January 14, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Urology
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Male sexual organ consisting of the root, shaft, and glans, also contains the urethra, through which urine is excreted.

Keeps testes cooler than the normal body temperature (to help make sperm)  When a man gets too hot, the testes fall away

from the body.  When a man gets too cold, the testes pull into the body.

The location where sperm are stored in the testes and where nutrients are provided to help the sperm develop.

Tip of the penis and is very sensitive.

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Parental choice. Called the foreskin, covering the head (Glans) of the penis. In circumcision, the foreskin is surgically removed, exposing the end of the penis.

The inside of a penis is filled with spaces and fill with blood during an erection  This is why the penis gets larger, and harder

during an erection.

The tube through which the bladder empties urine outside the body and through which the male ejaculate exists (Semen).

The ‘duct’ that transports sperm from the epididymis to the urethra

Prostate Gland:  Walnut sized gland surrounds a portion of the

urethra and produces some of the fluids in semen 

Seminal Vesicle:  Located at the base of the bladder, the 2 seminal

vesicles secrete a thick fluid that nourishes sperm 

Cowper’s Gland:  A pea-sized gland in the male located behind and

to the side of the urethra that discharges a component of seminal fluid into the urethra

STRUCTURE: Each of the ovaries contains hundreds of thousands of immature eggs (ova) from the time of birth (~40,000-400,000)

FUNCTION: Produce the two hormones; Estrogen and Progesterone. Holds the immature eggs until puberty. Then one egg matures each month and is released in a process known as OVULATION.

LOCATION: A few inches below the waist. One on each side of the body.

PROGESTERONE:  A hormone that signals the endometrium to

develop in preparation for a zygote (fertilized egg) 

ESTROGEN:  A hormone produced by the ovaries; levels in the

blood helps control the menstrual cycle.  Matures egg, builds up endometrium

LH  Makes ovulation occur

FSH  Choose an egg in ovaries  Helps with ovulation

STRUCTURE: Thin, soft tubes. The end that lies on the ovary has finger-like structures called FIMBRAE that help sweep the egg into the tube. Tiny cilia line the tube to move the egg along.

FUNCTION: Carry the released egg from the ovary to the uterus. If sperm are present, fertilization MUST occur in the tube!!

LOCATION: Begin at the ovaries and end at the uterus

STRUCTURE: AKA ‘The Womb’ A pear shaped hollow organ with very thick, muscular walls lined with ENDOMETRIUM (a rich supply of blood vessels). The base of the uterus is called the CERVIX. The cervix opening must expand dramatically during labor/birth.

FUNCTION: To nurture the developing embryo and fetus.The fertilized egg will implant in the endometrium and continue to develop in the uterus. If no egg implants, the lining is shed during MENSTRUATION.

LOCATION: At the top of the Vagina behind the bladder between the two ovaries.

STRUCTURE: A hollow, tunnel like structure,(~4.5 inches) very muscular passage that has the ability to expand dramatically during birth to allow baby to come through, and provides and exit for menstrual flow. Also, is coated with vaginal secretions that are slightly acidic to control infection.

FUNCTION: The“birth canal”, and a passage way for sperm and menstrual blood.

LOCATION: Leads from the base of the uterus (cervix) to the outside of the body.

Mouth of the uterus, through which the Vagina extends

Inner most layer of uterus and is loaded with blood vessels to provide nourishment necessary to sustain a developing fetus. Fertilized egg attaches and is nourished as it develops before birth.

MENARCHE:  The time when a female begins her first menstrual

cycle, usually 8 to 16 years old.  Blood is discharged (endometrium) from uterus through the vagina for several days.  Latin origin: Menstruation is mensis, meaning


Absence of menstruation in a woman who should be menstruating. bodybasics_female_repro.html

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Preparation for a healthy pregnancy begins far before conception. Concerns Before Pregnancy: Men as well as women’s health habits before conception are important Both should prepare healthy bodies; limit drinking, smoking, drugs of all sorts, increase exercise and eat a proper diet. Females- born with all eggs- release ONE every month starting at puberty Males- produce millions of SPERM everyday starting at puberty.

If a female and male have sex within several days of the female's ovulation (egg release), fertilization can occur.  YES, SEVERAL DAYS!!!

When the male ejaculates (which is when semen leaves a man's penis), between 0.05 and 0.2 fluid ounces (1.5 to 6.0 milliliters) of semen is deposited into the vagina.

Between 75 and 900 million sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they "swim" up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube.

It takes only ONE sperm to fertilize the egg.

About a week after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg (zygote) has become a multi-celled blastocyst

A blastocyst is about the size of a pinhead, and it's a hollow ball of cells with fluid inside. The blastocyst burrows itself into the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium.

The hormone estrogen causes the endometrium to become thick and rich with blood. Progesterone, another hormone released by the ovaries, keeps the endometrium thick with blood so that the blastocyst can attach to the uterus and absorb nutrients from it. This process is called implantation

Gestation- THE PERIOD FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH-about 38-42 weeks

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ZYGOTE-Fertilized Egg- 3 weeks -cell division -3 layers from different organ systems of the body Nervous system and skin -Muscles and internal organ systems -Glands and linings of the digestive, respiratory and urinary tract system form

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EMBRYO- 3rd week to 8th week -Number of cells double approximately every 24 hours - At 8 weeks embryo is a little more than an INCH long but already has complete CNS and digestive system, a beating heart, well defined fingers and toes, beginnings of facial features

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FETUS- 9 weeks until Birth -Gain weight and size during this time -Critical periods for each organ occur -If any organ is limited by some factor, that organ will be permanently damaged -During the critical period, the fetal brain increases by 100,000 cells a minute.

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PLACENTA:an organ that develops during pregnancy- permits the exchange of materials between maternal and fetal blood Has 2arteries and 1 vein No direct exchange of blood, only nutrients Fetal wastes are also carried away by the mother’s blood here

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UMBILICAL CORD- Rope-like structure through which the fetus’s veins and arteries extend to and from the placenta AMNIOTIC SAC- Bag of water in the uterus in which the fetus floats LIGHTENING: Sensation woman experiences when the fetus settles into the birth position

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1st Sexual intercourse or sperm come close to the vaginal opening 2nd OVULATION 3rd Sperm must meet egg 4th ONE sperm out of millions must penetrate the EGG 5th Once one sperm gets in, a protective coating surrounds egg and no other sperm can get in. 6th Genetic material of the 2 cells unite with in the fertilized egg 7th Must implant itself into the UTERINE WALLimplantation 8th Cell DIVISION- form a baby

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Signs One is Pregnant Missed Period- Not always an accurate measure Breasts become tender and swollen Nausea Can take a home Pregnancy Test Can take a blood or urine test at the doctor’s office

As cells from the blastocyst take in nourishment, the embryonic stage, begins.

The inner cells form a flattened circular shape called the embryonic disk, which will develop into a baby.

The outer cells become thin membranes that form around the baby. The cells multiply thousands of times and move to new positions to eventually become the embryo

After approximately 8 weeks, the embryo is about the size of an adult's thumb, but almost all of its parts — the brain and nerves, the heart and blood, the stomach and intestines, and the muscles and skin — have formed, complete CNS and digestive system, a beating heart, well defined fingers and toes, beginnings of facial features

Lasts from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change.

The fetus floats in amniotic fluid inside the amniotic sac.  The amniotic fluid and membrane cushion the fetus

against bumps and jolts to the mother's body.

The fetus receives oxygen and nourishment from the mother's blood via the placenta, a disk-like structure that sticks to the inner lining of the uterus and connects to the fetus via the umbilical cord

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Pregnancy lasts an average of 280 days — about 9 months. When the baby is ready for birth, its head presses on the cervix, which begins to relax and widen to get ready for the baby to pass into and through the vagina. The mucus that has formed a plug in the cervix loosens, and with amniotic fluid, comes out through the vagina when the mother's water breaks… YES, the Water does BREAK!

When the contractions of labor begin, the walls of the uterus contract as they are stimulated by the pituitary hormone oxytocin.

The contractions cause the cervix to widen and begin to open.

After several hours of this widening, the cervix is dilated (opened) enough for the baby to come through.

The baby is pushed out of the uterus, through the cervix, and along the birth canal.

The baby's head usually comes first; the umbilical cord comes out with the baby and is cut after the baby is delivered.

Stage one:  Dilation: cervix is opening  Contractions become harder and harder and

closer together  Crowning: Baby’s head is seen  Episiotomies: surgical cut made in the vagina to help so the vagina does not rip  Cesarean Section: Surgical birth, in which the infant is take through a cut in the women’s abdomen

Stage Two:  Baby is born

Stage Three:  Afterbirth is delivered, placenta and membranes

are expelled

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Constipation Shortness of breath Frequent urination Backaches Morning sickness

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Nutrition during pregnancy is important: Gain 25-35 pounds 7 ½ lb infant at birth= Average 1lb-placenta 4lbs mother’s added blood 4lbs Mother’s added fluid 2 ½ lbs Growth of Uterus 3lbs Growth of breasts 2lbs fluid surrounding infant 7lbs Mother’s fat stores -Pregnant for 38-42weeks. When it becomes too cramped for the fetus- Labor Begins….

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