Industrial Revolution

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Chapter 11: Industry The Cultural Landscape:

An Introduction to Human Geography

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Where is Industry Distributed?  Origin of industry  From cottage industries to the Industrial Revolution  Impact of the Industrial Revolution especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing

Industrial Revolution: Series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Cottage Industries: Manufacturing based in home

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Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution

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Where is Industry Distributed? Industrial regions Europe  Emerged in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

North America  Industry arrived later but spread faster than in Europe

East Asia  Japan (1950-60s): initially by producing goods that could be sold in large quantity at cut-rate prices to consumers in other countries.  China: has become the 2nd largest manufacturer measured in output and has the largest labor force employed in manufacturing. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Industrial Regions

VALUE ADDED: The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy. Figure 11-3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Industrial Areas in Europe

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Industrial Areas in North America

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Why Are Situation Factors Important? Proximity to inputs Bulk-reducing industries (weight-losing) DEF: An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs Examples:  Copper  Steel

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Why Are Situation Factors Important? Proximity to markets  Bulk-gaining industries (weight-gaining)  DEF: An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs  Examples:  Fabricated metals  Beverage production

 Single-market manufacturers: make products sold in on location. i.e. car part factory near automobile manufacturer.  Perishable products: must be located near their markets so their products can reach consumers as rapidly as possible. i.e. bakers, milk bottlers. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Are Situation Factors Important? Break-of-Bulk Points  DEF: A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.

Ship, rail, truck, or air?  The farther something is transported, the lower you want the cost per km/mile  Cost decreases at different rates for each of the four modes  Truck = most often for short-distance travel  Train = used to ship longer distances (1 day +)  Ship = slow, but very low cost per km/mile  Air = most expensive, but very fast © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Time to Chew

10 & 2

With your teammate: Take two minutes to discuss what we have covered and come up with any questions.

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Weber’s Least Cost Theory  Alfred Weber (1868-1958) formulated a theory of industrial location in which an industry is located where it can minimize its costs, and therefore maximize its profits. Weber’s least cost theory accounted for the location of a manufacturing plant in terms of the owner’s desire to minimize THREE categories of cost:

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Weber’s Least Cost Theory  Figures 1-3 show the weight-losing (bulk-reducing) case, in which the weight of the final product is less than the weight of the raw material going into making the product. In Figure 1, the processing plant is located somewhere between the source and the market. The increase in transport cost to the left of the processing plant is the cost of transporting the raw material from its source. The rise in the transportation cost to the right of the processing plant is the cost of transporting the final product. Note the line on the left of the processing plant has a steeper slope than the one on the right.

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Weber’s Least Cost Theory  The weight gaining (bulk-gaining) case is illustrated in Figures 4- 6, where the final product is heavier than the raw materials that require transport. Usually this is a case of some ubiquitous (available everywhere) raw material such as water being incorporated into the product. The optimal location of the processing plant in this case is at the market. Weber established that firms producing goods less bulky than the raw materials used in their production would settle near to the raw-material source. Firms producing heavier goods would settle near their market. The firm minimizes the weight it has to transport and, thus, its transport costs.

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Why Are Site Factors Important? Labor  The most important SITE factor  Labor-intensive industries  DEF: An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.  Examples: textiles  Textile and apparel spinning  Textile and apparel weaving  Textile and apparel assembly

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Cotton Yarn Production

Figure 11-16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Woven Cotton Fabric Production

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Production of Women’s Blouses

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Why Are Site Factors Important? Land  Rural sites: why?  Environmental factors: what?

Capital:  Manufacturers typically borrow funds to establish new factories or expand existing ones.  MDC vs. LDC advantages?  Rostow’s Model…?

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Why Are Location Factors Changing? Attraction of new industrial regions  Changing industrial distribution within MDCs  Interregional shift within the United States  Right-to-work laws: Some US states have passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.  Southern states have seen a huge shift in industries from the North due to lower costs of labor and land.  Textile production: Moved from the Northeast to the Southeast (mid-1900s)

 Interregional shifts in Europe  Convergence shifts: Primarily Eastern and Southern Europe, where incomes lag behind Europe’s average. Cheap labor.  Competitive and employment regions: Primarily Western Europe’s traditional core industrial areas, which have experienced substantial manufacturing job losses in recent years. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing U.S. Manufacturing

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Manufacturers of Men’s and Women’s Socks and Hosiery

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European Union Structural Funds The term "convergence regions" steams from the European Union's Regional Policy. Structural Funds are the main instruments for supporting social and economic restructuring across the EU tackling regional disparities and supporting regional development. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Are Location Factors Changing?  Attraction of new industrial regions  International shifts in industry (Wallerstein’s New International Division of Labor): transfer of some types of jobs, those requiring less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.  MDCs to LDCs  East Asia  South Asia  Latin America  Maquiladoras: Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.  Outsourcing: A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.

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World Steel Production

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Global Production

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Apparel Production and Jobs in the United States

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Why Are Location Factors Changing? Renewed attraction of traditional industrial regions Proximity to skilled labor  Fordist, or mass production: Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.  Post-Fordist, or lean production: Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.  Just-in-time delivery: (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just-in-time production method is also called the Toyota Production System. It is the shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electronic Computing Manufacturing

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Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing

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The End.

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