Growth & Expansion

May 17, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Industry and Inventions

Industrial Revolution • Manufacturing of the 18th century – Hand tools and small-scale manufacturing

• Agriculture centered economy pushed by the DemocraticRepublicans • Technology innovations create a shift toward largescale production

Technology Revolution • Spinning jenny – Produces many spools of yarn at once

• Water frame – Power machines in factories

• Power loom – Wove & pressed thread into cloth

• Advances made it possible for any unskilled workers to produce cloth • Patent Law – Passed to protect rights of inventors

Factory System

• Workers and machines together under one roof • First appeared in New England • Samuel Slater

– First successful waterpowered textile mill

• Soil was very poor & difficult to farm

• Economic system allowed competition – Minimum government interference

• Free Enterprise – Competition, profit, private property, & economic freedom

• Many people invested in industry during the War of 1812 • Businessmen built factories and grew wealthy

• Factories did many tasks in one place – Increase efficiency

• Interchangeable parts – Made each part of a manufactured item exactly alike – Reduced goods prices – Became the industry standard

Impact on Cities •

Industrial cities grew the quickest – Most were on rivers – Needed water power

– New England had many fastflowing rivers

City disadvantages – Waste disposal was an issue • Threat of disease

– Fires were a constant threat – Overcrowded living conditions

City advantages – Libraries, museums, shops – Jobs & attractions outweighed the dangers

Lowell Mills Francis Cabot Lowell builds a factory in Mass

Figured out how to work power looms in England (stole the technology like Samuel Slater)

Factory was so successful he built a factory town called Lowell

The Lowell Mills

• Lowell mills employed farm girls • Girls lived in company-owned boardinghouses – Worked 12 ½ hour days

• Girls came because of high wages – Between $2 - $4 a week – Some men making that in factories

• Older women supervised the girls – Enforced strict rules

• The rise in steam powered factories forced the mills to close (and others like them who used water power)

Robert Fulton – creates boat powered by steam to transport people quicker Used commercially to transport people up the Hudson River from New York City to upstate New York Roads built to connect cities States charged tolls or fees to drive on streets of crushed stone Samuel Morse – creates the telegraph, a machine which sends short pulses of electricity along a wire that could be translated into letters The telegraph took seconds to communicate to someone in another city

• John Deere – Blacksmith by trade – Invents a lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge – Designed for rich and heavy Midwestern soil

• Cyrus McCormick – Invents a mechanical reaper to cut ripe grain

• Threshing machine – Separated kernels of wheat from the husks

• New farm equipment opened new markets to grow food

Industrial Revolution’s Key Inventions Person



James Watt

First reliable Steam Engine


Samuel Slater

First successful American textile mill


Eli Whitney

Cotton Gin, Interchangeable parts for muskets

1793, 1798

Robert Fulton

Regular Steamboat service on the Hudson River


Francis Cabot Lowell

First American textile mill to convert raw cotton to finished cloth in one building


Peter Cooper

American-made locomotive powered by steam


Samuel F. B. Morse



Elias Howe

Sewing Machine


Isaac Singer

Improves and markets Howe's Sewing Machine


Cyrus Field

Transatlantic Cable


Alexander Graham Bell



Thomas Edison

Phonograph, Incandescant Light Bulb

1877, 1879

Nikola Tesla

Induction Electric Motor


Rudolf Diesel

Diesel Engine


Orville and Wilbur Wright

First Manned Airplane


Henry Ford

Model T Ford, Assembly Line

1908, 1913

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