Industrial Revolution-complete power-point - Bishop McGann

May 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Industrial Revolution in England 1

Britain: Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution •

Before the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural communities where their daily existences revolved around farming. Life for the average person was difficult, as incomes were lean, and food shortage and disease were common. People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines.

A number of factors contributed to Britain’s role as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. For one, it had great deposits of coal and iron, which proved essential for industrialization. Additionally, Britain was a politically stable society, as well as the world’s leading colonial power, which meant its colonies could serve as a source for raw materials, as well as a marketplace for manufactured goods. 2

Innovation and Industrialization •

The textile industry, in particular, was transformed by industrialization. Before mechanization and factories, textiles were made mainly in people’s homes, with merchants often providing the raw materials and basic equipment, and then picking up the finished product. Workers set their own schedules under this system, which proved difficult for merchants to regulate and resulted in numerous inefficiencies. In the 1700's, a series of innovations led to ever-increasing productivity, while requiring less human energy. For example, around 1764, Englishman James Hargreaves (1722-1778) invented the spinning engine, a machine that enabled an individual to produce multiple spools of threads simultaneously. By the time of Hargreaves’ death, there were over 20,000 spinning engines in use across Britain. The spinning engine was improved upon by British inventor Samuel Compton’s (1753-1827) spinning mule, as well as later machines. Another key innovation in textiles, the power loom, which mechanized the process of weaving cloth, was developed in the 1780s by English inventor Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823). 3

Developments in the iron industry also played a central role in the Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century, Englishman Abraham Darby (1678-1717) discovered a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a cokefueled furnace. In the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) developed the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel. Both iron and steel became essential materials, used to make everything from appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and infrastructure.

The steam engine was also integral to industrialization. In 1712, Englishman Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) developed the first practical steam engine (which was used primarily to pump water out of mines). By the 1770s, Scottish inventor James Watt (1736-1819) had improved on Newcomen’s work, and the steam engine went on to power machinery, locomotives and ships during the Industrial Revolution. 4

Transportation and the Industrial Revolution •

The transportation industry also underwent significant transformation during the Industrial Revolution. Before the advent of the steam engine, raw materials and finished goods were hauled and distributed via horse-drawn wagons, and by boats along canals and rivers. In the early 1800s, American Robert Fulton (1765-1815) built the first commercially successful steamboat, and by the mid-19th century, steamships were carrying freight across the Atlantic.

As steam-powered ships were making their debut, the steam locomotive was also coming into use. In the early 1800s, British engineer Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) constructed the first railway steam locomotive. In 1830, England’s Liverpool and Manchester Railway became the first to offer regular, timetabled passenger services. By 1850, Britain had more than 6,000 miles of railroad track. Additionally, around 1820, Scottish engineer John McAdam (1756-1836) developed a new process for road construction. His technique, which became known as macadam, resulted in roads that were smoother, more durable and less muddy. 5

Communication and Banking in the Industrial Revolution •

Communication became easier during the Industrial Revolution with such inventions as the telegraph. In 1837, two Brits, William Cooke (1806-1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), patented the first commercial electrical telegraph. By 1840, railways were a CookeWheatstone system, and in 1866, a telegraph cable was successfully laid across the Atlantic.

The Industrial Revolution also saw the rise of banks and industrial financiers, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s; the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s.

In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790), who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published “The Wealth of Nations.” In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government. 6

Quality of Life during Industrialization •

The Industrial Revolution brought about a greater volume and variety of factoryproduced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who labored in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and dull. Unskilled workers had little job security and were easily replaceable. Children were part of the labor force and often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery. In the early 1860s, an estimated one-fifth of the workers in Britain’s textile industry were younger than 15. Industrialization also meant that some craftspeople were replaced by machines.

Additionally, urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep pace with the flow of arriving workers from the countryside, resulting in inadequate, overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary living conditions in which disease was rampant. Conditions for Britain’s working-class began to gradually improve by the later part of the 19th century, as the government instituted various labor reforms and workers gained the right to form trade unions. 7

Social Changes of Industrialization •

Before the Industrial Revolution

Agricultural work on farms and in homes predominated; cottage industry took place in homes

Most people lived in rural areas

Single works or families produced and entire product

During and After the Industrial Revolution

Manufacturing predominated, with workers placed in factories; cottage industry declined or disappeared

Workers migrated to work in city favorites, causing explosive growth, overcrowding, and filthy conditions

Factories practiced division of labor. Each worker performed one task in the production process. These tasks were often repetitive and boring.

Factory work required long hours under harsh working conditions.

Child labor occurred on a large scale. Women and children were usually paid lower 8 wages.

Important People during the Revolution •

George Stephenson: first steam powered locomotive

Richard Arkwright: invented the water frame

Jethro Tull: invented the seed drill

Abraham Darby: used coal to melt iron from it's ore

Thomas Newcomen: invented steam engine that used coal

Lord Charles Townshend: urged farmers to grow turnips, which restored exhausted soil

James Watt: improved Thomas Newcomen invention of the steam engine 9

John Kay: invented the flying shuttle

James Hargreaves: invented the spinning jenny

Robert Fulton: American who invented the steam boat using Watt's steam engine

John Wesley: founder of the Methodist Church in the mid-1700's

Ned Ludd: mystical figure who supposedly destroyed machines in the 1780's

Robert Owen: helped lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories

Karl Marx: wrote "The Communist Manifesto" put forward the idea of scientific socialism based on scientific study of history 10

John Stuart Mill: argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain

David Ricardo: agreed that the poor had too many children, and he didn't believe that the working class could escape poverty

Thomas Malthus: predicted that the population would out place the food supply, ad he urged families to have fewer children

Adam Smith: wrote "The Wealth of Nations", believed in Laissez-Faire, and that free market would help everyone

William Cockerill: 1807 opened factories in Belgium to manufacture spinning and weaving machines

Robert Fulton: inventor who powered his steamboat with one of James Watt's engines

Henry Bessemer: 1856, British engineer who developed a process to purify iron ore and producer steel 11

Alfred Nobel: invented dynamite in 1866

Alessandro Volta: scientist who developed the first battery

Michael Faraday: created the first simple electric motor

Thomas Edison: American inventor who made the first lightbulb

Gottlieb Daimler: German who introduced the first four wheeled automobile

Karl Benz: 1886, German who received a patent for the first automobile with three wheels

Nikolaus Otto: German engineer, invented a gasoline internal combustion engine 12

Henry Ford: started making cars that went 25mph, and started using assembly line to mass produce cars

The Wright Bothers: designed and flew the first airplane

Samuel F. B. Morse: invented the first telegraph, first line went from Baltimore to Washington D. C

Alexander Graham Bell: inventor who patented the telephone

Guglielmo Marconi: invented the radio

Alfred Krupp: created monopoly with Germany by buying coal and iron mines and shipping lines that fed steal business

John D Rockefeller: built standard oil company of Ohio 13

Louis Pasteur: showed the link between microbes and disease, developed vaccines against rabies/anthrax, and discovered pasteurization

Georges Haussmann: destroyed many tangled medieval streets full of tenement housing and put wide boulevards and splendid public buildings up

Joseph Lister: surgeon that discovered how antiseptics prevented infection, and insisted surgeons wash hands/sterilize instruments before surgery

Florence Nightingale: worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals, and founded the world's first school of nursing

Robert Koch: identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis

Elizabeth Stanton & Susan B. Anthony: organized movement for women's rights 14

Emily Davies: 1836, British reformer, campaigned for female students to be allowed to take entrance exams for Cambridge

Charles Lyell: offered evidence that Earth is millions of years old in "Principals of Geology"

John Dalton: English schoolteacher, early 1800's developed modern atomic theory

Dmitri Mendeleev: organized the periodic table

Charles Darwin: published "On the Origin of Species", and developed the theory of Natural Selection


Spread of the Industrial Revolution United States: •

At the time of the Revolutionary War, the American colonies were importing factorymade goods and luxury products from Great Britain. In 1790 Samuel Slater built the first practical cotton spinning machines in the United States, and in 1793 Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin. New England soon had a flourishing cotton textile industry.

The manufacture of iron developed more slowly because of the lack of soft coal. A process for using anthracite coal, which was plentiful, was introduced about 1830. Later both iron ore and soft coal were found in western Pennsylvania. The great expanse of American farmland encouraged the mechanization of agriculture. Invention of a successful reaper by Cyrus McCormick in 1834 was followed by the development of other types of farm machinery.

As the nation expanded, the almost unlimited supply of raw materials and the constantly increasing number of customers brought a rapid growth of industry. The steamboat, which came into general use about 1817, provided transportation on inland waterways. A railway system was built up after the introduction of steam locomotives in the 1830's. 16

Spread of the Industrial Revolution 17


By the start of the French Revolution in 1789, France had begun to adopt some of the new English manufacturing methods. The political confusion of the next several decades, however, held back industrial development. Hand labor continued to be dominant until the middle of the 19th century, when a revival of commerce brought a gradual changeover to mechanical production. After formation of the Third Republic, 1870–71, France entered its modern industrial era.


Mechanization of German industry was delayed by the disunity of the German states. Until the middle of the 19th century progress was retarded by internal tariff barriers, inadequate transportation, and lack of colonial markets and money for investments. Only in Prussia was there a move toward establishment of heavy industry. After unification under the Prussians in 1871, Germany launched a program of industrial and commercial expansion that made it a world leader by the early 20th century. 18

Other Countries

The first Asian nation to become industrialized was Japan. After restoration of imperial power in 1868, Emperor Mutsuhito sent Japanese scholars to study Western industry. Quickly and methodically Japan became a highly efficient industrial nation.

China and India largely retained their ancient primitive systems of agriculture and handicraft until after World War II. The governments of these countries then began the slow process of teaching the peasants modern agricultural and industrial methods.

Russia under the czars was also a peasant society. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Communist leaders moved first to gain control of agriculture and production. In 1928 the First Five Year Plan went into effect. Its aim was to transform the nation from an agricultural to an industrial one. Under a continuing series of fiveyear plans, the Soviet Union became second only to the United States as an industrial power.

Industrialization in Latin America came largely in the 20th century, due in many cases to foreign investments. Unstable governments and lack of effective social legislation, however, hindered progress in many countries.


Events during the Industrial Revolution •

Reform Bill of 1832: Change in property requirement extended voting rights to well-to-do men in the middle class and gave industrial cities representation in Parliament

Reform Bill of 1867: Gave vote to working-class men

Reform Bill of 1884: Increased number of voters by giving suffrage to rural workers

Women's Social and Political Union: Emmeline Pankhurst organized for women's rights

Factory Act of 1833: Forbade employment of children under age 9. And ages 9 to 13 could only work up to 9 hrs a day while 13-18 could only work up to 12 20

Education act of 1870: Gave local government power to set up elementary schools

Luddites: Feared group of masked workers named after leader

Labor unions: Organizations designed to represent workers' interests and called strikes

1872: Secret Ballot started being used in this year

Bessemer process: A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.


Socialism: A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc. in the community as a whole.

Capital: Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value

Urbanization: The social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Cottage industry: Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment

Profit motive: The force that encourages people and organizations to improve their material well-being 22

How the Industrial Revolution changed the nature of Capitalism •

Prior to the industrial revolution, the economy operated in a mercantilism type economy. This refers to system of trade for profit and production of commodities by non-capitalist production methods. As the industrial revolution took hold of the economy, the industrialist replaced the merchant as dominant actors in the capitalist system and lead to a major decline in traditional skills (hand crafts, journeymen, etc).

It also lead to surplus from better modes of production. Industrial capitalism is noted for the development of factory types of manufacturing, leading to division of labor and global domination of the capitalists mode of production.

Many will argue that the industrial revolution set the ground work for major corporations taking a majority control of the factors of production, permanently increasing distribution of wealth. It also increased discrimination and unfair working conditions for merchants. This in turn lead to the creation of unions. 23

Urbanization During the Industrial Revolution •

Harmful to the Environment: To work in factories during the industrial revolution, lots of migrants shifted to the cities. They began to live along with the natural citizens of the city, leading to lots of air and water pollution, caused by the tremendous rise in population.

Class Divide: During the industrial revolution, new social classes emerged due to urbanization. The entrepreneurs as well as the business people gained enormous wealth due to industrialization. This led to a class divide, where the workers in the factories became the have-nots and the factory owners, with their huge wealth became the haves.

Low Standard of Living: Because of the large-scale immigration during industrial revolution, people who had shifted to the cities, found it very difficult to adjust in the depersonalized city environment. Most of the people were used to staying and working on their own farms, where basic necessities of life, such as water and food, were easily accessible. In the cities, however, due to the unprecedented growth in population, even something as simple as water needs of the people were not met, due to the growing population. Urbanization put a lot of pressure on the economic as well as the governmental systems, which could not handle this rise in population, thus, inconveniencing the people in the process. 24

Urbanization During the Industrial Revolution 25

Change in Family Structure: Urbanization and industrialization caused a lot of changes in the family structures as well. Men began to work in factories and their wages were comparatively higher than those of women. Children were seen as a source of low-cost labor. Due to industrialization, men received the status of a "breadwinner" of the family, while middle class women were encouraged to stay at home to look after the children.

Catalyst for Socialist Revolution: Due to urbanization, people who followed different cultures and traditions came together to live in the cities. With time, these cultural values which defined these people, became to fade. The people started feeling a need to associate themselves with something they could identify themselves with. It was this need of people working in factories, which was taken advantage of by the trade unions. Due to the industrialization, people were working in low paying, long hours jobs, and their entire being was at the mercy of the factory owners. Impersonalized city environment, combined with this dehumanizing working atmosphere and the well apparent class divide, were all in a way responsible for the socialist revolutions, all around the world.

Though urbanization during the industrial revolution had many ill effects on the lives of the people who lived or shifted to cities during that period, yet it had many positive outcomes too. It was due to this large-scale immigration of people to the cities that forced the governments to device such policies, that would take care of the people. Governments initiative to take interest in the development works, modernization of the infrastructure opening of schools, providing proper sanitation, health and water facilities, can be all attributed to the-large scale urbanization that took place during the industrial revolution. 26

How this influenced Imperialism •

Imperialism is the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.

The Industrial Revolution influenced imperialism because the western powers had already been industrialized therefore giving them better technology and giving them the ability to easily overpower less advanced eastern nations. 27


Glenco World History Modern Times Text Book 28

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