IB Paper 1 Arab Israeli Conflict.

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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IB Paper 1 Arab Israeli Conflict.

Arab Nationalism

• Represented a revival of old traditions and loyalties • Glories of Islamic civilization were renamed Glories of Arab Civilization • Language and literature becoming more important • Concept of Arab Nationalism became widespread throughout the “Arab World” • Propaganda pushed in newly formed Arab nations • Arabs trying to define political identity • Questioned political status and desired to change it

Zionism • movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and creation of an Independent Israel • Origins started in the late 1800’s – Zionist groups formed in Major nations like the US and England advocating their government s to support a Jewish homeland

WWI • In the 1900 the Arab peninsula was under the control of the Ottoman Turks • WWI 1914-1918 allows Arab tribes to fight against the Turks – Arabs fought on the side of the Allies

• Arabs-Hoped to be freed from Turkish control and gain independence – TE Lawrence went to speak to Arab tribes to gain their support for WWI

• FR and GB planned on taking Arab states as colonies

Balfour Declarations • Nov 1917- a resolution named after British Foreign sec calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine • Caused anger amongst Arab community- believed Palestine would be a free Arab State – Why declaration was made • 1. hoped influence US Jewish business men in supporting war • 2. Hoped Jewish Russian population continue to support Russian involvement • 3. Influence of British Zionist

British Mandate

• UK had control of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and its Oil Field(could not release it) • L of N created a Mandate in 1920 at San Remo Conference – FR-Syria and Lebanon – UK- Iraq and Palestine • No official Jewish state is established • NO Independent Palestine

British rule Palestine 1922-1939 • Tension grew Jews, Arabs, British – 1939, 500 Jews killed, 3000 Arabs CAUSE OF TENSION – Jewish immigration increased in Palestine – No Free Palestine or Jewish states – Balfour Dec

• By the 1939 Creation of a single state in Palestine proposed “White Paper Recommendations” – Both Jews and Arabs Rejected

WWII and the Holocaust

• By 1940 Jews made 30% Palestinian populations – Hitler's actions increased immigration

• After WWII world found out about the Holocaust death 6 million Jews – Public sentiment swayed to the need for Jewish Home – Some Arabs leaders continued to fight the British others even supported Germany against the Jews – Jewish had upper hand in negations

Ending the British Mandate 1945-1948 After WWII Britain could not control Palestine preparing to hand mandate to UN – Jewish group became more militant(United Resistance) attacked British troops

Attack on King David Hotel Jerusalem7/22/46 • headquarter for British actions against Zionist • Bomb was placed killing 92 (Irgunmilitant Jewish group) • Zionist pay back for attacking their extremist leaders Results • Condemned by All • Jewish Agency Leaders decided to end armed struggle vs British • British handed mandate to the United Nations • UN would take control Palestine by 1947

Un partition of Palestine UN create UNSCOP 1947 – Tour Palestine to make a decision • Jewish- worked with UN • Arabs-refused to cooperate

• UN needed 2/3 vote in General Assembly • By 11/29/1947 UN voted to partition – US , USSR most other nations agreed, While Arabs and UK did not agree – Palestinians and Arabs very upset at the amount of land Jews received being a minority – Jerusalem be international Zone

Creation of Israel

• Partition left tensions • Israel not a state & Arabs were Angry • War was expected – Arab League declare Jihad on Jews attacking Jewish settlements – Jewish Agency had upper hand many ex WWII vets in their ranks – Atrocities committed by both sides after partition

• May 14 1948 the State if Israel is Declared – Chaim Weizmann pres- David Ben Guirion PM – The US recognized Israel – Arab nations Invade

First Arab –Israeli War 1948 • May 14 1948 • 1,000 Leb, 5,000 Syr, 5,000 Iraqi, 10,000 Egypt, and 4,000 Jordan troops invaded • Goal to crush new state

Israeli Defence Force (IDF)

• Ben Gurion -Israel needed to concentrate its soldiers. • All armed units were combined into one force, the IDF. • Arab forces were under separate control • IDF relied experience from WWII and Working with the British • Equipment was scarce and old Initial goal was defensive

Troop Numbers in 1948 IDF • • • • • • • •

Initially: 29,677 June 4: 40,825 July 17: 63,586 October 7 : 88,033 October 28: 92,275 December 2: 106,900 December 23: 107,652 December 30: 108,300

Arab Forces

• July: 40,000 • October: 55,000

• January: 60,000

Aerial Combat • First few weeks, light Israeli planes were no match for advanced Arab fighters • Later, Israel Air Force acquired ex-Nazi planes • IDF dominated the skies by fall 1948.

Ground Fighting • IDF initially protect settlements until reinforcements arrived • Heaviest fighting between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, Jordan's Arab Legion and IDF

Israeli Operations • Oct. 15: Operation Yaov: wedge between Egyptian coastal forces and BeershebaHebron-Jerusalem, shatters Egyptian forces • Oct. 24: Operation Hiram: captured Galilee, pushed Lebanon back behind its own borders • Dec. 22: Operation Horev drove back all remaining Egyptian forces

Results • In 1949, Israel signed separate armistices with Egypt on 24 February, Lebanon on 23 March, Jordan on 3 April, and Syria on 20 July. • Only the Jordanians and the Egyptians made any real gains. The Jordanians acquired East Jerusalem and the West Bank. The Egyptians gained a strip of coast-line called the Gaza Strip. • 1949 the United Nations declared a cease-fire on the ‘Green Line’. • Israel had expanded by another 25%! • Both Jews and Arabs displaced, but Jews managed to return.

UN Resolution 194

• "refugees wishing to return to their Israel homes and live in peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so" • United Nations Truce Supervision Organization to monitor ceasefire • Arguing point to Gaza Strip-Egyptian place Palestinian refugees back in their homeland


Diaspora “The Displacement”

• Term used to describe the Palestinians living outside historic Palestine’s boundaries • Est. population of Palestine roughly 14 million were removed from palestine after Israeli Independence • Surrounding Arab Nations – – – – –

3.7 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip Jordan: 2.7 million Israel: 575,000 Syria: 500,000 Lebanon

Refugee situation • 1948 85% of the Palestinian Arab population left their homes • Citizenship in many host nations was denied • Many refugee camps were set up after each major war • Arabs and Their descendents still claim title to land in Israeli • United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) – Created and runs many of the refugee camps

Suez Canal

• Canal has huge strategic importance – Shortest oceanic link between Mediterranean Sea – Used primarily for trading, heavily used by European Nations

• 1875 – Egyptian ruler forced to sell 44% of shares UK took over Egypt, thus controlling all operations and profits • 1954- Suez canal stayed under British and French control – But UK removed military forces 1954

1952 Gamal Abdul Nasser Power

• Naser was Arab Nationalist-Wanted rid Arab World of Euro influence

Suez Crisis

• Nasser began to accept aid from the USSR – Because of this did not get money for Aswan Dam

• Nasser Announces Nationalization of Suez Canal(Egypt take control of the Canal) – Partially to pay for the Aswan Dam

• British and French furious- fear losing control of canal and all supplies (oil) • French angry that Egypt supporting Algerian independence fighters in N Africa • Oct. 29, 1956 –Israeli attacked Egypt spurred by the UK and FR

Suez Canal War/2nd Arab Israeli war 1956 • War lasted only a week • UK and France attacked by air strikes • Israeli military victory Israel captured most Sinai Peninsula and Gaza • FR & UK troops took most canal zone • Nov 6th cease fire called

Results of the War

• UK and FR were denounced for their actions – Their failure to take the entire canal pushed for other colonies to demand independence – Forced to return Canal to Egypt


Israel showed military supremacy over Arabs – – – –

captured Gaza and most of Sinai At the cease fire this land was returned gained open access to t straights of Tiran Gain US Support

Egypt – Beaten militarily but retained the canal an invading forces left – Nasser emerged as leader of the Arab Resistance to Israel

• 1967 Tension between Arab states

Six Day War 1967

– Israel shot down Syrian MIG jet uniting Arabs once again against Israel – USSR gave Arabs false info – Nasser wanted all UN forces out of Egypt – Israel felt this to be a threat and decided to attack before Arab forces increased(pre-emptive Strike) First Target was Egypt starting the 6 day war

The Initial Strike Of the Six Day War • 6/5/67 in I day Israel destroyed air force of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq – This plan had been set years before by Yitzhak Rabin – Israeli knew Arab forces were equal prior to the attack • Devastated Arab forces led to a quick victory

Israeli Gains in the 6 Day War • Attacked east against Jordan – Attacked South defeated Egypt taking Sinai – Took Jerusalem and entire West Bank – Attacked North Hit Syria took Golan Heights – Cease fire called June 10 1967 – Israel tripled its size

Long Term affects

• Arab leaders were humiliated • King Hussein Egypt-Nasser diminished power • Disunity in Pan Arab Movement • More Palestinians were displaced • Confirmations of Israel as major US Ally in the Mid East

Yom Kippur War 1973 (Ramadan War or October War) • 1970 Anwar Sadat took power in Egypt • Goal in another war to make some type of resolution over land disputes – War would pus UN, USA, USSR to create a land resolution – Goal to regain the Sinai

The War • Oct 6th 1973 Egypt and Syria attack Israel by air • Syria- sent land troops to Golan Heights • Egypt land troops past the Suez in to Sinai • Attack on the Jewish Holiday of Yom Kippur • Arabs had initial success pushing Israeli back • But Israeli forces stopped Arab attack and regain Sinai and Golan Heights.

Diplomatic Talks during YK W

• USA feared Arab Nations would embargo oil • USSR threatened to intervene on the side of the Arabs • Sec State Henry Kissinger (under Nixon) – Settled an Armistice October 27 1973

The Results of the War Israel-Military victory but not invincible

– Caused resignation of Prime Minister Golda Meir a year later

• Egypt-Sadat came out a hero standing up to Israel – Gained worlds attention to issues in the Middle east – Arab nations gained more power on the negotiating table – Little territorial Gains

Need for a True Resolution • Sadat started to move towards US and Euro Allies – Primary goal protect his nation(Egypt)

• 1977 Visited Israel to try to ease tensions goal of peace

Camp David Accords

– 18 months of intense diplomatic efforts by Egypt, Israel, and US – US pres Jimmy Carter invited both leaders to Camp David (US) peace talks – Sept 5th 1978 Meeting between Carter, Begin (IS), Sadat (EG) in Camp David 12 days of negotiations • The Demands – Israel- wanted to put settlements on territories – Egypt-wanted return of Sinai and borders set before 1967 UN resolutions 242, 336

The Outcome • 1. “Create a framework for Peace in the Middle East” – deal with Gaza and West Bank – Plan a solution to the Palestinian issue

• 2. Frame Work for a Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt – Israel leave Sinai return it to Egypt • For Israel peace with greatest southern Threat

– Egypt would recognize Israel as a state – Formal Peace Treaty signed in March

Reaction to the Accords

• There were still many issues between Arabs and Israelis • Israel continued to build settlements on Palestinians land • No clear answer towards a creation of a free Palestine • Egypt and Sadat was seen to betraying Arabs – Because of this in 1980 militants groups organized the assassination of Sadat during a military – Egypt removed from the Arab League

• The Accords only created peace between Israeli and Egyptian Gov.

Palestinian Liberation Organization (P.L.O.) • believed only Palestinian Arabs should have nation in Palestine. Founded 1964 • P.L.O. leader Yasir Arafat led terrorist attacks vs. Israel starting in 1960s. • failure to achieve self-rule P.L.O. supporters living in Israel began militant movement in1980sknown as the intifada. • A second intifada started in 2000.

Palestinian Extremist Terror Tactics against Jews • 1970Hijacked 5 airlines 3 were blown up (with all passengers off) associated group – Group Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – Wanted political Palestinian prisoners released

• Munich 1972 – Terrorist Group Black September infiltrated Olympics killing 11 Israeli athletes

PLO Recognition 1974 • The PLO was recognized at the official representative of the Palestinian People 1974 by Arab league • Yasser Arafat went before UN Grants PLO Observer status in the UN. – They can participate but can not vote in General Assembly

Israel & the P.L.O. reached an agreement • autonomy for Palestinian Authority (led by Arafat) in return P.L.O. official recognition of the state of Israel. • little progress since then in creation of fully independent Palestinian state. • Jewish extremists don’t want to give up any territories & Palestinian extremists will not accept state of Israel at all.

Lebanon Invasion • June 6, 1982 – Israeli forces fight their way to Beirut

• Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Leader Yassir Arafat and his forces trapped • Israel claimed to have no intention to control any part of Lebanese territory – Really wanted to wipe out PLO and establish pro-Israeli government in Lebanon

Lebanon Continued

• June 10, 1962 – Israel gains control of the BeirutDamuscus highway • Cut off supply of good and humanitarian supplies to West Beirut • Israel demanded PLO to surrender and leave Lebanon • Minimal amounts of food and supplies allowing into the city • Late August – PLO finally agrees to leave West Beirut • Aug. 21 – Sept. 1 • 11,000 PLO guerillas leave for Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Jordan, and Algeria • Evacuation supervised by U.S. Marines and Coalition forces


• Basir Gemayel elected new Palestinian President – Phalangist Party Leader

• Hated by Palestinians • Assassinated in bomb blast 11 days after election • Phalangist Party kills over 600 Palestinians in retaliation • 8 years of war • 75,000 Lebanese killed • 140,000 wounded • Est. cost to rebuild: $18 mil

First Gulf War • Iraq virtually bankrupt, owing massive amounts to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait • Additional tensions with Kuwait existed since 1934, when Kuwait was granted independence by the British • Shortly after conflict began, several Western hostages were denied exit visas “ We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long. Your presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of war.” -Saddam Hussein

First Gulf War Continued

• UN Resolution 660

– Condemned Iraq's’ actions – Demanded removal of forces

• UN Resolution 665 – authorized a naval blockade to enforce the economic sanctions – Operation Desert Shield. In an assurance to the Saudi’s against attack by Iraq, – the U.S was asked to intervene, on a purely defensive campaign.

• “Highway of Death” • Retreating Iraqi military personnel were attacked on Highway 80 by American air craft and ground forces on the night of February 26–27, 1991, resulting in the destruction of some 2,0002,500 vehicles and their occupants.

Second Gulf war • Second Gulf War Iraq War • March 20th, 2003- 2012 • Why? • US UK and Spain said Iraq had WMDs • US said Saddam Hussein helped Al-Queda • 9/11 – “War on Terrorism”

• Wanted to spread democracy • Government was abusing human rights • The UN prohibited Iraq from producing WMDs and to submit to UN inspections • Bush said they were making them, after the UN inspections found nothing he said they must have stopped production

Afghanistan • • • •

2001 Soviet war in Afghanistan December 1979- February 1989 Islamic people against the Soviet set-up communistic regime – US supported

• Many other countries did not like what they were “attempting” to do • Many Soviets didn’t like it either • • • •

Why did US go into Afghanistan? Find Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda(killed 2011) Destroy al-Qaeda Remove Taliban regime

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