Germany and Japan Nation

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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Standard 15b Compare and contrast the rise of the nation state in Germany under Otto von Bismarck and Japan under Emperor Meiji.

NATIONALISM RISE OF NATION-STATES • GERMAN STATES • GERMANY • OTTO VON BISMARCK

• JAPAN • EMPIRE OF JAPAN • EMPEROR MEIJII

Nationalism • Nationalism is the most powerful idea of the 19th century (1800’s) – The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation – that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history – rather than a king or empire

• This idea led to the building of Nationstates

Three types of Nationalism • Unification

– Mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands

• Separation

– Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away

• State-building

– Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture

Nationalism Unification of Germany: • Led by Prussia • Otto von Bismarck – Prime Minister under Wilhelm I – Policy of Realpolitik: • Tough power politics - no idealism • Issues not decided by resolutions, but by “blood and iron” • Allowed him to expand Prussia & achieve dominance

Prussian Empire • Bismark uses his position to centralize power – Take regions from Denmark – Use the military victories to provoke Austria into attacking them – Use their advanced military training to defeat Austria

Germany • 1815: German nation-states unify to form the German Confederation – Austria and Prussia both tried to dominate this group

• 1848, Germans force a constitutional convention – Prussia is the best represented here because they are the most similar to Germany with a large ethnic German population

Germany Seven Weeks’ War (1866) • Bismarck provoked Austria to declare war on Prussia • Prussia (superior training & equipment) humiliated Austria • Austrians lost Venetia – given to Italy • Had to accept Prussian annexation of more German territory • Prussia took control of N. Germany – for 1st time, E & W Prussia joined

Germany Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) • Bismarck manufactured “incident” that caused France to declare war on Prussia • Defeated and humiliated the French • Bismarck became a national hero w/ victory • Final stage in German unification • S. Germans (Catholic) accepted Prussian (Protestant) leadership • King Wilhelm I crowned “Kaiser” – emperor – Called empire “Second Reich” (HRE was the 1st)

• Bismarck achieved Prussian dominance by “blood and iron”

Industrialization in Japan Contributing Factors • Meiji Reform: – Meiji = “enlightened rule” – Mutsuhito – symbolized pride & nationalism – Took over gov’t after Tokugawa shogun stepped down

Meiji Japan • The Meiji Era rulers decide that to compete and counter western influence was to modernize • Begin purchasing modern weapons, building railroads • Dress in western clothing • Japan began to trade with the rest of the world and became richer

Industrialization in Japan Process: • Westernization: – To counter western influence = modernize – Diplomats sent to Europe, N. America to study Western ways – Chose best & adapted – Modernized military

Industrialization in Japan Process: • Modernization:

– Coal production grew – Built thousands of factories – Expanded unique production (tea & silk) – Shipbuilding to be competitive with west

Japan Modernization Pays Off for Japan • By 1890, Japan had: – Several dozen warships – 500,000 well-trained, well-armed soldiers – Became strongest military power in Asia

Japan Modernizes • Japan had not traded or interacted with others during the I.R. • 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry (US) goes to Japan and opens trade • Treaty of Kanagawa – Japan and the U.S. agree to trade and allow U.S. ships to refuel

Japan Japan Gains Western Favor as a Nation-State

• Constitution & legal codes similar to European nations • Wanted to eliminate extraterritorial rights of foreigners • 1894 – foreign powers accepted it • Strength & feeling of equality rose

Japan Expands • Japan’s national pride led them to begin to expand • 1894 – Japan breaks a treaty and attacks Korea – Japan wins the war with Korea and China and conquers Korea, gaining Taiwan as a colony – Became more imperialistic-needed resources for industry.

Reaction to Foreign Domination Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): • Causes: – Russia refused to stay out of Korea – Japanese led surprise attack on Russian navy anchored off coast of Manchuria

Reaction to Foreign Domination Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): • Results: – Destruction of Russian navy – Humiliation of Russia and Czar Nicholas II – Territorial gains for Japan (Manchuria & Korea) – Withdrawal of Russia from Manchuria & Korea

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