THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 1
THE BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGINS IN BRITAIN The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s. • The Agricultural Rev-Paves the Way • •
Enclosure movement allows farmers to try new methods and large farm owners make small farm owners into tenant farming, meaning what? Jethro Tull and the seed drill, significance?
• Rotating Crops • • •
Moving crops, restoring nutrients Selective breeding Population grows and a need for what also grows?
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGINS IN ENGLAND •
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England • • • • •
Large population Natural resources that were required for industrialization Water power, iron ore, rivers, and harbors Economy and banking system Political stability Britain had all of the _________ of __________ including land, labor, and capital.
INVENTIONS SPUR INDUSTRIALIZATION •
Changes in the Textile Industry •
• • •
Invention of the flying shuttle for weavers leads to the invention of the spinning jenny for spinners Water power (water frame) used to drive spinning wheels Spinning mule makes stronger, finer thread Power loom speeds up weaving Why did production move to factories? Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, purpose?
It’s important to know that…. “Spinning” is the process of creating yarn from various raw fiber materials like cotton.
“Weaving” is a way to make fabric in which two sets of yarn or thread are brought together to form fabric or cloth.
Invented by John Kay in 1733. In previous looms, the shuttle was thrown, or passed through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave fabrics of any width more quickly than two could before.
Hand powered spinning jenny.
The water frame was an improvement on the spinning jenny, produces stronger thread more efficiently.
The spinning mule makes high quality thread. A single person could work 1,000 spindles simultaneously. (spinning)
The power loom.
IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION •
Watt’s Steam Engine • •
Need for cheap, convenient power source James Watt and Matthew Boulton combine to produce the steam engine…entreprenuer?
• Water Transportation • Robert Fulton uses steam to propel boats • Significance of canals?
• Road Transportation • Network of roads and “turnpikes” by John McAdam
THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS • Steam-Driven Locomotives • •
Trevithick and the steam driven locomotive George Stephenson and the first RR line in 1825
• The Liverpool-Manchester RR •
RR built to connect the cities of Liverpool and Manchester, significance?
THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS • RR Revolutionize Life in GB 1. Gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport goods 2. New _____ on the RR and in mines (iron and coal for?) 3. Transport crops and fish across countries 4. Easier transporting of people
9.1 DAILY QUESTIONS 1. Explain how population increase is connected to improved food supplies and living conditions. 2. How were England’s cotton industry and America’s cotton growers linked? Honors Only 3. Was the revolution in textiles or in transportation more significant to England? Why?
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 2
Industrialization Case Study: Manchester
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE • How does industrialization change the way the British live? • Industrial Cities Rise
• Growth of the factory system results in migration from rural to urban areas, why? • Urbanization city building and the movement of people to cities • Factories were built close to sources of energy like? • London and other urban centers began to grow because of the increased labor force and industry Living Conditions • Cities had no plans as to how to deal with the rapid increase in population • Sanitation, housing, education, protection were all issues • How did factory owners live?
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE • Working Conditions • •
14 hours a day, 6 days a week working year round Unclean, poorly lit, and dangerous conditions Life of a coal miner? Who were the cheapest laborers during the Industrial Revolution?
19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche
Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
Stereotype of the Factory Owner
Problems of Pollution
The Silent Highwayman - 1858
The New Industrial City
Early-19c London by Gustave Dore
Worker Housing in Manchester
Factory Workers at Home
Workers Housing in Newcastle Today
The Life of the New Urban Poor
Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls”
CLASS TENSIONS GROW •
Middle class-a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
The Middle Class • •
What groups become wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats? The middle class emerges, not rich or poor…had a “comfortable” standard of living
The Working Class • • •
Upset that machines were putting them out of work The Luddites and the attacking of machines Rioted because of poor working/living conditions
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •
Created job for workers, increased wealth, contributed to progress in ___________, improved the standard of living, and what else?
Also expanded education and overall livelihood
Middle and upper classes had immediate gains, for laborers it took much longer (what improvements?)
People in industrialized countries are able to afford manufactured goods Working conditions improved over the long term
THE MILLS OF MANCHESTER •
Readily available waterpower and labor
Unhealthy vs. wealthy
High risk=high reward
Highly dangerous, why? And for who?
Industrialization would continue without a government act until 1819
9.2 DAILY QUESTIONS 1. How did the Industrial Revolution provide hope for improvement for England’s poor? 2. How would joining together in groups help workers win better conditions and higher pay?
3. Why do you think young children continued to do heavy work in Manchester factories even after the Factory Act? What does this suggest about the relative power of industry compared to government?
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 3
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES •
The United States had the same ________ resources as Britain (resulted in the ability to industrialize)
The blockade during the War of 1812 allowed Americans to do what?
Industrialization in the United States • • • • • •
Britain attempts to keep the secrets of the revolution Samuel Slater and Moses Brown open the first factory in RI Lowell, Massachusetts becomes a booming manufacturing center Why did young girls flock to “mill towns”? Textilesclothingshoes Skilled laborers and farmers moved to towns
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES • Late Expansion of U.S. Industry • •
Agricultural until the end of the Civil War RR plays a significant role in expansion
• The Rise of Corporations •
Large businesses began selling _____ or rights of ownerships to their companies…these buyers became part owners in their corporations Stockholders share in the profits but are not responsible for any debt (also do not deal with day to day operations) Standard Oil and Carnegie Steel=big profits
CONTINENTAL EUROPE INDUSTRIALIZES •
Europe watched Britain industrialize with great envy…what was the issue?
Beginnings in Belgium •
Belgium was the first after Britain to industrialize, why? • Illegal transfer of ideas helps Belgium flourish Germany Industrializes •
1835 Germany begins copying the British model • RR play an important role, how? • Industrial power=_________ power Expansion Elsewhere in Europe • “pockets” of industrialization • How did France avoid the issues of industrialization? • Social structure, geography, and transportation issues all limited industrialization
THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION •
Shifts world power, increases competition
Rise of Global Inequality • • •
“widening the gap” How did industrialized countries view non-industrialized countries? Imperialism was born out of industrialization, what does this mean?
Transformation of Society • •
Industrialization=economic power Hardships at the outset turned into greater opportunities through education and democratic participation (and in turn social reform)
9.3 DAILY QUESTIONS 1. What was the purpose of Britain keeping industrialization a secret? 2. Why might railroads be even more important to U.S. industrialization than to that of Britain?
3. Explain the relationship between industrialization and the shift of world power.
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 4
REFORMING THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD
THE PHILOSOPHERS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Laissez-faire-letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference; free market, unregulated by ____________ • Laissez-Faire Economics • •
Gov’t interference with the production of wealth, favored free trade Adam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations supporting the idea of a free market economy 3 natural laws of economics • Self interest • Competition • Supply and demand
• The Economics of Capitalism •
Along with Malthus and Ricardo, _______ is born, where the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit
Malthus’s view on population? Ricardo?
Opposed efforts to help the poor, minimum wage laws, and better working conditions…why?
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM • Utilitarianism • Jeremy Bentham develops the idea that ideas, institutions, and actions should be based on their _____________ • The greatest good for the greatest amount of people, individuals should pursue their goals without interference • John Stuart Mill promoted an equal division of profits, equality of women’s rights, and reforms in the legal and education systems
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM • Utopian Ideas •
Robert Owen improves working conditions in his factory and even provided _________ to children Owen’s “utopia” New Harmony in Indiana was short lived but influenced others that followed
• Socialism • • •
The factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all Government should plan the economy rather than rely on what? Gov’t control would result in the promotion of equality and end of poverty
MARXISM: RADICAL SOCIALISM •
Marx and Engels introduce a radical form of socialism in The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto • •
The “haves” (the bourgeoisie) and the “havenots” (workers/proletariat)…haves control __________ and the poor_________ Call for an overthrow of the owners by the proletariat
The Future According to Marx •
How did Marx see the future of the capitalist system? Communism would be a complete form of socialism where the _______ of _________ are owned by the people, ________ property would cease to exist, goods/services are equally shared Where did Marx inspire revolutions? What was wrong with Marx’s ideas?
LABOR UNIONS AND REFORM LAWS •
Labor Unions and Reform Laws • •
• • •
Unions-workers joining together in voluntary labor associations Union workers worked together to gain rights and did what if their demands weren’t met? Unions help the middle class before the poorest groups because of the demand for skilled labor How did gov’t see unions at first? By 1875 about _________ people were in a union
Reform Laws • • •
Factory Act of 1833 made it illegal for children under 9 to work, children 9-12 8 hours, 13-17 12 hours Mines Act, The Ten Hours Act (1847) Legislation in the U.S.states’ rights
THE REFORM MOVEMENT SPREADS • The Abolition of Slavery •
William Wilberforce leads the crusade against slavery…slave trade abolished in 1807, slavery abolished in 1833 in Britain Anti-slavery movements occur throughout the world including the U.S. and Brazil but finally ended by the end of the 19th century
• The Fight for Women’s Right •
The Industrial Revolution provided higher paying jobs for women, however, they were still paid less than men Women led movements to address social issues Jane Addams and Hull House The International Council for Women begins to question a woman’s inferior status
THE REFORM MOVEMENT SPREADS • Reforms Spread to Many Areas of Life • What areas were reformers seeking to change at first? • Horace Mann in Massachusetts tackles public education, making free public education the norm in the United States and in Britain by the late 1800s • Alexis de Tocqueville addresses the harsh conditions of __________ and focuses on rehabilitation
9.4 DAILY QUESTIONS 1. Explain how the “haves” and the “have-nots” are interdependent or in other words, how they rely on one another. 2. How do you think joining a union or supporting a reform law made workers feel?
1. How can slavery be perceived as an economic threat?