Homework - Chapter 10 Section 3 – AGS Textbook – The Manor
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Homework - Chapter 10 Section 3 – AGS Textbook – The Manor The whole feudal system was based on the control of land. A manor was that part of the fief that peasants farmed to support a lord's family. What Made the Manor Self-sufficient? A manor was self-sufficient because the people who lived on it grew, raised, or made nearly everything that they needed. They made clothing from the wool of the sheep they raised. They cut wood for building from the manor's forests. They grew or raised all the food that they ate. The blacksmith worked with iron to make tools and weapons. The lord of the manor bought only a few things-like salt and iron-from the outside world. Who Were Serfs? About 90 percent of the people who lived during the Middle Ages were peasants. A few peasants were free, but most were serfs. Serfs were not free, but they were not slaves either. No one could buy or sell them. But they had to stay on the manor on which they had been born. Serfs worked on the manor farms from early in the morning until late at night. They did the farm work, cut wood, and built fences. Women serfs worked in the fields, cooked, made clothing, and cared for the house. About 60 percent of what each serf raised went to the lord of the manor and to the church. What Improved Farming? During the Middle Ages, farming changed because of five inventions: the three-field system, the horseshoe, a better plow, the waterwheel, and the windmill. Under the three-field system, a lord left one-third of his fields unplanted each year. This allowed the soil to rest. Then the field produced more food when the serfs planted it a year later. Up to this time, people had used the slow moving ox to do heavy work. But with horseshoes, they could plow with the faster-moving horse. With a better plow, a tool used to dig up soil before planting seeds, serfs could farm the heavy soil of northern Europe. The newly invented waterwheel used the power of running water to make more power. With this new power, serfs could grind grain, like wheat, into flour. Windmills, invented in Holland around 1170, used wind power for the same purpose. How Did Better Farming Change the Population? Because of these new inventions, farmers began to grow their crops in better ways. This meant that they produced more food. More food meant that the population grew. In 300 years-from 1000 to l300the number of people living in Western Europe got three times as big. Because they had more food than they needed, some people had time to do other things. This led to a rebirth of learning. Why Did Nobles Build Castles? Many nobles lived in huge stone castles to protect themselves from their enemies. Most castles had high walls. A moat, or dug-out area filled with water, made a circle around the castle. To enter the castle, visitors crossed the moat by using a drawbridge. The people inside the castle lowered and raised it over the moat.
The nobles often built their castles on hilltops or by river bends. This made the castle easier to protect and defend. Some castles were big enough to include the noble's house and his household - all the people who lived and worked inside the castle. The fields and the homes of the serfs were outside the castle walls. In times of war, they moved inside the walls for protection. Inside the castle walls was a large open area called a courtyard. In good weather, the lord held his court there. The courtyard also contained many small buildings and sheds: the blacksmith's workshop; the bakery; the kitchen; the stable for the knight's horses; and rooms to store weapons and extra food. An attack against the castle could last many months. The lord of the manor had to store plenty of weapons and food. What Was Life Like in a Castle? Castles were dark, damp, and dull. Their tiny windows let in little light. Straw covered the floor of the dining area. The straw was usually dirty because the lord and his household threw garbage on the floor for the dogs to eat! The serfs cooked the food in the courtyard. It was often cold by the time the lord and his family ate it. But not everything was dull in a castle. During the long winter nights, the lord and his guests drank and sang. They played board games like chess and backgammon. In better weather, the nobles held tournaments, or contests between knights. In these tournaments, two knights in armor would joust. They would ride toward each other at full speed. Each would try to knock the other off his horse!
Homework - SECTION 3 REVIEW Choose the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence. 1) Most of the peasants were _____. a. slaves
2) Serfs gave ______ percent of what they raised to the lord of the manor and to the church. a. 30
3) Farming improved during the Middle Ages because of the invention of the _____. a. three-field system
d. all of the above
4) A ______, which was a dug-out area filled with water, made a circle around a castle. a. manor
5) Castles were _______. a. dark b. damp c. dull d. all of the above