Gender Equality in Greece: are we there yet?

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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Gender Equality in Greece: are we there yet? LADIES DIARY OF CHANGE - active ladies in peace dialogue

Hara Kouki, ELIAMEP Athens, Greece

Gender Equality Male public space, labour, politics Female  private sphere, family, house =Gender Roles Socially Constructed • Not a reality:

we can change this situation • Not only personal, collective: it is about all of us

France, 18th century  French Revolution: Declaration of the Rights of Man

and of the Citizen (1791): challenge what was taken for normal, institutions and morals  Olympiad de Gouges:

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Woman Citizen (1791) Women must have equal rights with Men

Britain, early 20th century  Virginia Woolf: A Room of One’s Own (1926) ‘men socially and psychically dominate

women...women are simultaneously victims of themselves as well as victims of men and are upholders of society by acting as mirrors to men...a woman must have money and a room of her own’

Greece at a Glance Population of 11 million

1900-1974: Wars, Dictatorship, Refugees...  1821: Greek War of Independence  1830: independent Greek Kingdom

 1922: 1.5 million refugees from Minor Asia  1946-49: civil war  1967-1974: military dictatorship  1974 and then: Presidential Parliamentary Democracy  1981: European Union Member/ currency euro (2001)

Women in Greece: 1900-1950

1.Katerina, born in 1930 (82 years old)  Daily Life: Born,

raised and lived all her life in a small village- visited only few times a big city, Athens

 Work: working all day until her

70s in the fields (agriculture) with her husband- but this was not considered as work/ running the family’s home: preparing food, cleaning the house/ clothes, raising 10 children, caring for her old parents and parents-in-law- but this was not considered as work  Education: 4 years of primary education, but after some years she forgot how to write, she could read, but never read newspapers

1. Women in Greece 1900 -1950  Education: for women (primary), good housewives for men (universities), good citizens  1919: 392 Women in Universities out of 30.000  Employment women start working

as maids in cities/ workers in industries/ teachers for girls- situation very bad (timetable/ wages)

1. Women’s Movement in Greece 1900-1950  Women refugees + against Nazi occupation/ during

Civil war  different role in society + financial needs  Committee for the Rights of Woman (1923-36): citizenship rights  1928: first public assembly for the women’s right to vote • 1936: vote only for municipal elections

1. Women’s Movement in the World, 1900- 1950 •Women started working

outside home •Women started asking for the right to vote and political equality -Australia: 1902 -Finland: 1906 -United Kingdom: 1918 -United States: 1920 -France: 1944 -Iraq: 1980

2. Women in Greece, 1950-1980 2. Eleni,

born in 1960 52 years old

2. Women in Greece, 1950-1980  1954: Right to Vote

 1961: First Woman Member of Parliament,  1964: 135 women Municipal council

members  1967-1974: Women fight against Dictatorship

2. Women in Greece, 1950-1980  1975 Constitution:

All Greeks, men and women, are equal before the Law and have equal rights and obligations  1981: 20 women in Parliament

 1982: 1.113 women Municipal members (300% up)  Work: less in agriculture, more in cities working  Education: 39% in high schools, 28% in Universities

2. Women in Greece, 1950-1980 2. Eleni, born in 1960 (52 years old)  Daily Life  Born in the village – studied (University) in Athens.  She met her husband (engineer) at the University, they got 

  

married and they have 2 daughters They live in Athens. She likes going to the theatre She has travelled in other countries more than 15 times She reads the newspapers

 Education: She has a

university degree in Education. She speaks French.  Work: Teacher in public primary school housewife. Stopped working for 8 years to raise her kids.  Politics: She is interested-votes differently than her husband

2. Women in Greece,

1950-1980 Eleni, born in 1960

2. Women’s Movement in Greece, 1950-1980 Still men are prepared to work and be leaders in public life and women are educated, but are mainly responsible for the family/house (good housewives) depending on the husband   Radical Women’s associations and feminist groups/

magazines- events  Demands for equal treatment in public life, law, workplace, family and fighting against violence and for sexuality 

Women’s Movement in the World, 1950-1980 Personal is Political Private is Public  (Not JUST) The right to vote

 The right to receive an equal wage  The right to be represented in political and institutions  The right to speak your mind, instead of being dismissed

because you are a woman  The right to financial independence  The right to choose your path in life

The Half is Yours, 1977

Women in Public Administration, 1982

Feminist Magazine, The Cleaning Lady, 1978

3. Women in Greece, 1980-2010

Margarita, born in 1990 22 years old

3. Women in Greece in Law: 1980-2010  1981: Greece member of European Union  1983-2010: national and European laws family (end of patriarchy, husband and wife

equal), education employment (same wages for same labour, a pregnant woman cannot be fired) social security (maternity leave)  2003: positive actions for gender equality

3. Women in practice:1980-2010  Education: in high school 50% girls in University more women than men!  Work: 39% of total labour force  50% of women work,

 75% of women with children work  Politics: more women in parliament

many more in municipalities

3. Movements for Gender Equality in the World 1980-2010 • European

+Global: EuropeanWomen’s Lobby/ World March for Women International/ Women in Black •National: Migrants associations, Groups against Trafficking, against Unemployment •Network/ solidarity

3. Women in Greece: 1980-2010 Margarita, born in 1990, 22 years old  Daily Life

Born in Athens, Speaks French and English Studies Media in Thessaloniki Lives alone

Erasmus student in Barcelona now Interested in Politics Likes Travelling

3. Women in Greece: 1980-2010  How do you think Margarita

will be in her 40s? Married with children or well known journalist? Or both?  Are women equal to men today?

Do women have problems even if laws are there? What do you think?

a. Women in politics today Increase of female elected members of

Parliament and municipalities  Women in the Greek Parliament: 10% 15%, low by European standards (22.5%)  23% in media Not present in decision making processes/ in how men and women are represented !

Is there something missing? is missing!!

Why there are few women in positions of responsibility?  they are not interested?  women are less ready than men to fight to make a career?  women have less time because of their family?

 work environment is dominated by men who do not

trust women?  women do not always have the required qualities to hold positions of responsibility?

b. Women in Education Today  very high percentage of women who pursue higher education  but still 75-85% in arts and humanities and 15-25% in technical and engineering Male and female studies/ professions!

 Work is as important for men as for

women?  Which professions are for men and which are for women?  What kind of skills do you need in order to become politician?  Women have other skills than men?

c. Women at Work today  Jobs: with little power or responsibility  Wages: lower than men’s  Family and Career: stop working when they have

children, less responsibilities/ wages when backinflexible timetables  Unemployed: 65% women  Household: spent 38 hours a week on house work (men 9 hours a week)  Women Migrants: in worse position of all

Can women have both family and career?  women are forced to choose between having

children and working  women can combine working and having children

Glass ceiling -not only in Greece) Transparent Wall in work that obstructs women from developing their skills

Glass ceiling: How?  stereotypes in society

(women work, men make a career)  other expectations from parents (my son will be a lawyer, my daughter will become a teacher, but the important is to have a family)  not good education and professional orientation (girls are good in humanities and arts, boys are better in physics and engineering subjects)  sexual harassment

Glass ceiling: How?  unjust selection of employees

(she will stay pregnant, so it’s better to hire a man)  discriminations (the man will be better in deciding)  difficult when family (abandon the job to have time for the baby, inflexible timetables)  different wages

What can we do? Professional orientation at school Planning + hard work + strong minded Equal Opportunities Policies

Collective mobilization and networking (women’s

groups/ trade unions) Flexible work conditions Media awareness

Are we there yet? • Change in law is not

enough  • Change in mentalities both of men and women is needed

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