How did the Spanish American War help the US become a world

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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Becoming a World Power United States Imperialism 1865 - 1920

Big Idea Embracing a foreign policy of imperialism enabled the U.S to become a World Power

What is the foreign policy spectrum? • The foreign policy spectrum is the range of foreign policy positions taken by the U.S. throughout our history – Isolationism: Strict non-involvement in the affairs of other nations (Loner) – Collective Security: Working with other countries to influence world affairs (Team Player) – Internationalism: Getting involved in foreign countries’ to promote important national interests and/or to safeguard national security (World Policeman) – Imperialism: Gaining power and or wealth by acquiring territory or taking advantage of weaker nations to gain power or wealth (World Bully) 3

What is the foreign policy spectrum?

Imperialism World Bully

Internationalism World Policeman

Collective Security Team Player

Isolationism loner

Foreign Policy Spectrum

Read the Foreign Policy Actions document in your packet and decide which policy or policies best fit each country and explain why. Iraq




Vietnam 4

What was the progression of U.S. foreign policy leading to the period of imperialism? • Isolationism – George Washington (1796 ) - In his farewell address to the nation he warns of us to not get involved with foreign nations for anything but trade

• Internationalism – Monroe Doctrine (1823) – President Monroe warns Europe that any attempt to take new colonies in the western hemisphere will be viewed as an act of war

• Imperialism – – – –

Early – Japan (1852), Hawaii (1893) & China (1899) Spanish American War (1896) - Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam & Cuba Panama (1903) Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) – expands the Monroe Doctrine by claiming U.S. rights to get involved in Latin America whenever it is in our interests 5

Why did the U.S. want to extend its influence to other parts of the world using imperialism? • Economic Interests: Economists believed that expansion would increase financial prosperity. – Many industrialists saw the new colonies as a potential source of cheap raw materials.

• Military Interests: By establishing a military presence overseas the U.S. could protect its trade in far away places. • Cultural Superiority: Many Americans believed that their government, religion, and race were superior to those of other countries. – Extension of Manifest Destiny – White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling (1899)


“The White Man’s Burden”: Kipling’s Hymn to U.S. Imperialism

• • • • • • • • • •

Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go send your sons to exile To serve your captives' need To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half devil and half child Take up the White Man’s burden In patience to abide

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple An hundred times made plain To seek another’s profit And work another’s gain Take up the White Man’s burden— And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better The hate of those ye guard— The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah slowly) to the light: "Why brought ye us from bondage, “Our loved Egyptian night?” Take up the White Man’s burdenHave done with childish daysThe lightly proffered laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!


What were the first examples of U.S. imperialism? • Japan – Commodore Matthew Perry - 1852 – Sails the U.S. fleet into Japan - against Japanese wishes opens Japan to American trade & investment – By 1880 Japan is a major naval & industrial power competing with Europe & the U.S. • We awakened the sleeping dragon!

• Samoa – annexed in 1899 after U.S., Germany & Great Britain make a deal without consulting the Samoans – Fueling and military purposes


What were the first examples of U.S. imperialism? • Hawaii – Queen Liliuokalani tried to limit the power of American sugar farmers’ in Hawaii because they dominated the economy. – When her attempt did not work the farmers remained concerned about the threats to their economic and political interests. – With the help of the U.S. military, the farmers overthrew the queen and asked to be annexed by the U.S. in 1893 - Annex means to attach or take – Hawaii was officially annexed by the U.S. in 1898 9

• In 1891, Queen Liliuokalani became the leader of Hawaii and attempted to restore the kingdom’s independence.


• President Cleveland was an anti-imperialist and refused to annex Hawaii. “His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated”

Uncle Sam and Pres. Cleveland are playing chess with pieces representing the U.S. senators and Queen Lili'uokalani .

Uncle Sam: "Grover this game has been too deep for you. Every move you've made has been a blunder, and now you've lost your 11 Black Queen and the game.”

• Hawaii was annexed in 1898 when President McKinley took office and became the fiftieth state in 1959. A woman (Hawaii) and Uncle Sam are getting married, kneeling before the minister (Pres. McKinley) who is reading from a book entitled "Annexation Policy". The bride seems ready to bolt. 12

What were the first examples of U.S. imperialism? • China – – Foreign countries wanted to exploit (take advantage of) China’s resources. – Japan and major European powers expanded their Spheres of Influence in China - areas where counties claimed special rights and economic privileges. – The U.S. was concerned that all of the competition between the Spheres was interrupting American trade in China – Open Door Policy - 1899 - U.S demands that no nation is allowed to control the trade markets in China • Many Chinese resented the foreign influence and disrespect toward the Chinese culture. • As a result a violent uprising known as the Boxer Rebellion killed many foreigners before it was put down by international force 13

How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power?

• Cuba – Cuba rebels against the oppressive Spanish rule – Cubans were not happy being a Spanish Colony • numerous rebellions took place in the 1800’s

– An economic depression angered them even more. – The rebellions were of great concern to the U.S. • Hurting our ability to trade with Cuba

– American newspapers felt a war in Cuba would help sell newspapers • Used Yellow Journalism (stories that distort, or exaggerate the news to attract readers) about Spanish cruelty in Cuba. 14

Yellow Journalism - Joseph Pulitzer’s World and William Randolph Hearst’s Journal competed to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish cruelty. (left) Joseph Pulitzer and (right) William Randolph Hearst


Example of Yellow Journalism:


· Political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty.


How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power? • How America gets involved – 1898 – President McKinley did not want war because he had seen the horrors of the Civil War – But public opinion stirred up by sensational newspaper reports (Yellow Journalism) forced McKinley to take action. – McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to protect U.S. citizens & demonstrate our power to Spain – A month later the Maine exploded and sunk killing all 260 American seamen – The U.S. blames Spain although no one knew the cause of the sinking - most historians now believe it was an accident – “Remember the Maine!” becomes a rallying call for war – McKinley officially calls for Cuba’s Independence & when Spain did not respond, the Spanish American War began.



How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power? • War in the Philippines – Although the stated purpose of the war was Cuban independence, the first major battle against Spain took place in a Spanish colony on the other side of the world called the Philippines – Before the war began, U.S. Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt put a fleet of American ships commanded by Admiral Dewey in Hong Kong on alert because the entire Spanish fleet was docked at Manila (capital of the Philippines). – When the war began Roosevelt sent Dewey and his fleet set off for Manila. The battle of Manila Bay lasted only 1 day and by noon, Dewey’s forces destroyed the entire Spanish fleet 20

How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power? – By August Filipino rebels aided by the United States military took control of the Philippines. – Filipinos thought that they had won their independence, but the U.S. claimed them as a colony (imperialism) • They fight on against the U.S. for 3 years until they finally surrender (more Americans die than in the actual war) • The U.S. calls a colony a territory (an area completely controlled by another country). • The Philippines remained a U.S. territory for 48 years 21

U.S. soldiers in a trench near Manila, the Philippines, during the Spanish – American War. (1898) 22

Spanish-American War (1898) The Philippines · Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish navy in the Philippines after only six hours of battle.

Commodore George Dewey (1837-1917)



How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power?

• War in Cuba – When the Spanish American War began only 28,000 men were in the U.S. Army. Within four months, more than 200,000 signed up. – Roosevelt organized the 1st ever Volunteer Cavalry called the Rough Riders. – This group headed for Cuba from Southern Florida to help fight the Spanish in Cuba. – The Rough Riders along with the Cuban rebels and the U.S. military drove the Spanish back and after only 4 months Spain was defeated. 25

How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power?

• Peace Agreement with Spain – Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam become U.S. colonies or territories • Puerto Rico and Guam are still territories

– In Cuba, the United States did not want to grant Cuba complete independence. • Cuba had to add the Platt Amendment to its constitution allowing the U.S. to go into Cuban anytime we felt there was a threat to life, property or individual liberty. • Cuba also had to allow a U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay (we are still there) 26

Rough Riders

Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop 27 San Juan Heights, 1898



How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power? "The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge

1. Cuba was given its independence, but U.S. had influence in the country. 2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. 30



How did the Spanish American War help the U.S. become a world power?

• Result of war = U.S. a World Power – Naval supremacy over Spain at Manila – Acquisition of colonies or territories – Economic and military dominance of other countries

• The Anti Imperialist League – Many Americans were against imperialism including Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, and Jane Addams joined to form the Anti Imperialist League. – These people believed taking colonies was antiAmerican • The U.S. should not deny people the right to govern themselves. 33

“School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto 34 Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there.

“The American Policy” Miss Columbia, teacher at the Liberty School, is ringing a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in hand, is dragging by the ear a Filipino boy in loincloth and amulet. Boys from Hawaii, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are standing around watching.


Ruling Cuba

Ruling Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines

The Teller Amendment gave Cuba their independence in 1899 at the conclusion of the Spanish – American 36 War.

How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish American War?

• The Panama Canal - U.S. leaders proposed a canal to connect the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean – U.S. ships would not have to go around South America to get from the East Coast to the West Coast – The best spot for the canal on the Isthmus (a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land) of Panama which was part of the Country of Colombia – Colombia would not sell the land to the U.S. for the canal. – President Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy to support a revolution in the Isthmus region of Colombia and in 1903 the new nation of Panama was created. 37

The Panama Canal


• Colombia refused to grant the U.S. permission to complete the canal project. • Therefore, the U.S. encouraged the people of the region to revolt against Colombia.


• On November 3, 1903, Panama declared their independence from Colombia and allowed the U.S. to build the canal.


How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish American War?

• U.S. builds the canal & connects the 2 oceans – Panama granted the U.S. rights to a ten mile wide strip of land called the Canal Zone • Panama received $10 million and an annual fee of 250,000 • Latin Americans and Europe opposed the move made by the U.S. & forced the U.S. to pay Colombia $25 million in 1921 for the loss of Panama • Despite Panamanian protests, the U.S. maintained control of the Canal Zone until 1979 – Many large ships could no longer fit through the canal so it was no longer essential to U.S. interests 41

How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish American War?

• Roosevelt’s Imperialist Foreign Policy • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine expands the Monroe Doctrine by claiming U.S. has the right to get involved in Latin America whenever it is in our interests • The U.S. made itself the Bully of the western hemisphere in order to insure stability and protect our business interests in the region – For example bananas, coffee, copper and sugar

• As a result of the Panama Canal incident and the Roosevelt Corollary, the U.S. is still distrusted and often disliked in Latin America 42


How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish American War? • Americans rarely questioned U.S. actions in Latin America -They felt that we were defending U.S. interests – A policeman

• Latin Americans saw the U.S. as only an imperial power looking out for their own best interests. – A bully.

• Long term effects of U.S. imperialism – The U.S. becomes a major world power – The U.S. gains access to trade and business opportunities throughout the world – The U.S. sets itself on a collision course with Japan that culminates in the bombing of Pearl Harbor & WW II – Many people in Latin America and elsewhere in the world mistrust the United States 44

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