January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Renaissance (1330-1550)
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Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism 1500-1603


The Period Literary Movement: Christian Humanism Francois Rabelais, The Histories of Gargantua and Pantagruel Marguerite of Angoulême Desiderius Erasmus, The Praise of Folly

Two Artistic Styles Northern Renaisance Late Mannerism

Reformation Counter-Reformation 2

Northern Humanism Shared some values of High Renaissance (idealism, rationalism, Classical emphasis), but… Pre-occupied with condition of Church and wider Christian world Harks back to “simple” lay piety of Late Middle Ages • • • •

Devotio moderna/Brotherhood of Common Life Thomas a Kempis John Wycliffe/Lollards Jan Hus

Goal: Imitation of early church and its simplicity • Laity, not just clergy, could aspire to highest standards • Carries national, anti-Italian (anti-papacy) implications


François Rabelais (1494-1553) Major work was five-part satire, The Histories of Garantua and Pantagruel. Attacks church abuses Ridicules clergy Affirms goodness of human nature/power of reason Skepticism, secularism, and ribald humor put him outside mainstream of northern humanism.


Marguerite of Angoulême (14921549) Queen of Navarre, sister of Francis I, protector of Rabelais, Protestant reformers, other free spirits Associated with Heptameron, 70 frankly sexual tales in the spirit of Boccaccio’s Decameron Work is hostile to ethos of monasticism, portraying monks as gluttons, parasites, rapists, and lechers 5

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) Studied in school run by Brethren of the Common Life, University of Paris Believed in (1) Ciceronian humanitas and (2) “philosophy of Christ”; Thomas More was close friend. Most famous work was Encomium Moriae, or The Praise of Folly (note pun on More’s name in title) Supported Luther and wanted his support, but two men disagreed – violently – over freedom of human will.


The Northern Renaissance Northern cultural scene influenced by Italian Renaissance, but more affected by contemporary events and religious upheavals Result is art, architecture, and literature markedly different from Italy, and marked by competing styles.


Political Thought: Jean Bodin (1530-1596) Lived through eight civil/religious wars in France (Huguenots v. Catholics) Background combined humanistic scholarship and government service Reflected in Six Livres de la Republique – essentially a work on sovereignty, notably on types of monarchy and the desirability of uniform religion With Machiavelli, one of the first to focus on the structure of the ideal state in the modern world. 8

Science and Medicine: Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) Studied at elite universities (Louvain, Paris, Padua) Through dissection and study of anatomy – learned at Paris – discovered that Galen was wrong Key work: De Humani Corporis Fabrica Stands in Medicine in the same position Copernicus stands in astronomy Served as court physician to Charles V and Philip II 9

Literature: Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Balanced public career (judge and mayor) with life of letters Majors work is Essais, an autobiography of his mind Essais are an early example of confessional literature, but are more than that: also earliest work of “moralisme” and the beginning of modern skepticism Challenged both Christian ethic and Renaissance view of humanity as microcosm of universe


Literature: William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Wrote in Elizabethan age, when London achieved cultural prominence that rivaled that of Florence Age saw rise of drama (Kyd, Marlowe), reversing Christian cultural outlook While drew on multiple sources, many reveal Mannerist aesthetic. Hamlet , for example, (1) is presented from multiple , ambiguous perspectives, and (2) rejects the basic dignity of man


Northern Renaissance Painting Era of cultural crisis brought multiple influences to bear: Late Gothic Style/Flemish School fades (Bosch excepted) Impact of Italian art (notably Mannerism) grows) Reformation focuses attention on secular subjects (religious topics viewed as idol worship) 12

Northern Renaissance Painting Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Son of a goldsmith; traveled widely in Italy; was both painter and – notably – engraver, on both wood and metal Near end of life becomes Lutheran; last paintings reveal his new faith Self-portrait, implicitly comparing artist of Christ, unthinkable before the Renaissance (but also well within mystic tradition of imitatio Christi) 13

Northern Renaissance Painting Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Knight, Death, and the Devil engraved at the time of Luther’s revolt.

Combines Late Gothic (exquisite details, grotesque demon, varied landscape and background) and Renaissance elements (horse) to create a disquieting scene


Northern Renaissance Painting Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)


Northern Renaissance Painting Matthias Grunewald (1460-1528) Details of life are unusually unclear; even his name is certainly wrong Ignored Renaissance classicism; continued expressive , intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century. Only 10 paintings and 35 drawings survive, all religious; many others were lost at sea in the Baltic on way to Sweden as war booty. Many of his paintings were attributed to Dürer, now seen as stylistic antithesis. 16

Northern Renaissance Painting Matthias Grunewald (1460-1528)


Grunewald: Isenheim Altarpiece


Northern Renaissance Painting Matthias Grunewald (1460-1528)


Northern Renaissance Painting Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) Personal life a mystery Treats common religious subjects in fantastic, enigmatic ways

Influenced – perhaps – political upheavals, sense of dread fostered by plague, religious troubles, private demons In paintings, seems torn between Late Gothic and emerging Mannerist styles, but overall defies classification


Northern Renaissance Painting Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516)


Northern Renaissance Painting Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569) First truly modern painter in northern Europe; subjects – landscapes, country life scenes, and folk narratives – often are devoid of religious content and set him apart


Northern Renaissance Painting Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569)


Northern Renaissance Painting Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569)


Northern Renaissance Painting Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569)


Northern Renaissance Painting Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569)


The Breakup of Christendom: Causes of the Religious Reformations Radical reshaping of society (1350 forward) Human yearnings Historical trends: Church abuses Rise of sovereign states Decay of medieval thought Revival of Humanism


The German Setting Germany focal point of Reformation Purgatory-centered faith No unified nation state No secular control over church (courts/taxes) Conflict with Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)

Anger turns against Rome/Church/Papacy


The Pillars of the Church Mass and Purgatory Mass was center of “intercession industry” Works/money could buy grace

Papal Primacy Structure essentially created by Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) While never achieved goal of fully unified Christendom, did develop elaborate structure 29

Spain and Portugal Iberian Peninsula is a “special case” Adopted crusading ideal which arose from advance of Islam Latin Christendom became central to identity Had early “Reformation” • Inquisition • Brutal empire building/export of Christianity • Rise of African slavery which was to last three centuries 30

The Protestant Order Martin Luther (1483-1546) Published 95 Theses in 1517 (antiindulgence, but implicitly challenged confession, penance, papal authority. Major beliefs: (1) Salvation through grace, not works (2) Bible sole source of religious authority (3) No need for mediated relationship with God (4) Repudiation of sacraments (except Baptism and Eucharist) 31

Martin Luther Luther’s Criticisms of Catholicism Venality: Indulgences/relics Church hierarchy unsupported in gospels Sacraments/good works ineffective in assuring salvation

Luther’s Theology Justification by faith Priesthood of all believers Rejection of all practices not explicitly laid out in Bible 32

Martin Luther Practices Luther Rejected: Fasting Veneration of saints Monsatic orders Ecclesiastical hierarchy, including Papacy Five sacraments (baptism and communion excepted) Elements of transfiguration Latin mass


Martin Luther Pope Leo orders Luther to recant or face trial for heresy Luther publically burns Pope’s order Frederick convenes Diet of Worms (1521), administered by Charles V Charles V – for political more than religious reasons –presses Luther to recant Luther refuses Frederick sends Luther into hiding German princes choose sides 34

Advantages of Lutheranism To Princes: No tribute/taxes to Rome No need to enforce ecclesiastical dues on subjects Close monasteries/seize lands and wealth Assert primacy of State/appoint own ministers

To People: Bible contained no justification of power of aristocrats. Or feudal dues and rents Led to peasant rebellions (which horrified Luther)


The Protestant Order Martin Luther Never meant to set Europe ablaze, but radical followers fomented revolt Frederick the Wise

Major impacts on: (1) Familial, non-celibate tradition (2) Education (3) Distance from anti-government political and social reforms

Katherine von Bora


The Protestant Order John Calvin (1509-1564) After “joining” Reformation movement, fled from Paris to Basel. There, published Institutes of the Christian Religion. Major beliefs: (1) Predestination (2) Theocratic state (3) Strict ethical demands -- thrift, industry, sobriety, discipline – furthered pursuit of wealth in the West


The Protestant Order Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) Founded Anglican church, largely for political, not religious, reasons. Catherine of Aragon failed to produce male heir; sought annulment, but Pope essentially held hostage in Rome by Charles V’s troops Pushed laws setting up Church of England through Parliament Solidified under daughter, Elizabeth 38

The Counter Reformation Reform movement within Church had begun quietly even before Luther took his stand, focused on: Revitalized Papacy New Monastic Orders Effective Reforming Council


Reformed Papacy: Paul III Starting with Paul III, Church sees series of reform-minded popes Pope Paul III: (1) Convened council of Trent (2) Reclaimed moral leadership (3) Reorganized papal bureaucracy


New Monastic Orders Company of St. Ursula Founded by Angela Merici in Brescia Intended to be exclusively for laywomen, who were to live in own homes, practice chastity without vows, serve the sick, and educate the young After Merici’s death in 1540, however, order cloistered and placed under male control by Church leaders – a typical fate for women in Catholicism


New Monastic Orders Society of Jesus Founded by Ignatius Loyola , recognized by pope in 1540 Initially concerned with working with the unchurched and poor, focusing specifically on teaching Guided by Francis Xavier, however, mission expanded; major missionaries to China and the Far East, North America, and South America Served as Church’s chief weapon against Protestantism 42

Council of Trent Met in three separate sessions between 1545 and 1563. (1) Took unyielding position toward Protestants, based on belief that the Bible and church tradition – not the Bible alone – were bases for understanding the word of God. (2) Affirmed that salvation was to be sought by faith and works; reaffirmed seven sacraments (3) Took Vulgate as “official” Bible 43

Encounter: Indigenous Peoples and New Spain As religious wars in the 1500s were altering the map of Europe, the rise of European colonies in the New World was changing the geography of Western culture. Spain led the way with its vast overseas empire covering much of North and South America. In 1535 Spain organized its overseas possessions into four viceroyalties—regional governments, each headed by a viceroy—to rule the conquered lands.The viceroyalty of New Spain held sway over much of its vast domain until 1821, when it collapsed in the wake of the wars of revolution that swept the Americas in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.


Warfare as a Response to Religious Dissent, 1520-1603 War between Charles V’s armies and Lutheran forces erupted in Germany in 1546, lasted until 1555. Peace of Augsburg tolerated Lutheran states, but made ruler’s faith the religion of each territory

Philip II tried to created united, Catholic Christendom, but defeat of Spanish Armada ended hope. 45

Slice of Life: The Conscience of Sixteenth-Century Christian Europe Bartolomé de las Casas: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies Bartolome de las Casas, a Dominican friar, was an eyewitness to Spain’s quest for empire. Outraged by the massacres committed during the 1502 conquest of Cuba, he eventually denounced Spain’s entire overseas mission as misguided and even genocidal, in A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. By “Indies,” he meant the lands of the Indians in the New World. In his book, las Casas, speaking as the Christian conscience, called for justice for indigenous peoples. 46

Late Mannerism Strongest impact of Counter-Reformation felt after Council of Trent in Spain and Italy Major themes were accessibility, intelligibility, simplicity, and decency On collision curse with Mannerism’s complexity and ambiguity Affected visual arts, not literature


Spanish Painting El Greco (1541-1614) Epitomizes spirit of Late Mannerism Native of Crete, arrived in Toledo in 1576 Though not a favorite of Philip II, painting catch the essence of Spanish emotionalism and religious zeal in spritualized vision 48

El Greco The Burial of Count Orgaz recounts miracle said to have happened during founder of Church of Santo Tome’s burial – assistance from Sts. Stephen and Augustine. Two distinct styles depict earthly burial and heavenly reception of soul. St. Stephen’s gown also depicts event within event…a Mannerist notion. 49

El Greco Cardinal Guevara depicts chief inquisitor Subject seems to have uneasy conscience, reflected in “shifty” eyes and firm grip on chair.


Sofonisba Anguissola Chosen by Philip II to be court painter – a career unusual for a noble women of her time

Here she shows her mentor, Bernardino Campi, painting her – a new development in a genre that previously had shown subjects in static situations


Sofonisba Anguissola

The Portait of Don Carlos shows the painter’s attention to detail as well as the Mannerist concern with revealing inner nature through outward appearance.


Spanish Literature Lope de Vega -- Drama Lazarillo de Tormes – Picaresque Novel Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra – Don Quixote


Italian Painting: Tintoretto

The Last Supper reflects the artist’s feverish, emotional style, as well as his trademark placement of people in positions that suggest a sculptural frieze. 54

Music Late 16th Century Italy and England Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Madrigal: Thomas Weelkes


Legacy World culture and economy began during this period Rise of system of sovereign and mutually hostile states Long conflict between Protestants and Catholics Arts and Humanities: Cervantes and Spain’s Golden Age authors …and Shakespeare


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