General Hideki Tojo became PM of Japan – met with US for negotiations – would withdraw from Indochina if the US would allow Japan to occupy China • While negotiations underway, decision all ready made to attack US • December 7, 1941 – Attacked Pearl Harbor – 18 ships, 188 planes destroyed, 2,300 Americans killed

US Response • Relations strained as early as 1937 • Moved fleet to Hawaii to prove military readiness • Americans feared appeasement – had only encouraged Axis powers – rejected Japan’s proposal • US thought Japan might attack – did not think it would come at Pearl Harbor – FDR asked for a declared war – Congress passed the declaration of war within hours • Germany and Italy declared war on the US a few days later – the US declared war on them • Signaled the end of isolationism

FDR signs the Declaration of War

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