Industrial Revolution

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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The Beginnings of Industrialization I can explain how the industrial age began in Great Britain and describe the key inventions that made it possible.

Unit 7: The Industrial Revolution (1700 – 1900)

The Beginnings of Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution started in England, and soon spread to other countries.

Agricultural Revolution • Enclosures- large farms that were enclosed by fences or hedges. – The wealthy land owners would buy up all the land, and force the small scale farmers to become their tenants (renters who paid to farm the land).

• Allowed for experimentation in farming in the areas of seeding and harvesting crops.

Enclosures in England

• Crop Rotation- became a popular method used by farmers and replaced the 3 field system. • Livestock like Robert Blakewell (sheep went from 18 to 50 lbs. avg.)breeders started breeding only the best of their herds. • Farming methods were changing, because of new inventions. • In 1701, Jethro Tull, invented the seed drill- device which allowed farmers to sow their seeds with precision in well spaced rows.

Why Did Industrialization Begin in England?

• Industrialization- move to machine production of goods instead of by hand. • Natural Resources: Why are these important? – Coal – Iron – Rivers – Harbors

• Expanding economy, thanks to new technology, farming, and a banking system that gave loans for investment. • All the factors of production: land, labor, capital were available in England and they were stable.

Inventions Spur Industrialization • Clothing industry (Textiles) was the first to be transformed. • One invention lead to another. • John Kay- invented the flying shuttle in 1733 – output doubled. • In 1764, a textile worker named James Hargreaves invented the spinning wheel called the “Spinning Jenny.” 1 spinner could work 8 threads at a time.

• In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame. It used water from streams as power • In 1779, Samuel Crompton, combined the spinning wheel, and the water frame to create the spinning mule. • In 1787, Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, and this greatly sped up the process of weaving. • The invention of these huge machines lead to factories.

Spinning mule

Cotton • Most of England’s cotton came from plantations in the American South. • In 1793, an American inventor named Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin to speed up removing seeds from raw cotton. • Cotton production in the U.S. went from 1.5 M lbs. (1790) to 85 M lbs. (1810)

Improvements in Transportation • Steam powered pumps were used as early as 1705 in the mining industry. • James Watt found a way to make a better steam engine in Scotland in 1765. • In 1774 Watt teamed up with Matthew Boulton who was an entrepreneur. • Entrepreneur- a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of business.

Water Transportation • Steam could propel boats. • Robert Fulton, an American inventor ordered a steam engine from Boulton and Watt. • 1807 – Clermont – the first steam boat; ran as a ferry on NY’s Hudson River • Canals were created in England for the use of water transportation.

Road Transportation • John McAdam improved England’s roads which had deteriorated since Roman times. • “Macadam Rds.” used large stones for drainage topped with crushed gravel. • Turnpikes or “toll” roads became more popular. • People were starting to travel much more which lead to railways & locomotives.

The Railway Age Begins • After the 1820s, the steam powered locomotive was the driving force behind industry in England. • 1804-Richard Trevithick hauled ten tons of iron over ten miles of track on $1,000 bet. • George Stephenson- built the first railroad in 1821-1825; 27 miles long from the Yorkshire coal fields to Stockton on the North Sea. It used 4 engines that he personally built.

The Rocket • LiverpoolManchester RR opened in 1830 • Stephenson’s “Rocket” was chosen as the best to use on the line • It hauled a 13-ton load at 24 MPH!

Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain • 4 Major Effects on Life in Britain: – Spurred Industrial Growth – Hundreds of thousands of new jobs – Boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries – People in the country started taking city jobs and tourism improved because travel was much easier

Exit Slip – Beginnings of Industrialization 1. The industrial age began in __________. 2. The ________ industry was the first to be technologically transformed by new inventions like the flying shuttle and power loom. 3. By the early 1800s, both transportation by water and over land were transformed by _________ power. 4. What was George Stephenson’s “Rocket?”

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