GHSGT SOCIAL STUDIES REVIEW
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GHSGT SOCIAL STUDIES REVIEW
GOVERNMENT/CIVICS 18% OF THE GHSGT
Domain 1: American Government/Civics (approximately 18% of the test) Overview of the Domain Students describe, explain, analyze, and evaluate information related to the Declaration of Independence the United States Constitution the structure, function, and purpose of the national government civil liberties and civil rights participation in civic life and elections
Associated Concepts and Skills: Assessment of this domain will focus on the following: analyzing the philosophy and the nature of government in the Declaration of Independence explaining the main ideas in the debate over the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and the fundamental principles on which the document is based the structure and function of the national government ° explaining the branches of the federal government ° explaining the federal system ° explaining the difference between the House of Representatives and the Senate and describing the legislative process ° analyzing the role of the President of the United States ° explaining the functions of the cabinet ° explaining the operation of the federal judiciary ° describing tools used to carry out foreign policy explaining civil liberties and civic life, including the Bill of Rights, due process, the balance between individual liberties and the public interest, and equal treatment under the law describing participation in civic life explaining political parties and the nomination and election process; and identifying how amendments extend the right to vote
What’s the Diff? Different types of government
Different types of government Dictatorships Oligarchies Constitutional
? What type of government does the U.S. have?
? What is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative democracy?
Different Theories of Government Socialism—the
government controls all of the social services (transportation, education, healthcare, police/fire, postal services, utilities etc) through tax money. Wealthy pay more taxes than poor.
Different Theories of Government “proletariat” (working class man) controls the government—the government tells the citizens what to do— 0 individual freedom—you are told what job you will have, where you will live, what you can buy, etc…
Different Theories of Government Democracy—the
power of the government rests with the will of the people There is a social contract between the government leaders and the people—the people are willing to give up some freedoms to the government (laws) for the good of the majority, but the government agrees to protect the people.
a democracy, what can be done if the government breaks the social contract with the people?
was the last time a government broke a social contract with the American people? What was done about it?
The 2 governments of the US
The Articles of the Confederation (during the American Revolution-1787)
Weak government—a league of friendship No President or Court System The States had ALL the power Shay’s Rebellion
The US Constitution (1787-current day)
Separation of powers (3 branches of government) Federal government more powerful than States Whiskey Rebellion
The US Constitution The Highest Law of the Land
Ratifying the Constitution Federalists—supported
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton & John Jay wrote 80 essays to defend the new Constitution called The Federalist Papers
Lacked a Bill of Rights Compromised and added a Bill of Rights—1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
A living document How
can the US constitution be changed? How many times has the US constitution been changed?
Express Powers v Implied Powers Expressed Powers: specific powers that are listed in the US Constitution—they are written down Implied Powers: powers that are NOT written down in the Constitution, but are very vague and subject to interpretation
The Power of the US Constitution The
highest law of the land The power to change (through the amendment process) Checks and balances
Branches of the Government: Executive Branch The Powers of the President
The Executive Branch Qualifications: at least 35 years old; a natural born citizen; a resident of the US for at least 14 years Terms of office: 4 year terms; cannot serve more than 2 consecutive terms as President (8 years total)
? Can Arnold Schwarzenegger ever be President? Why or why not?
How is a President elected? 2
ways: popular vote and electoral college Popular vote: every American citizen over 18 has the right to vote in the Presidential election on the 2nd Tuesday of November every 4 years Electoral college: a group of representatives for each state meet on the 2nd Tuesday of December every 4 years and cast their votes for President
More on the electoral college Presidents
are NOT elected by the popular vote or the direct democracy approach BUT…it does help the electoral college make up its mind who to vote for… Each state receives a certain number of electoral college votes. The electoral college representatives of each state has the responsibility of voting for the will of the people of that state…
did GA vote in the election of 2008?
Specific Powers of the President Commander
in chief—has the power to send troops anywhere in the world President is the “Chief Executive”—the leader of the United States Determines the national budget President sets the national agenda (what goals does the country have)
The Presidential Cabinet
The chief advisors to the President
The Vice President + 15 Departmental Leaders • • • • • • • • •
Department of the State Departemnt of the Treasury Department of the Defense Department of the Interior Department of the Education Department of the Agriculture Department of the Commerce Department of Homeland Security Etc…
The Office of Presidency Who
keeps the President on schedule? The White House staff is approximately 400 people. The Chief of Staff keeps the White House running and the President on task.
Branches of the Government: Legislative Branch The Powers of Congress
The Elastic Clause Article
I of the Constitution states: “The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.”
2 Houses of Congress
House of Representatives
2 year term 435 members Elected by state districts Primary responsibilities include raising taxes
6 year term 100 members (2 each state) Elected by the state as a whole Primary responsiblities include consenting to treaties and presidential appointees
Congressional Powers over the Economy $$$$$$$$$$$$$ “power
to levy taxes & provide for the general welfare of the US”
Revenue Bills (raising taxes) began in House and then move to the Senate for a vote Appropriations bills—proposed laws to authorize spending money—not defined by Constitution
Congressional Powers over the Economy $$$$$$$$$$$$$
gives Congress the power to borrow money Constitution gives Congress the power to print and coin money and punish counterfeiters Congress has power to make bankruptcy laws—usually allows States to handle individual bankruptcies
Congressional Foreign Powers Power
to approve treaties, declare war, create and maintain a military, make rules of military & regulate foreign commerce War Powers Act (1973)—President can only commit troops into action for 60 days without congressional notification within 48 hours
The Power of Impeachment House
votes to impeach Senate hears the trial 2/3’s vote is required for conviction & removal Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides over the process
Powers denied to Congress
Bill of Rights—specified rights and liberties to individuals of the US Writ of habeas corpus—Congress cannot keep an individual prisoner if the Courts have released said individual Bills of attainder—finding individuals guilty and punishing them without a trial Ex Post Facto Laws—(after the fact laws)— Congress cannot find individuals guilty of crimes that were legal when they were committed
if…a person was texting while driving in March of 2009 and was involved in a car crash and killed 4 people. The national government (Congress) passed a new amendment in September of 2011 that made it illegal for a person to text while driving with a mandatory sentence of 10 years in federal prison. Would the person who texted while driving in 2009 be subject to this law? Why or why not? What is this an example of?
Branches of the Government: Judicial Branch The Powers of the Courts
The Supreme Court There
are 9 supreme court justices