Hemipteroids

January 29, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Biology, Zoology, Entomology
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Description

HEMIPTEROID ORDERS PSOCOPTERA (booklice, bark lice)

PHTHIRAPTERA (lice)

THYSANOPTERA (thrips)

Entognatha Archaeognatha

Hexapoda Insecta

Pterygota ?

Neoptera

Holometabola

Apterygotes Paleoptera Hemimetabolous Holometabolous

Zygentoma = Thysanura Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea Orthoptera Phasmatodea Blattaria Isoptera Mantodea Psocoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Rhaphidioptera Megaloptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Strepsiptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera

Neoptera

?

Plecoptera Zoraptera Embiodea Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea Phasmida Orthoptera Mantodea Isoptera Blattaria Psocoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Rhaphidioptera Megaloptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Strepsiptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera

Polyneoptera

Paraneoptera

Neuropterida

Panorpida

General features of the Paraneoptera 1. Cerci are lost 2. Abdominal ganglia are fused into one large ganglion 3. Asymmetrical mandibles

HEMIPTEROID CLASSIFICATION

Mandibles present Lacinia - a rod

Parasitic

Free living

Sucking mouthparts

Phthiraptera - lice Psocoptera - book lice Thysanoptera - thrips

Right mandible lost Mandibles + lacinia = stylets

Both mandibles modified

Hemiptera- true bugs

Other Psocoptera – bark lice Psocoptera

Liposcelidae– book lice

Amblycera

Ischinocera

Phthiraptera – true lice

Rhynchophthirina Anopleura

Thysanoptera - thrips Sternorrhyncha Auchenorrhyncha Hemiptera detritus/microbial

Coleorrhyncha

Plants Parasites/blood Predatory

Heteroptera- true bugs

Hexapod Orders Psocoptera

Psoco - gnaw, ptera - wings

Number of Species

4400

Common names

Book lice, bark lice

Typical habitats

Distinguishing characteristics

Other features

leaf litter, under stones, under bark

-only modification of mouthparts -Lacinia is a rod

-eat any organic material -damage stored material - books, specimens

Psocoptera – Mouthparts

Cardo Stipes

Palp Lacinia

Galea

Psocoptera – Mouthparts

Cardo Stipes

Palp Lacinia

Galea

Sitophore Plate/Sclerite

Psocoptera - Bark Lice

Psocoptera - Damage

Hexapod Orders Phthiraptera

Phthir - louse, aptera - wingless

Number of Species

5,500

Common names

Lice

Typical habitats

Ectoparasites of birds and mammals

Distinguishing characteristics

Other features

-wingless -modified fore tarsi

Reduced sense organs -sucking & biting forms

Classification of lice Classification schemes have been:

1. 2.

Order - Mallophaga - biting and chewing lice Order - Siphunculata - sucking lice

1.

1.

Order - Phthiraptera 1. Suborder - Amblycera 2. Suborder - Ischnocera 3. Suborder - Anoplura 4. Suborder - Rhynchophthirina

Order - Phthiraptera 1. Suborder - Mallophaga 2. Suborder - Siphunculata

Classification of lice 1.

Order - Phthiraptera 1. Suborder - Amblycera 2. Suborder - Ischnocera 3. Suborder - Anoplura 4. Suborder - Rhynchophthirina

Amblycera Ischinocera Rhynchophthirina Anopleura

Phthiraptera – true lice

Classification of lice

Biting/chewing lice

Sucking lice

Elephant lice

Amblycera and Ischnocera

Anoplura

Rhychnophthirina

Life cycle of human head louse Female lays eggs for 16 days - dies Female lays eggs 2 days after mating

Larval louse hatches in 67 days

Mating

Adult Second instar (2 days) Fourth instar (10 days)

Third instar (5 days)

Host Specificity

Bird hosts Mammal hosts Rhynchophthirina

Ischnocera Amblycera

Among the more famous Anoplura

Phthirus pubis -crab lice

Among the more famous Anoplura

Head and body lice - Pediculus humanus

Lice Infestation

Hexapod Orders Thysanoptera

Thysano - fringed, ptera - wing

Number of Species

4500

Common names

Thrips

Typical habitats

Vegetation (flowers)

Distinguishing characteristics

-fringed wings - no right mandible

Other features

-haploid/diploid

Thysanoptera Mouthparts a. Labrum b. Mandible c. Food canal d. Maxilla e. Hypopharynx f. Salivary canal g. Labium

Thysanoptera - wings

Thysanoptera - Life cycle

Eggs laid on plants (2-4 days)

Adult

PLANT

30 – 45 days lays up to 450 eggs

2 larval instars (1-4 days)

Prepupa (1-2 days)

Pupa (1-3) days

SOIL

Thysanoptera - Plant Damage

Sociality among thrips

Solitary

Colonial

Subsocial

Eusocial

No interactions Share nest sites, communal foraging and egg guarding

Separate castes

Kladothrips

Sociality among thrips

Why? 1. Thrips aggregate in similar areas 2. Thrips have haploid-diploid sex determination - males are from unfertilized eggs (N) - females from fertilized eggs (2n)

Convergent evolution with Hymenoptera

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