HIS 31 Chapter 16 Power Point
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HIS 31 CHAPTER 16 POWER POINT
The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789-1815)
Tennis Court Oath - Delegates, who represented the Third Estate, proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of a representative government; delegates decided not to disband until they wrote a new constitution for France (June 1789) Bastille Day - July 14, 1789; Mob attacks and seizes the Bastille (French prison); they killed guards in an effort to steal gunpowder to defend Paris ; event known as “Storming the Bastille”; symbolic act of the revolution; national holiday Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen - Document stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”; guaranteed freedom of speech and religion; natural rights include liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression; some rights applied to women; supreme authority rests with nation as a whole, not the monarchy Civil Constitution of the Clergy – new French government made all members of clergy were required to take an oath of allegiance in order to perform their functions and receive their salaries; threatened the independence of the Catholic Church Sans-culottes – politically active working class during the French Revolution Jacobins – a radical political organization during the French Revolution; militant radicals gained strength throughout France (Danton and Marat) Committee of Public Safety – ruling committee of twelve leaders during the Reign of Terror; leader was Maximilien Robespierre; they tried and sentenced “enemies of the Revolution” to be executed by the guillotine
Levee en masses – the French republic called upon all men, women, and children to serve and protect the nation by performing various duties (soldiers, nurses) to protect the nation from external enemies
Thermidorian Reaction – on July 27, 1794 (9 Thermidor on the Revolutionary calendar), the National Convention overthrew Robespierre; he was executed by the guillotine Directory – the conservative government made up of 5 leaders during the last years of the French Revolution; they failed to restore peace; Napoleon Bonaparte saved them from an uprising and was hailed as a war hero Plebiscite – people could vote to accept or reject the new constitution proposed by Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleonic Code – Napoleon remade France’s legal, financial, and educational systems; this code enabled him to exact a stronger authoritarian rule; the code did embrace Enlightenment ideals and was accepted by many progressives, but it did restrict the rights of women by making them economically dependent on their husbands and prevented them from divorcing Continental System – Napoleon’s plan to destroy Britain’s commercial economy by preventing the importation of British goods into continental Europe by creating a blockade of naval ships
ANALYZING QUESTION 1 Analyze the roles of France’s aristocracy, bourgeoisie, peasantry, and urban workers in causing the French Revolution. Aristocracy (nobility) – they were the rivals of the Louis XVI and they refused to help the monarchy when France was in economic trouble; they wanted a greater share of power if they were going offer financial assistance and Louis did not want to relinquish his authority; the nobles used the economic crisis to assert their independence Bourgeoisie (middle class) – many administrators, lawyers, journalists, and intellectuals within this class were angry because they were successful but failed to gain the same level of prestige the nobility possessed; Enlightenment ideals spread among this literate social class; they eventually rebelled against the king because they believed he was a despot (tyrannical ruler) and questioned his traditional authority; they were disgruntled over taxes Peasantry and Urban Poor – in 1788, France suffered bad harvests and the price of bread soared and as a result, many peasants were starved; peasants came to the cities in search of jobs and food; agricultural depression even put artisans and laborers out of work; in 1789, peasants and urban poor committed acts of violence such as attacking bakeries in search of grain and flour Each of these classes associated France’s suffering and economic hardship with the Old Regime’s abuse of power and privileged status; there were rumors in July 1789 that the king was going to use troops to attack citizens as a result, on July 14, 1789, a riotous crowd attacked the Bastille prison in order to confiscate weapons and ammunition and release political prisoners
ANALYZING QUESTION 3 Why do you think the Revolution turned more radical, resulting in the establishment of a republic and leading to the Reign of Terror?
Rumors and panic spread throughout France Attacks by peasants took place all across France Peasants destroyed legal papers that bound them to feudal system In October 1789, Parisian women revolted over rising price of bread They demanded action and forced Louis to return from Versailles to Paris War broke out in 1792 and France was involved in European conflicts for over 20 years Louis XVI was executed in January 1793 Reign of Terror lasts from 1793 to 1794 Maximilien Robespierre—Jacobin leader rules France for a year in 1793; became leader of the Committee for Public Safety and a dictator; Committee imposed his “Reign of Terror” Thousands are executed during the Terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette 85 percent of those who die during the Terror are middle or lower class but no one was safe from the guillotine In July 1794, Robespierre was arrested and executed by his fellow revolutionaries
ANALYZING QUESTION 4 How do you explain Napoleon’s rise? Was his rise a logical consequence of revolutionary events? He was a military genius who seized power in France and made himself
emperor In 1795, Napoleon defeated royalist rebels attacking National Convention and was declared a military hero Napoleon won stunning victories in Italy which gained him popularity In November 1799, he carried out a coup d’état (seizure of power) and overthrows the Directory He took advantage of an unstable government and economy in order to secure his position of authority; the French people craved powerful, yet fair leadership
ANALYZING QUESTION 5 (Part 1)
Analyze Napoleon’s accomplishments. In 1800, a new constitution is approved through a plebiscite (vote of
the people) To fix economy, he sets up national banking system, efficient tax collection, and a fairer tax code Establishes government-run public schools to train officials Signs concordat—agreement—with pope restoring Catholicism in France Creates Napoleonic Code—uniform system of laws Napoleon did not expand freedom of speech for the French In December 1804, Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France Napoleon conquers a large portion of Europe by crushing enemy forces in several brilliant battles Napoleon forces Austria, Russia, Sweden to sign peace treaties
ANALYZING QUESTION 5 (Part 2)
Do you think Napoleon’s efforts to maintain power were worth the costs?
*NOTE – The following events demonstrate Napoleon’s defeats and failures. It is up to you to decide if his actions were worth the costs. In June 1812, Napoleon’s Grand Army marches into Russia with 420,000 men Czar Alexander I used a scorched-earth policy (destroying crops and livestock) so French would starve Russians retreat from Moscow after being defeated at Battle of Borodino Napoleon’s forces move on to Moscow; Alexander burned the city rather than surrender it to the French Napoleon eventually retreated after losing thousands of soldiers to Russian raiders, starvation, and cold weather Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, Austria join forces against Napoleon Napoleon raises another army, but meets quick defeat by allied powers April 1814 - Napoleon finally surrenders and is exiled to island of Elba Battle of Waterloo - British and Prussian forces led by the Duke of Wellington defeat Napoleon’s army in June 1815 This defeat ends the Hundred Days which was Napoleon’s last attempt at power British send Napoleon to the island of St. Helena where he eventually died in 1821